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* “GENDER IDENTITY” * * gender identity can be defined as the sameness, unity, and persistence of one’s individuality as male, female, or ambivalent (Money & Ehrhardt (1972)) * relative degree to which an individual patterns himself or herself after members of the same sex. It is associated with the degree in which an individual takes on the behaviors, personality patterns, and attitudes that are commonly associated with male or female sex roles (Backer (2003)) * an individual’s self-conception as being male or female, as distinguished from actual biological sex. * link to a person’s sense of self and the sense of being male or female (Ontario's Human Rights Code) * our own perception and our own determination about our gender either male or female. It is can be difference from our real biological sex. * i) Psychoanalytic theory -through the identification from the parent same sex. - as a result of Electra or Oedipus conflicts during childhood ii) Social-Cognitive theory - develop through learning process - learning from parent or others - behaviors reinforce with reinforcement iii) Cognitive Theory a) cognitive-development theory - contends that because children consistently hear themselves called “boy” or “girl,” they begin to conceive of themselves as being of one sex or the other. Ultimately, from such interactions, children develop a conception of attitudes toward and behavioral expectations concerning that gender. b) gender-schema theory - concerns the development of an internal schema, or mental framework, which organizes and directs the behavior of an individual as a male or female. For example, the gender schema of being female might include the proposition “I am a girl, so I play with dolls, not trucks.” iv) Gender-Schema theory - Gender schema theory refers to the theory that children learn about what it means to be male and female from the culture in which they live. According to this theory, children adjust their behavior to fit in with the gender norms and expectations of their culture. - asserts that one’s childhood development is influenced heavily by concepts about what maleness or femaleness means in a particular society. - schema is a cognitive structures, a network of associations that organizes and guides an individual’s perceptions. iv) Biological theory i) chromosomes - XX: Women - XY: Men ii) hormones - men: testosterone - women: estrogen and progesterone v) Social Role Theory Eagly’s Social Role Theory of sex differences in social behavior Social Role Theory- suggests that almost all behavioral differences we know about between males and females is the result of cultural stereotypes about gender (how males and females are supposed to act) and the resulting social roles that are taught to young people. * Men and women was born with many different characteristics. There can be view from various aspects of life 1) Physical aspects men are generally taller than women, have more muscles body, though , have facial hair such as moustache and beard while women are generally shorter than male and don’t have any facial hair. 2) Emotional aspects women are tend to be more emotional than men in something happen and easily sad and cry. 3) sensitivity women is more sensitive to the threat than men. Due to different hormone production in both gender. 4) Jealousy Women are more prone to react negatively when they or their children are deprived of emotional support; this will trigger jealousy. Men, on the other hand, will become angry if they suspect their wives of sexual infidelity. 5) Thinking Women tend to be intuitive global thinkers. Women are prone to become overwhelmed with complexities that "exist", or may exist, and may have difficulty separating their personal experience from problems than men. 6) Memory Women have an enhanced ability to recall memories that have strong emotional components while men tend to recall events using strategies that rely on reconstructing the experience in terms of elements, tasks or activities that took place. 7) Processing information -men is left-brain-side oriented while women is rightbrain-side. left-brain sided oriented is person can be described as literal, logical, linear and linguistic. -The right brain "makes sense" of the qualities of voice such as tone, pitch, volume. It also "makes sense" of facial expressions, gestures, body language and feeling. In a sense, right brain is an emotional radar. * * the behaviors and attitudes expected of male and female members of a society by that society. * Different culture has different expectations to the men and women. - Islamic perspectives, - Western perspectives - Indian perspectives’ - African perspectives * Tasks that must be fulfill according to their gender. * women: childbearing, do chores, take care of children, husbands, and family and manages households. * Men: go work, find welfare for family, and able to protects family * Gender role create gender stereotypes in society. * If the men or women doesn’t fulfill the expected role of their gender this will be lead to discriminations. * e:g * women must be a perfect women *Feminity *Beauty *Respectful * * men must be a perfect men *Strong *Masculine *independent * *a shared set of beliefs about purported qualities of females and males. *“typical traits” perceived as inherent in men and women—they are culturally influenced, and bear little resemblance to real people. *Develop since childhood *Traditionally 1) female stereotypic role 2) Male stereotypic role * * There are two definitions for androgyny: physical (intersexual) - born with both male and female genitals; and psychological - combining both masculinity and femininity as traits of a unified gender that defies social roles and psychological attributes. * the blending of feminine and masculine attributes in the same individual. * The androgyny, or androgynous person, does not neatly fit into a female or male gender role; she or he can comfortably express the qualities of both genders. * Parents and other socializing agents can teach their children to be androgynous, just as they can teach them to be genderbiased. * Dr. Sandra Bem - 'psychological androgyny' - describe those men and women who did not fit into traditionally defined gender roles. * nowadays situations; * 1) fashion-industry * 2) beauty-industry * 3) work-industry * In the relationship with human, androgynous people are more tendency to pansexuality or asexuality “Gender, Gender Identity, Ethnicity, and stereotyping of children’s chores: The Israeli Case” Liat kulik Bar Ilan University Journal of cross-cultural psychology 2006, 37: 408 * * Instruments that used is stereotyping of children’s chore, Bem Sex Role Inventory and self-evaluation of masculinity and feminity. * The purpose of this study was to examine the stereotyping of children’s chores in Israeli society and the way those stereotypes are affected by gender identity, gender and ethnicity. * There are three hypotheses that are formulated There are three hypotheses that are formulated: 1) Individuals with sex-typed gender identities will maintain more stereotyped perceptions of children’s chores than will those with androgynuos and undifferentiated gender identities. 2) 3) Women will have less stereotyped perceptions than men Asian African origin will maintain more stereotyped perceptions than European American RESULTS * Result in this journal shows that undifferentiated participants shows that the most stereotyped that feminine attitude towards domestic chores. * Undifferentiated and cross-typed participants expressed more stereotypes views of outside chores. * Women expressed less stereotyped view than men in children’s chores. * Participant’s country of birth did not affect their perceptions of children’s scores while the country of birth of the participants’ mothers. * * Gender identity is our own perception toward femininity or masculinity which is develop during childhood and are determine to various factors which are discussed in theory. * There are 6 theories are be discussed on gender identity. * Each gender have difference characteristics which is need to be understand in order to live harmoniously in marriage live. * Gender role that are perceived by different culture actually is the lead to the gender stereotypes. * This stereotypes will lead to gender discriminations. * Nowadays, there are evolutionary gender identity which cannot only include traditionally oriented gender but it’s include many other’s non-conformity gender’s group such as LGBT gender and homosexuality groups.