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BACTERIAL
Primary infection
Secondary infection
Prevalence
Bacterial
Pseudomonas spp
Gram-negative Sepsis
Stenotrophomonas spp
Escherichia coli(1)
Acinetobacter spp
Klebsiella species(1)
Enterococcus spp
Pseudomonas aeruginosa(1)
Fungal
Various(4-6)
Candida spp (C.Albicans)
Very common(7, 8)
Gram-positive Sepsis
Aspergillus spp (A.fumigates)
Common(7, 9-11)
Staphylococcus aureus(2, 3)
Viral reactivation
Streptococcus pneumonia(2, 3)
Herpes viridae (CMV, HSV, HHV-6)
Common(4, 12-15)
EBV
Very common(12)
Polyomaviruses (BK and JC)
Common(12)
Anelloviruses
Very common(12)
Predominant type of primary
infection: Pulmonary(1)
VIRAL
Primary infection
Secondary infection
Bacterial
Prevalence
Influenza
Streptococcus pneumonia
Very common(6, 16-21)
Staphylococcus aureus
Very common(6, 16, 18, 20)
Haemophilus influenza
Very common(6, 16, 18-20)
Streptococcus pyogenes
Common(6, 16, 20)
Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Common(16)
Fungal
Aspergillus spp (A.fumigates)
Common(10)
Viral co-infection
HRV
Rare(19, 22-24)
RSV
Common(19, 25, 26)
Coronavirus
Rare(19, 24)
Viral reactivation
HSV
Very common(27)
Bacterial
RSV
Streptococcus pneumonia
Common(20, 28, 29)
Staphylococcus aureus
Common(28-30)
Haemophilus influenzae
Common(28, 29, 31)
Streptococcus pyogenes
Common(28)
Moraxella catarrhalis
Common(28)
Fungal
Aspergillus fumigates
Unknown(32, 33)
Viral co-infection
Influenza
Common(19, 25, 26)
Parainfluenza
Rare(34)
Adenovirus
Rare(35)
HRV
Common(22, 26, 36)
Viral reactivation
CMV
Rare(35)
Bacterial
HRV
Streptococcus pneumonia
Common(21, 37-39)
Haemophilus influenzae
Common(38)
Moraxella catarrhalis
Common(22, 31, 38, 40)
Mycoplasma pneumonia
Rare(22, 41)
Chlamydophila pneumoniae
Rare(22)
Fungal
Aspergillus fumigates
Common(42)
Viral co-infection
Influenza
Rare(19, 22-24)
Parainfluenza
Rare(36)
RSV
Common(22, 26, 36)
Coronavirus
Rare(22)
Viral reactivation
CMV
Rare(42)
Predominant type of secondary
infection: Pneumonia in adults(29, 37) /
OM in children(16, 43, 44)
Table 1: Secondary infections occurring following sepsis, influenza, RSV and HRV infections. HSV:
herpes simplex virus, EBV: epstein barr virus, HHV: human herpes virus-6, CMV: cytomegalovirus,
VAP: ventilator assisted pneumonia. OM: Otitis Media. Very common: >40%. Common: 10-40% Rare:
<10%
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