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*
“GENDER IDENTITY”
*
* gender identity can be defined as the sameness, unity, and
persistence of one’s individuality as male, female, or
ambivalent (Money & Ehrhardt (1972))
* relative degree to which an individual patterns himself or
herself after members of the same sex. It is associated with
the degree in which an individual takes on the behaviors,
personality patterns, and attitudes that are commonly
associated with male or female sex roles (Backer (2003))
* an individual’s self-conception as being male or female, as
distinguished from actual biological sex.
* link to a person’s sense of self and the sense of being male or
female (Ontario's Human Rights Code)
* our own perception and our own determination about our
gender either male or female. It is can be difference from our
real biological sex.
*
i)
Psychoanalytic theory
-through the identification from the parent same sex.
- as a result of Electra or Oedipus conflicts during
childhood
ii)
Social-Cognitive theory
- develop through learning process
- learning from parent or others
- behaviors reinforce with reinforcement
iii)
Cognitive Theory
a)
cognitive-development theory
- contends that because children consistently hear themselves
called “boy” or “girl,” they begin to conceive of themselves
as being of one sex or the other. Ultimately, from such
interactions, children develop a conception of attitudes
toward and behavioral expectations concerning that gender.
b)
gender-schema theory
- concerns the development of an internal schema, or mental
framework, which organizes and directs the behavior of an
individual as a male or female. For example, the gender
schema of being female might include the proposition “I am a
girl, so I play with dolls, not trucks.”
iv) Gender-Schema theory
- Gender schema theory refers to the theory that children
learn about what it means to be male and female from the
culture in which they live. According to this theory,
children adjust their behavior to fit in with the gender
norms and expectations of their culture.
- asserts that one’s childhood development is influenced
heavily by concepts about what maleness or femaleness
means in a particular society.
- schema is a cognitive structures, a network of
associations that organizes and guides an individual’s
perceptions.
iv)
Biological theory
i) chromosomes
- XX: Women
- XY: Men
ii) hormones
- men: testosterone
- women: estrogen and progesterone
v)
Social Role Theory
Eagly’s Social Role Theory of sex differences in social behavior
Social Role Theory- suggests that almost all behavioral
differences we know about between males and females is the
result of cultural stereotypes about gender (how males and
females are supposed to act) and the resulting social roles that
are taught to young people.
*
Men and women was born with many different characteristics.
There can be view from various aspects of life
1)
Physical aspects
men are generally taller than women, have more muscles
body, though , have facial hair such as moustache and beard
while women are generally shorter than male and don’t have
any facial hair.
2)
Emotional aspects
women are tend to be more emotional than men in something
happen and easily sad and cry.
3)
sensitivity
women is more sensitive to the threat than men. Due to
different hormone production in both gender.
4)
Jealousy
Women are more prone to react negatively when they or their
children are deprived of emotional support; this will trigger
jealousy. Men, on the other hand, will become angry if they
suspect their wives of sexual infidelity.
5)
Thinking
Women tend to be intuitive global thinkers. Women are prone
to become overwhelmed with complexities that "exist", or may
exist, and may have difficulty separating their personal
experience from problems than men.
6)
Memory
Women have an enhanced ability to recall memories that have
strong emotional components while men tend to recall events
using strategies that rely on reconstructing the experience in
terms of elements, tasks or activities that took place.
7)
Processing information
-men is left-brain-side oriented while women is rightbrain-side.
left-brain sided oriented is person can be described as
literal, logical, linear and linguistic.
-The right brain "makes sense" of the qualities of voice such
as tone, pitch, volume. It also "makes sense" of facial
expressions, gestures, body language and feeling. In a
sense, right brain is an emotional radar.
*
* the behaviors and attitudes expected of male and female members of a
society by that society.
* Different culture has different expectations to the men and women.
- Islamic perspectives, - Western perspectives
- Indian perspectives’ - African perspectives
*
Tasks that must be fulfill according to their gender.
*
women: childbearing, do chores, take care of children, husbands, and
family and manages households.
* Men: go work, find welfare for family, and able to protects family
* Gender role create gender stereotypes in society.
* If the men or women doesn’t fulfill the expected role of their
gender this will be lead to discriminations.
*
e:g *
women must be a perfect women
*Feminity
*Beauty
*Respectful
*
*
men must be a perfect men
*Strong
*Masculine
*independent
*
*a shared set of beliefs about purported qualities
of
females and males.
*“typical traits” perceived as inherent in men and
women—they are culturally influenced, and bear
little resemblance to real people.
*Develop since childhood
*Traditionally
1)
female stereotypic role
2)
Male stereotypic role
*
* There are two definitions for
androgyny: physical (intersexual) - born with both male and
female genitals; and psychological - combining both
masculinity and femininity as traits of a unified gender that
defies social roles and psychological attributes.
* the blending of feminine and masculine attributes in the
same individual.
* The androgyny, or androgynous person, does not neatly fit
into a female or male gender role; she or he can comfortably
express the qualities of both genders.
* Parents and other socializing agents can teach their children
to be androgynous, just as they can teach them to be genderbiased.
* Dr. Sandra Bem
- 'psychological androgyny'
- describe those men and women who did not fit into
traditionally defined gender roles.
* nowadays situations;
* 1)
fashion-industry
*
2) beauty-industry
*
3) work-industry
* In the relationship with human, androgynous people are more
tendency to pansexuality or asexuality
“Gender, Gender Identity, Ethnicity,
and stereotyping of children’s chores:
The Israeli Case”
Liat kulik
Bar Ilan University
Journal of cross-cultural psychology
2006, 37: 408
*
* Instruments that used is stereotyping of children’s chore, Bem
Sex Role Inventory and self-evaluation of masculinity and
feminity.
* The purpose of this study was to examine the stereotyping of
children’s chores in Israeli society and the way those
stereotypes are affected by gender identity, gender and
ethnicity.
* There are three hypotheses that are formulated
There are three hypotheses that are formulated:
1)
Individuals with sex-typed gender identities will maintain
more stereotyped perceptions of children’s chores than
will those with androgynuos and undifferentiated gender
identities.
2)
3)
Women will have less stereotyped perceptions than men
Asian African origin will maintain more stereotyped
perceptions than European American
RESULTS
* Result in this journal shows that undifferentiated participants
shows that the most stereotyped that feminine attitude
towards domestic chores.
* Undifferentiated and cross-typed participants expressed more
stereotypes views of outside chores.
* Women expressed less stereotyped view than men in
children’s chores.
* Participant’s country of birth did not affect their perceptions
of children’s scores while the country of birth of the
participants’ mothers.
*
* Gender identity is our own perception toward
femininity or
masculinity which is develop during childhood and are
determine to various factors which are discussed in theory.
* There are 6 theories are be discussed on gender identity.
* Each gender have difference characteristics which is need to
be understand in order to live harmoniously in marriage live.
* Gender role that are perceived by different culture actually is
the lead to the gender stereotypes.
* This stereotypes will lead to gender discriminations.
* Nowadays, there are evolutionary gender identity which
cannot only include traditionally oriented gender but it’s
include many other’s non-conformity gender’s group such as
LGBT gender and homosexuality groups.