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Chapter 10 Part C
The Muscular
System
© Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
PowerPoint® Lecture Slides
prepared by
Karen Dunbar Kareiva
Ivy Tech Community College
Table 10.9: Muscles Crossing the Shoulder
Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus)
• Nine muscles cross shoulder joint
• Insert on and move humerus
• Some originate from scapula, others from axial
skeleton
• Actions include flexion, extension, adduction
• Three prime movers of arm
– Pectoralis major
– Latissimus dorsi
– Deltoid
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9: Muscles Crossing the Shoulder
Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus)
(cont.)
• Rotator cuff muscles act as synergists and
fixators; originate on scapula; reinforce shoulder
capsule; prevent dislocation
– Supraspinatus
– Infraspinatus
– Teres minor
– Subscapularis
• Coracobrachialis and teres major: synergists
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-1 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-1 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.15a Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joints, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively.
Clavicle
Deltoid
Sternum
Pectoralis
major
Coracobrachialis
Triceps brachii:
Lateral head
Long head
Medial head
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Brachioradialis
Anterior view
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-2 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus) (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-2 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus) (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-3 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus) (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.9-3 Muscles Crossing the Shoulder Joint: Movements of the Arm (Humerus) (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.15b Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joints, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively.
Supraspinatus*
Spine of scapula
Deltoid (cut)
Greater tubercle
of humerus
Infraspinatus*
Teres minor*
Teres major
Triceps brachii:
Lateral head
Long head
Latissimus dorsi
Humerus
Olecranon
of ulna
Anconeus
Posterior view
*Rotator cuff muscles
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.15c-d Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joints, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively.
O
Long head
Short head
Biceps
brachii
O = origin
I = insertion
O
I
Subscapularis*
Coracobrachialis
O
I
I
*Rotator cuff muscles
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
O
Brachialis
Table 10.10: Muscles Crossing the Elbow
Joint: Flexion and Extension of the Forearm
• Walls of fascia divide arm into two
compartments
– Anterior muscles
– Posterior muscles
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.10-1 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and Extension of the Forearm
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.15b Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joints, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively.
Supraspinatus*
Spine of scapula
Deltoid (cut)
Greater tubercle
of humerus
Infraspinatus*
Teres minor*
Teres major
Triceps brachii:
Lateral head
Long head
Latissimus dorsi
Humerus
Olecranon
of ulna
Anconeus
Posterior view
*Rotator cuff muscles
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.10-2 Muscles Crossing the Elbow Joint: Flexion and Extension of the Forearm (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.15a Muscles crossing the shoulder and elbow joints, causing movements of the arm and forearm, respectively.
Clavicle
Deltoid
Sternum
Pectoralis
major
Coracobrachialis
Triceps brachii:
Lateral head
Long head
Medial head
Biceps brachii
Brachialis
Brachioradialis
Anterior view
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11: Muscles of the Forearm:
Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
• Divided into anterior and posterior muscles
– Most anterior muscles are flexors; insert via
flexor retinaculum
– Most posterior muscles are extensors; insert via
extensor retinaculum
• Further divided into superficial and deep
muscles
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11: Muscles of the Forearm:
Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
(cont.)
• Actions: movements of wrist, fingers, thumb, as
well as pronation and supination of forearm
– Pronator teres and pronator quadratus
pronate forearm
– Supinator: synergist with biceps brachii in
forearm supination
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11: Muscles of the Forearm:
Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
(cont.)
• Anterior muscles
– Consist of five superficial and three deep
muscles
– Most arise from common flexor tendon attached
to medial epicondyle of humerus
– Most tendons of insertion held in place at wrist
by flexor retinaculum
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11-1 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11-1 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11-2 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.16a Muscles of the anterior fascial compartment of the forearm acting on the right wrist and fingers.
Superficial
transverse
ligament of palm
Palmar
aponeurosis
Flexor digitorum
superficialis
Flexor carpi
ulnaris
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi
radialis
Medial epicondyle
of humerus
Medial head of
triceps brachii
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flexor
retinaculum
Pronator
quadratus
Flexor
pollicis
longus
Extensor carpi
radialis longus
Brachioradialis
Pronator
teres
Tendon of
biceps brachii
Biceps brachii
Figure 10.16b Muscles of the anterior fascial compartment of the forearm acting on the right wrist and fingers.
Tendon of
flexor
digitorum
superficialis
Pronator
quadratus
Flexor
pollicis
longus
Tendon of
brachioradialis
(cut)
Tendon of flexor
carpi ulnaris (cut)
Tendon of flexor
carpi radialis (cut)
Flexor
digitorum
superficialis
Extensor carpi
radialis longus
Supinator
Tendon of
biceps brachii
(cut)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.16c Muscles of the anterior fascial compartment of the forearm acting on the right wrist and fingers.
Tendon of
flexor digitorum
profundus
Tendon of flexor
digitorum superficialis
(cut)
Lumbricals
Tendon of flexor
pollicis longus
Thenar muscles
of thumb
Tendon of flexor
carpi ulnaris (cut)
Pronator quadratus
Flexor pollicis
longus
Flexor digitorum
profundus
Supinator
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11: Muscles of the Forearm:
Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers
(cont.)
• Posterior muscles
– Consists of four superficial and four deep
muscles
– All are innervated by the radial nerve or its
branches
– Most arise from common flexor tendon attached
to lateral epicondyle of humerus
– Most tendons of insertion held in place at wrist
by extensor retinaculum
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11-3 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.11-4 Muscles of the Forearm: Movements of the Wrist, Hand, and Fingers (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.17a Muscles of the posterior fascial compartment of the right forearm acting on the wrist and fingers.
Extensor expansion
Tendons of
extensor
digitorum
Extensor pollicis
longus
Tendons of extensor
carpi radialis brevis
and longus
Extensor indicis
Extensor pollicis
brevis
Extensor digiti minimi
Abductor
pollicis longus
Extensor carpi
ulnaris
Extensor digitorum
Extensor carpi
radialis brevis
Extensor carpi
radialis longus
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Anconeus
Insertion of
triceps brachii
Brachioradialis
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.17b Muscles of the posterior fascial compartment of the right forearm acting on the wrist and fingers.
Interossei
Extensor indicis
Extensor pollicis
brevis
Extensor pollicis
longus
Abductor pollicis
longus
Supinator
Anconeus
Olecranon of ulna
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.12-1 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm, Forearm, and Hand
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.12-2 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm, Forearm, and Hand (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.12-3 Summary: Actions of Muscles Acting on the Arm, Forearm, and Hand (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.18a Summary: Actions of muscles of the right arm and forearm.
Key:
Extensors
Flexors
Others
Triceps
brachii
Lateral
head
Long
head
Medial
head
Posterior compartment of arm
(extends elbow); innervated by
radial nerve
Humerus
Brachialis
Short head
Long head
Biceps brachii
Muscles of the arm
Anterior compartment of arm
(flexes elbow); innervated by
musculocutaneous nerve
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.18b Summary: Actions of muscles of the right arm and forearm.
Key:
Extensors
Flexors
Others
Posterior compartment of forearm
(extends wrist and fingers); innervated
by radial nerve
Others
Radius
Abductor pollicis
longus
Pronator teres
Brachioradialis
(elbow flexor)
Extensors
Ulna
Flexors
Muscles of the forearm
Anterior compartment of forearm
(flexes wrist and fingers);
innervated by median or ulnar nerve
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13: Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand:
Fine Movements of the Fingers
• Small, weak muscles that lie entirely within palm
of hand control precise movements of
metacarpals and fingers (example: threading a
needle)
• Abductors and adductors of fingers produce
opposition—move thumb toward little finger
• Flexion: thumb bends medially along palm, and
fingers bend anteriorly
• Extension: thumb points laterally, and fingers
move posteriorly
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13: Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand:
Fine Movements of the Fingers (cont.)
• Flexion and extension
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13: Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand:
Fine Movements of the Fingers (cont.)
• Abduction and adduction
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13: Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand:
Fine Movements of the Fingers (cont.)
• Three muscle groups
– Thenar eminence (ball of thumb)
– Hypothenar eminence (ball of the little finger)
• Each of above groups has flexor, abductor, and
opponens muscle
– Midpalmar muscles: lumbricals and interossei
extend fingers
– Interossei muscles also abduct and adduct
fingers
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13-1 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of the Fingers
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13-2 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of the Fingers (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Table 10.13-3 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand: Fine Movements of the Fingers (continued)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.19a Hand muscles, ventral views of right hand.
Tendons of:
Flexor digitorum
profundus
Flexor digitorum
superficialis
Fibrous sheath
Second lumbrical
Third
lumbrical
Dorsal interossei
First lumbrical
Fourth
lumbrical
Adductor pollicis
Flexor pollicis
brevis
Abductor
pollicis
brevis
Opponens
pollicis
Flexor
retinaculum
Abductor pollicis
longus
Opponens
digiti minimi
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
Abductor
digiti minimi
Pisiform bone
Flexor carpi
ulnaris tendon
Flexor digitorum
superficialis
tendons
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Tendons of:
Palmaris longus
Flexor carpi radialis
Flexor pollicis longus
First superficial layer
Figure 10.19b Hand muscles, ventral views of right hand.
Flexor digitorum
profundus tendon
Flexor
digitorum
superficialis
tendon
Dorsal
interossei
Adductor
pollicis
Palmar
interossei
Flexor
pollicis
brevis
Opponens
digiti minimi
Flexor digiti
minimi brevis
(cut)
Abductor
pollicis
brevis
Abductor
digiti minimi
(cut)
Opponens
pollicis
Second layer
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Flexor pollicis
longus tendon
Figure 10.19c Hand muscles, ventral views of right hand.
Palmar
interossei
Palmar interossei (isolated)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 10.19d Hand muscles, ventral views of right hand.
Dorsal
interossei
Dorsal interossei (isolated)
© 2016 Pearson Education, Inc.
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