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Transcript
Hinduism: World Civilizations
Jefferson High School: 2012
Welcome to America!
From 1,678,765 in 2000, the population grew to
2,319,222 in 2005, a growth rate of 38%, the
highest for any Asian community.
Indians have become the second largest Asian
community after the Chinese whose numbers
went up from 2,432,585 to 2,882,257 over the
same period, according to the American
Community Survey of the U.S. Census Bureau.
The vast
majority of
Hindus live
in India and
Nepal
Hindu Population in the World
Hinduism: 3rd Largest Religion
1.
Christianity: 2.1 billion
•
•
•
•
•
•
2.
3.
Catholicism - 1.2 billion
Protestantism - 670 million
Eastern Orthodoxy - 230 million
Anglicanism - 85 million
Oriental Orthodoxy - 82 million
Restorationism - 40 million
Islam: Islam: 1.5 billion
Secular/Nonreligious/Agnostic/Atheist: 1.1 billion
4. Hinduism: 900 million
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
Chinese traditional religion: 394 million
Buddhism: 376 million
primal-indigenous: 300 million
African Traditional & Diasporic: 100 million
Sikhism: 23 million
Juche: 19 million
Spiritism: 15 million
Judaism: 14 million
Hinduism: AUM or OM
Hinduism’s Origins
The origins of Hinduism can be traced
back to around 1500 B.C., in what is now
India. In its origins it is a ritualistic
religion, while in its modern form, it is
rooted in internal meditation.
Difficulties in studying Hinduism
Diversity of beliefs (why this diversity?)
Hinduism gives credence to any
legitimate path a genuine seeker takes
to religion/salvation (at least to a
certain extent)
Founder of Hinduism
Indigenous religion of India: no one founder is known
See visualnext slide
Hindu Gods
Monotheistic view – Ishvara is the personified form of
Brahman; that is, Saguna Brahman has particular traits.
These traits are expressed through the Trimurti (three
manifestations).
Pantheistic view – the entire universe is one divine entity
who is simultaneously at one with the universe and who
transcends it as well.
Polytheistic View – the ten incarnations, avatars, are the
“original” gods of Hinduism; it is estimated that there are
now some 300 million gods in the Hindu religion. Each
god is said to provide focus on an aspect/attribute of
Ishvara – a “path” to understanding.
According to Hindu tradition,
Brahman became personal in
the form of Ishvara
Nirguna Brahman
("without attributes")
Saguna Brahman
("with attributes")
Ishvara
Brahma
"The Creator"
Vishnu
"The Preserver"
Ishvara became known to
humanity in three
manifestations.
Siva
"The Destroyer"
Ishvara then became known further through the ten mythical incarnations of
Vishnu, called avatars (animals: a fish, a boar, a tortoise… and humans: Krishna, Rama, Buddha…).
Ten Incarnations
Hindu Trinity
Brahma - the Creator
Vishnu - the Preserver
Shiva - the Destroyer
Three aspects/powers
of the same divine
being
THE TWO MOST POPULAR GODS
SHIVA
VISHNU
Avatars of Vishnu
Krishna
Rama
Goddesses
Lakshmi
Saraswati
Kali
 Wife of Shiva
Black in color & wearing a necklace
of skulls.
She is a bloodthirsty goddess.
A violent destroyer of her
enemies
Affectionate and caring for her
devotees.
All these deities are but
Manifest forms (attributes
and functions) of the
impersonal Brahman
Hindu’s Top Ten God’s
1. Ganesha
2. Shiva
Hindu’s Top Ten God’s
3. Krishna
Hindu’s Top Ten God’s
4. Rama
5. Hanuman
Hindu’s Top Ten God’s
6. Vishnu
7. Lakshmi
8. Durga
Hindu’s Top
Ten God’s
9. Kali
Hindu’s Top
Ten God’s
10. Saraswati
And we too are manifest forms
of God!
“We are not human beings
having spiritual experiences;
We are spiritual beings
having a human experience!”
“That art Thou”
Hinduism is about recognizing the all pervasiveness of the divine
Sacred Texts
Rig Veda: Hinduism’s oldest text- nearly
4000 years.
Bhagavad Gita: Hinduism’s most popular
sacred text
(tells the stories of the avatar gods)
NEXT SLIDE
BEFORE
TAKING NOTES
Sacred Texts
The Vedas (knowledge): (1200 B.C. – 800 B.C.)
The earliest, and most sacred documents in the Hindu religion are called the
Vedas; the Vedas are a collection of prayers, chants, incantations, and
meditative musings. They were initially written as instructions for priests as to
how believers should perform the rituals of the religion, however, as a result of
the Upanishads, they have become a more “personal” document – they are used
by some Hindu believers.
The Upanishads (to end/conclude): (800 B.C. – 300 B.C.)
The equivalent to the Christian New Testament, are a series of stories called the
Upanishads. These stories expound the idea that behind the many gods of this
world stands one Ultimate Reality, which the Hindus refer to as Brahman –
however, as much as Hinduism is monotheistic, it has elements of polytheism,
and pantheism.
Clergy
Not one specific type
Gurus: “teachers” that direct people
through all phases of life
These “gurus” are typically from the
Brahmin caste
Hinduism’s Beliefs: The Problem
Humanity’s primary problem, according to the
Hindu, is our ignorance to our divine nature. We
have forgotten that we are extended from Brahman
and so we mistakenly attach ourselves to the desires
of our “separate self” (ego) and thereby suffer the
consequences. Because of our attachment to desire
and individualistic existence, we are all subject to the
law of Karma.
Hinduism’s Beliefs:
Karma
Hindus believe in karma, the law of cause and effect by which each individual
creates his own destiny by his thoughts, words and deeds.
Hinduism’s Beliefs: Reincarnation
Hindus believe that the soul reincarnates, evolving through many births until all
karmas have been resolved, and moksha, liberation from the cycle of rebirth, is
attained. Not a single soul will be deprived of this destiny.
NEXT SLIDE
NEXT SLIDE
Samsara is the wheel of
rebirth which means the
soul is reborn from one
life form to another.
ALL LIFE IS SACRED
Reincarnation
Samsara is the wheel of rebirth which means the soul is reborn from one life
form to another.
People may be reincarnated at a higher or lower level of existence depending
on their karma from their present life.
People may be reborn as plants or animals or they may be elevated to a
higher caste as a human.
Death is not final for Hindus as they expect to be reborn many times.
ALL LIFE IS SACRED
Hinduism’s Beliefs:
Caste System
Hinduism’s Beliefs:
Ganges River
Falling from
its source of
Vishnu’s feet
onto Shiva’s
head and out
from his hair,
the water of
the Ganges is
sacred enough
to purify all
sins.
3 paths
Karamamarga-path of works and action
Jnanamarga-path of knowledge or
philosophy
Bhaktimarg-path of devotion to God
3 debts
To God
To sages and saints
To ancestors
4 stages of life
Brahmacharga-school years-grow and
learn
Grhastha-marriage, family and career
Vanaprastha-turn attention to spiritual
things
Sanrgasu-abandon world to seek
spiritual things
4 purposes in life
Dharma-fulfill moral, social and religious
duties
Artha-attain financial and worldly
success
Kama-satisfy desires and drives in
moderation
Moksha-attain freedom from
reincarnation
7 sacred cities
Ayodhya
Mathura
Gaya (Bodhgaya)
Kasi (Varanasi Benares)
Kanci
Avantika (Ujjain)
Dvaraka
10 commitments
Ahimsa-do not harm
Satya-do not lie
Asteya-do not steal
Brahmacharya-do not overindulge
Aparigraha-do not be greedy
Saucna-be clean
Santosha-be content
Tapas-be self disciplined
Svadhyaya-study
Ishvara Pranidhana-surrender to God
Mahatma Gandhi
1869-1948
Non-violent civil
disobedience
Dandi Salt March
Quit India
Stop violence
between Hindus,
Muslims, and Sihks
Timeline of Hinduism
2800-2000 BCE: Indus Valley civilization.
1200-900 BCE: Early Vedic Period - earliest Vedas are compiled.
900-600 BCE: Late Vedic period - Brahmanical religion develops, emphasizing
ritual and social obligation.
800-300 BCE: The 11 major Upanishads are written, which include the ideas of
reincarnation and karma.
500 BCE-1000 CEE: Pics and Puranas are written, reflecting the rise of
devotional movements dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu and Devi.
5th cent. BCE: Buddhism and Jainism founded in India.
c. 320-185 BCE: Mauryan Dynasty founded by Chandragupt
a.c. 320-500 CE: Gupta empire.
c. 500-650 CE: Gupta empire divides into several kingdoms.
c. 600-1600 CE: Rise of devotional movements, puja (worship) rituals, and idea
of equality of devotees.
7th-11th centuries: Esoteric movements based on Tantras develop.
c. 870-1280: Cholas dynasty. Hinduism arises in the south.
Timeline of Hinduism (cont.)
1498: European presence in southern Asia begins with the arrival of Vasco de
Gama.1540sPortugese missionaries arrive in India.
17th-19th centuries: Hindu Renaissance.
c. 1700: British East India Company formed.
1720: Collapse of the Mughal empire; British begin to take power.
1857: National War of Independence against the British is sparked by the British
use of cow fat in guns.
1876: Queen Victoria becomes Empress of India.
1895: Vedanta Society founded by Vivekananda. Promotes Hinduism as a world
religion and India as a single nation.
1915: Gandhi joins the nationalist movement.
1947: India regains independence, but its partitioning leads to conflicts between
Hindus, Muslims, and Sikhs.
1948: Assassination of Gandhi.
1950: Constitution of the Republic of India.