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Propaganda during the American Revolution Era Teacher: Dave Szabo, Missisquoi Valley Union Middle School Grade Level: Middle School Time Required: 3-4 Class Periods Topic: Propaganda used during the American Revolution Context and Differentiation: This lesson is designed for students with a good understanding of the acts and events leading up to the American Revolution. After reading for information and discussing propaganda as a class, students analyze a collection of propaganda posters. Then students design an original propaganda poster utilizing their knowledge of an act or event that occurred between 1763- 1770. In terms of differentiation, the RAFT (Role – Audience – Format – Topic) strategy will offer students choice in their culminating project. Content Standards: H and SS 6.6c - Students use primary resources in building original historic interpretations of Revolutionary War Era propaganda Historical Process: H and SS 6.5a Students interpret Revolutionary era events through various perspectives. Common Core Standards: Reading Standards for Informational Text 6-12: Analyze a case in which two or more texts provide conflicting information on the same topic and identify where the texts disagree on matters of fact or interpretation. Essential Questions: What is propaganda and how is it different than an unbiased account? How did the Sons of Liberty (in particular) utilize propaganda to their advantage during the Revolutionary War Era? Culminating Assessment: Students demonstrate their understanding of propaganda during the Revolutionary War Era by designing their own original propaganda posters. Formative Assessment: Teacher leads discussions and offers guidance and support during work periods. Teacher models political poster analysis. Teacher collects and assesses student work to offer feedback and conference as necessary. Teaching and Learning Activities: Before you begin, students should have an understanding why the British felt that they needed to take these actions at this time and how some colonists were beginning to (increasingly) react to these British policies. Students visit http://www.bookrags.com/research/boston-massacre-pamphlets-andpropa-aaw-01 to read and take 2 column notes from an article about the Boston Massacre and the increasing role that the Sons of Liberty are playing in the colonies. o ( for instructions on 2 column notes, visit this web page: http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/strategies/two-column-note-taking ) As a class, discuss the reading, students’ notes, and the role Sons of Liberty are playing in the colonies. Introduce the term propaganda. Use a method that makes sense for your students to explore the concepts. If you use a vocabulary wall or chart, certainly add this term. Together, craft a working definition that your students can access to understand the concept of propaganda. Using “Think-Pair-Share” (students partner up, discuss information presented and prepare to share something they find/answer a question etc.), students discuss propaganda and how it differs from a news report. Together, the class completes a Venn Diagram comparing news to propaganda. (Appendix A) Practice analyzing propaganda posters from a variety of historical eras. o Distribute graphic organizers (Appendix B) and project a propaganda poster from any historical era. Do what makes sense for your students. Consider using posters from periods with which they are familiar or offer necessary context for students to explore propaganda posters through the ages. Sites to consider http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/index.html http://www.historyextra.com/posters http://thinksmartdesigns.blogspot.com/2010/06/greatpolitical-posters-that-changed-us.html o As a class, examine the projected poster carefully, identifying the details and the creator’s purpose. Look at exaggeration and persuasive components. o Practice modeling thorough examination and interpretation with several posters. o When students are ready, have them, independently or in partners, analyze multiple sources from the Revolutionary War era. Use Paul Revere’s engraving of the Boston Massacre (http://www.bostonmassacre.net ) and additional images of your choice. Visit the Library of Congress for some images you might include. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-2.html o Discuss student interpretations as a class. o Collect organizers and return to students at the start of next class with your feedback. Check for understanding and identify misconceptions; conference with students as needed. Introduce the culminating assessment – o Create a propaganda poster illustrating an event/act from the American Revolution era shown from one side’s perspective. o Distribute and review rubric (Appendix C) as a class. Answer clarifying questions. Be clear that poster should be well-planned, organized, neat, and complete, but artistic ability is not being assessed. o Schedule in-class work time for students to complete projects. Teacher provides necessary supplies and circulates to offer assistance and encourage students. Follow- up Activities: Teacher displays completed posters at stations around the room. Students use Appendix B to analyze classmates’ posters. At the end of activity, students share findings and offer positive and constructive feedback. Students read a variety of sources regarding the Boston Massacre, looking to identify words and phrases that illustrate bias. Resources: Primary Primary Paul Revere’s Engraving of Boston Massacre o "Boston Massacre Pictures." Boston Massacre Historical Society. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bostonmassacre.net/pictures/pictures7.htm>. Propaganda Posters o "The American Revolution (John Bull and Uncle Sam)." The American Revolution (John Bull and Uncle Sam). Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/british/brit-2.html>. o "Featured Exhibits." National Archives Oline Exhibits. The National Archives, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/index.html>. o "Great Political Posters That Changed U.S. History." Think Smart Designs Blog: Great Political Posters That Changed U.S. History. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://thinksmartdesigns.blogspot.com/2010/06/great-political-posters-thatchanged-us.html>. o "Political Posters." BBC History Magazine. BBC, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.historyextra.com/posters>. Secondary "Boston Massacre: Pamphlets and Propaganda." BookRags. BookRags, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.bookrags.com/>. "Two-Column Note Taking." Home. Facing History and Ourselves, n.d. Web. 21 Sept. 2012. <http://www.facinghistory.org/resources/strategies/two-column-note-taking>. Materials Appendix A - Venn Diagram Appendix B - Analysis Chart Appendix C - Propaganda Poster Project sheet/rubric Appendix A: Venn Diagram News Propaganda Appendix B: Poster Analysis Which details in this poster are exaggerated? Are there words on the poster? What do they mean? How is the message communicated visually with symbols, shapes, and color? What emotions does this poster evoke? Who might have created this poster? What is the message? What techniques are used to persuade? What is the purpose of this poster? Who is the target audience? Do you think this poster is effective? Do you think it would have persuaded people in the era in which it was created? (Cite evidence from the poster to answer these questions.) Appendix C: PROPAGANDA POSTER PROJECT Role Perspective / Point of View – Who is designing the poster? Ex Daughters of Liberty Audience Who do you expect to persuade with the poster? Format Presentation Style (propaganda poster) ** no choice** Topic Historical Event (Pre-Revolution act or event – your choice ) Ex Colonial homemaker Propaganda Poster Ex. Quartering Act ASSESSMENT RUBRIC: AMERICAN REVOLUTION PROPAGANDA POSTER Dimensions #1 4 3 2 1 4 + examples used 2-3 examples Used 1-2 examples Used 0 or 1 examples Used creative/original uses of symbolism some originality evident little creativity/ originality little/no originality Well planned out/clear effort Effort and planning evident Rushed/ some effort Messy/poster done quickly Bit messy? Little originality/ effort Symbolism #2 Presentation Eye catching /very colorful Creative/ original poster Good color/ some blank spots Good, solid poster Fairly clear perspective/ message Clear to #3 understand Perspective perspective (poster/summary) original message good, solid * see below* summary well written summary Some color/ more needed Little to no color -Somewhat difficult perspective/ message to understand summary unclear/ limited unclear message/ perspective limited/ no summary attached ** Please attach a ½ page summary of your poster, including an explanation of your Role, Audience, and Topic.