* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project
Introduction to OSPF Mark Tinka Routing and Forwarding Routing is not the same as Forwarding Routing is the building of maps Each routing protocol usually has its own routing database Routing protocols populate the forwarding table Forwarding is passing the packet to the next hop device Forwarding table contains the best path to the next hop for each prefix There is only ONE forwarding table OSPF Background Developed by IETF – RFC1247 OSPF v2 described in RFC2328/STD54 Designed for Internet TCP/IP environment For IPv4 only OSPF v3 described in RFC2740 Mainly for IPv6 Supports the IPv4 address family also Link state/Shortest Path First Technology Dynamic Routing Fast Convergence Route authentication Link State Algorithm Each router contains a database containing a map of the whole topology Links Their state (including cost) All routers have the same information All routers calculate the best path to every destination Any link state changes are flooded across the network “Global spread of local knowledge” Link State Routing Automatic neighbour discovery Each router constructs a Link State Packet (LSP) Neighbours are physically connected routers Distributes the LSP to neighbours… …using an LSA (Link State Announcement) Each router computes its best path to every destination On network failure New LSPs are flooded All routers recompute routing table Low Bandwidth Requirements FDDI Dual Ring LSA X R1 LSA Only changes are propagated Multicast used on multi-access broadcast networks 18.104.22.168 used for all OSPF speakers 22.214.171.124 used for DR and BDR routers “Shortest Path First” The optimal path is determined by the sum of the interface costs N2 Cost = 1 Cost = 1 FDDI Dual Ring FDDI Dual Ring N3 R2 R3 N1 Cost = 10 R1 N5 Cost = 10 R4 N4 Cost = 10 OSPF: How it works Hello Protocol Responsible for establishing and maintaining neighbour relationships Elects Designated Router on broadcast networks Hello FDDI Dual Ring Hello Hello OSPF: How it works Hello Protocol Hello Packets sent periodically on all OSPF enabled interfaces Adjacencies formed between some neighbours Hello Packet Contains information like Router Priority, Hello Interval, a list of known neighbours, Router Dead Interval, and the network mask OSPF: How it works Trade Information using LSAs LSAs are added to the OSPF database LSAs are passed on to OSPF neighbours Each router builds an identical link state database SPF algorithm run on the database Forwarding table built from the SPF tree OSPF: How it works When change occurs: Announce the change to all OSPF neighbours All routers run the SPF algorithm on the revised database Install any change in the forwarding table Broadcast Networks These are network technologies such as Ethernet and FDDI Introduces Designated and Backup Designated routers (DR and BDR) Only DR and BDR form full adjacencies with other routers The remaining routers remain in a “2-way” state with each other If they were adjacent, we’d have n-squared scaling problem If DR or BDR “disappear”, re-election of missing router takes place Designated Router One per multi-access network Generates network link advertisements for the multiaccess network Speeds database synchronisation Designated Router Backup Designated Router Vlan1 Vlan2 Designated Router Backup Designated Router Designated Router All routers are adjacent to the DR All routers exchange routing information with DR (..) All routers exchange routing information with the BDR DR updates the database of all its neighbours All routers are adjacent to the BDR also BDR updates the database of all its neighbours This scales! 2n problem rather than having an nsquared problem. Designated Router DR BDR Adjacencies only formed with DR and BDR LSAs propagate along the adjacencies Designated Router Priority Determined by interface priority Otherwise by highest router ID (For Cisco IOS, this is address of loopback interface, otherwise highest IP address on router) 126.96.36.199 188.8.131.52 DR R1 Router ID = 184.108.40.206 220.127.116.11 R2 Router ID = 18.104.22.168 More Advanced OSPF OSPF Areas Router Classification OSPF route types Route authentication Equal cost multipath OSPF Areas Group of contiguous hosts and networks Per area topological database Area 2 Area 3 Area 0 Backbone Area Backbone area contiguous Invisible outside the area Reduction in routing traffic All other areas must be connected to the backbone Virtual Links Area 1 Area 4 OSPF Areas Reduces routing traffic in area 0 Consider subdividing network into areas Once area 0 is more than 10 to 15 routers Once area 0 topology starts getting complex Area design often mimics typical ISP core network design Virtual links are used for “awkward” connectivity topologies (…) Classification of Routers IR Area 2 Area 3 ABR/BR Area 0 ASBR To other AS Area 1 Internal Router (IR) Area Border Router (ABR) Backbone Router (BR) Autonomous System Border Router (ASBR) OSPF Route Types Area 2 Area 0 ABR 3 Area Intra-Area ASBR To other AS Area 1 route All routes inside an area Inter-Area route Routes advertised from one area to another area by an ABR External route Routes imported into OSPF from another routing protocol by an ASBR Route Authentication Now recommended to use route authentication for OSPF …and all other routing protocols Susceptible to denial of service attacks OSPF runs on TCP/IP Automatic neighbour discovery Route authentication – Cisco example: router ospf <pid> network 192.0.2.0 0.0.0.255 area 0 area 0 authentication interface ethernet 0/0 ip ospf authentication-key <password> Equal Cost Multipath If n paths to same destination have equal cost, OSPF will install n entries in the forwarding table Loadsharing over the n paths Useful for expanding links across an ISP backbone Don’t need to use hardware multiplexors Don’t need to use static routing Summary Link State Protocol Shortest Path First OSPF operation Broadcast networks Designated and Backup Designated Router Advanced Topics Areas, router classification, external networks, authentication, multipath OSPFv3 OSPFv3 overview OSPF for IPv6 Based on OSPFv2, with enhancements Distributes IPv6 prefixes Can distribute IPv4 prefixes (if supported) Runs directly over IPv6 “Ships in the night” with OSPFv2 OSPFv3 / OSPFv2 Similarities Basic packet types Hello, DBD, LSR, LSU, LSA Mechanisms for neighbor discovery and adjacency formation Interface types P2P, P2MP, Broadcast, NBMA, Virtual LSA flooding and aging Nearly identical LSA types v2, v3 Differences OSPFv3 runs on a Link instead of per IP Subnet A link by definition is a medium over which two nodes can communicate at link layer In IPv6 multiple IP subnets can be assigned to a link and two nodes in different subnets can communicate over this link. Therefore, OSPFv3 runs per link instead of per IP subnet. This is specific to (earlier versions of) IOS. v2, v3 Differences (Cont.) Separation of prefix & topology information OSPFv2 carries IP address information in Type 1 & Type 2 LSA’s. Makes routers announce both their IP addresses and topology information in the same LSA’s. A change in an IP address means a Type 1 LSA is originated. But because Type 1 LSA’s also carry topology information, a full SPF is run in the local OSPF area – unnecessary; only IP address is affected. So only Type 3, 4, 5 and 7 LSA’s trigger PRC in OSPFv2, as their only purpose is to signal prefix information (external areas). v2, v3 Differences (Cont.) Generalization of Flooding Scope In OSPFv3 there are three flooding scope for LSAs (link-local scope, area scope, AS scope) and they are coded in LS type explicitly In OSPFv2 initially only area and AS wide flooding was defined; later opaque LSAs introduced link local scope as well v2, v3 Differences (Cont.) Explicit Handling of Unknown LSA The handling of unknown LSA is coded via U-bit in LS type When U bit is set, the LSA is flooded with the corresponding flooding scope, as if it was understood When U bit is clear, the LSA is flooded with link local scope In v2 unknown LSA were discarded v2, v3 Differences (Cont.) Authentication is Removed from OSPF Authentication in OSPFv3 has been removed OSPFv3 relies on IPv6 authentication header since OSPFv3 runs over IPv6 AuthType and Authentication field in the OSPF packet header have been suppressed AH (Authentication Header) provides authentication ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) provides encryption & integrity ESP, if used alone, provides both authentication and encryption AH supported from 12.3T ESP supported from 12.4T v2, v3 Differences (Cont.) OSPF Packet format has been changed The mask field has been removed from Hello packet IPv6 prefix is only present in payload of Link State update packet Configuring OSPFv3 in Cisco IOS Similar to OSPFv2 Interfaces configured directly Replaces network command (Also available in OSPFv2 from IOS 12.4 and most recent 12.0S and 12.2SB, 12.2SR releases). (Called the “Area Command in Interface Mode for OSPFv2” feature). Prefixing existing Interface and Exec mode commands with “ipv6” “Native” IPv6 router mode Not a sub-mode of router ospf Configuration modes in OSPFv3 Entering router mode [no] ipv6 router ospf <process ID> Entering interface mode [no] ipv6 ospf <process ID> area <area ID> Exec mode show ipv6 ospf [<process ID>] clear ipv6 ospf [<process ID>] OSPFv3 Specific Attributes – IOS Configuring area range [no] area <area ID> range <prefix>/<prefix length> Showing new LSA show ipv6 ospf [<process ID>] database link show ipv6 ospf [<process ID>] database prefix Configuring authentication Under ipv6 router ospf: area 0 authentication ipsec spi 256 md5 <passwd> Under interface: ipv6 ospf authentication ipsec spi 256 md5 <passwd> OSPFv3 Configuration Example Router1# interface POS1/1 ipv6 address 2001:db8:FFFF:1::1/64 Area 1 Router2 ipv6 ospf 100 area 0 ! interface POS2/0 2001:db8:1:1::1/64 POS3/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:1:1::2/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 1 ! 2001:db8:1:1::2/64 POS2/0 ipv6 router ospf 100 Router1 Router2# interface POS3/0 ipv6 address 2001:db8:1:1::1/64 ipv6 ospf 100 area 1 ! ipv6 router ospf 100 POS1/1 2001:db8:ffff:1::1/64 Area 0 OSPFv3 entries in Routing Table Router2#sh ipv6 route IPv6 Routing Table - 5 entries Codes: C - Connected, L - Local, S - Static, R - RIP, B - BGP U - Per-user Static route I1 - ISIS L1, I2 - ISIS L2, IA - ISIS interarea O - OSPF intra, OI - OSPF inter, OE1 - OSPF ext 1, OE2 - OSPF ext 2 OI 2001:db8:FFFF:1::/64 [110/2] via FE80::2D0:FFFF:FE60:DFFF, POS3/0 C 2001:db8:1:1::/64 [0/0] via ::, POS3/0 L 2001:db8:1:1::1/128 [0/0] via ::, POS3/0 L FE80::/10 [0/0] via ::, Null0 L FF00::/8 [0/0] via ::, Null0 OSPFv3 on IPv6 Tunnels over IPv4 On Router1: interface Tunnel0 no ip address ipv6 address 2001:db8:1::1/64 ipv6 address FE80::10:7BC2:ACC9:10 link-local ipv6 router ospf 1 area 0 tunnel source 10.42.1.1 tunnel destination 10.42.2.1 tunnel mode ipv6ip ! ipv6 router ospf 1 On Router2: IPv6 Network interface Tunnel0 no ip address ipv6 address 2001:db8:1::2/64 ipv6 address FE80::10:7BC2:B280:11 link-local ipv6 router ospf 1 area 0 tunnel source 10.42.2.1 tunnel destination 10.42.1.1 tunnel mode ipv6ip ! ipv6 router ospf 1 IPv6 Network IPv6 Tunnel IPv4 Backbone IPv6 Tunnel IPv6 Tunnel IPv6 Network Introduction to OSPF Questions?