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Transcript
The Art of South and Southeast
Asia Before 1200
South and Southeast Asia
Religion is the main
influence on art during
this period
Buddhism and Hinduism
are the religions of this
time; often coexisting
Sculpture and
architecture became the
predominant art forms
Sensuous deities
decorated temples and
monasteries
More Buddhist influenced
art still exists today than
does Hindu art.
Buddhism and Its Background
Buddha (the Enlightened
One) was the original
founder of Buddhism
The religion focuses on
meditation, being
enlightened, and
searching for knowledge
Buddha preached about
the Wheel of the Law and
the Four Noble Truths
(both of which are
influential in artwork of
this period)
Robed Male Figure
From Mohenjo-dara,
Pakistan, ca. 2000 –
1900 BCE
A characteristic of
early Indus sculpture
was its small form.
Sculpture was
influenced by the elite
class and political
leaders.
Lion Capital
Polished sandstone, ca.
250 BCE
Capitals such as this
were highly decorated
sculptural architecture
characteristic of this
period.
These capitals were
displayed throughout the
Maurya Dynasty during
Ashoka’s reign.
The Wheel of the Law
displayed symbolize the
king’s divine authority.
Great Stupa
From Sanchi, India, third
century BCE to first
century CE
Monument that housed
religious relics
Relief sculpture was
displayed on the outer
architecture
Consists of many
buildings constructed
over the centuries
including the viharas and
the chaitya halls
Yakshi
Detail of eastern gateway
of the Great Stupa; midfirst century BCE to early
first century CE
Goddesses that
personified fertility and
vegetation
Scantily clad, sensuous
women used as relief
sculpture
Worshipped throughout
India
Standing Yaksha
From the Maurya period
Yakshas are the male
equivalent of yakshis
Characteristics include
males depicted as
powerful, robust, broad
shoulders, and open,
staring eyes
Buddha statues often
resembled yakshas but
differ in that they are
clothed in a monk’s robe
Canonical Buddha Statue
Under the Guptas artists
formed a canonical figure
for the Buddha
Monastic robe covered
both shoulders
Buddha depicted with
soft, full body
Smooth, unadorned
surface that is symbolic of
Buddha’s spirituality
Eyes downcast in
meditation
Images of the Wheel of
the Law are displayed
Painted Caves of Ajanta
Image of Bodhisattva
Padmapani; wall painting
in Cave 1, Ajanta, India
These cave paintings are
some of the only Indian
paintings that remain
today
Method of painting differs
from other cultures as
they painted on dry
plaster
Results proved to be less
durable than other fresco
style paintings in other
cultures
Hinduism
Like Buddhism, Hinduism is a polytheistic
religion
Sacrifice is essential as it is meant to
please deities and gain favor with them
Hindu deities vary in form and natures
Three most important deities are Shiva,
Vishnu, and Devi
Dancing Shiva
Rock-cut relief in cave
temple; late sixth
century
Shiva is often shown
with multiple limbs
and/or heads as a
sign of his superhuman nature
Hindu deities often
represented as part
human, part animal
Shiva with three faces
Shiva as Mahadeva; ca.
550 – 575
AKA the “Great God”
Each face shows a
different aspect of the
deity
The main frontal face
displays Shiva’s quiet,
balanced demeanor
The right face is a
creative female
The left face a fierce,
destructive male
Vishnu asleep on the serpent Anata
Detail of façade of Vishnu
Temple; early sixth
century
In this relief Vishnu is
meant to be dreaming the
universe into reality
Surrounding him are
other deities including his
wife Lakshmi and Shiva
Also included are
personifications of
Vishnu’s various powers
Rock-cut Temples
Mamallapuram, India;
seventh century
Indian architects began to
carve freestanding
temples from rocky
outcroppings
Very rare in relation to
other cultures and
religions
Five temples were carved
out of one huge boulder
Rajarajeshvara Temple
Thanjavur, India; ca.
1010
Enormous, grand
temples were created
during this period
Dedicated to Shiva
Exterior walls display
numerous reliefs in
niches
Vishvanatha Temple
Khajuraho, India; ca.
1000
Vishvanatha is another
name for Shiva
Rising towers resemble
rising foothills of the
Himalayas, home of
Shiva
Temples are comparable
to actual mountain cave
temples
Designed with ideal
mathematical proportions
Shiva as Nataraja
Bronze statue; ca. 1000
One of many examples of
portable statues of deities
Use of hand gestures,
symbols, etc. all
represent some deeper
meaning
They viewed the statue
not as a symbol of the
god, but as the actual god
himself
Hindus would care for
images such as this by
feeding, clothing, bathing,
and taking it on outings
Death of the Buddha
Sri Lanka; ca. 11th to
12th century
Largest sculpture in
Southeast Asia
measuring 46 feet
long
Buddha’s cousin, and
chief disciple, stands
at the left mourning
his death
Borobudur
Java, Indonesia; ca. 800
Colossal Buddhist
monument
Structure contains
millions of blocks of
volcanic stone
More than 500 life-size
Buddha images
1000 relief panels
1500 stupas
Angkor Wat
Angkor, Cambodia; 12th
century
The largest of all Khmer
temple complexes
Purpose was to associate
the king with his personal
god (Vishnu)
Five towers symbolize
five peaks of Mount Meru
Stone reliefs glorify
Vishnu
Bayon
Angkor Thom, Cambodia;
ca. 1200
Unique in that the
combination of circular
terraces, towers, and
giant faces were used
The king turned from the
Hindu traditions of his
ancestors to worshiping
the Buddha