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Transcript
Civ IA- text from PP 7-8
•
Lecture 7- Becoming Greek
I)
The Iron Age (c.700 BC to 500 BC)
II)
Greek City-States
III)
1st Persian Invasion
IDs:
Homer
ethnos/Polis
Agora
phalanx
Reason
Corinth
Sparta
helots
Athens
Solon
Peisistratus
Barbarians
despotism
Marathon
Ostracism
Thermopylae
•
First Midterm Exam
•
Academic Support
•
Chapters 1 through 3, possibly Chapter 4
–
Depending on how far we get by the end of Tuesday’s class
•
40-45 objective questions
•
1 essay (out of 2 or 3)
•
Review questions discussed at the beginning of class on Thursday and next Tuesday
•
Views of the Gods in the Dark Age
•
Spirit of the Dark Age
•
Views of Women in the Dark Age
•
Greek City-States during the Iron Age (700-500 BC)
Recovery
- population
- politics, art, etc.
- bronze→iron
2 types of cities:
Ethnos
- oligarchy
Polis (pl. poleis)
- agora
•
Democratic innovation #1
Mycenean alphabet
Adminstration
Lost during Dark Age
Mixed with Phoenician alphabet
Vowels added
•
Democratic innovation #2
•
The Poet Tyraues on the phalanx (around 650 BC)
“ Stand near and take the enemy, strike with long spear or sword, set foot by foot, lean shield
on shield, crest on crest, helmet on helmet.”
Wider involvement- 25 to 40 percent of landowners
•
Growing Political Tension- Result #2
Tyrants:
Members of the elite
Appeal to commoners (hoplites)
Progressive reforms
Built upon precedents
Short-lived dynasties
•
Religion in Archaic Greece
More “democratic” influence
Civic religion
Reason and mythology
Secular knowledge:
Science
philosophy
•
II) Archaic City-States
•
Examples of Archaic Cities:
Eunomia (“good order”) in
Corinth
Sparta
Athens
•
City-States in Archaic Greece
Corinth
- commercial center
- c. 650 BC-
Periander’s canal
- great wealth
•
Trade
•
City-States in Archaic Greece
Corinth
Sparta
•
Sparta
Population growth
Conquest
Helots
Extreme application of phalanx
Isolation
•
City-States in Archaic Greece
Corinth
Sparta
Athens
•
Athenian tyrants and democracy
(7th and 6th Centuries BC)
Defining democracy
- “popular participation in government”
621 BC- Draco
594 BC- Solon
Debt-slavery and ekklesia
546 BC- Peisistratus
State loans
508 BC- Cleisthenes
Direct democracy
•
Lecture 8- Becoming Greek
I)
First Persian Invasion
II)
Second Persian Invasion
III)
“Golden Age” of Athens
IDs:
Barbarians
Darius
Miletus
despotism
Marathon
Ostracism
Xerxes
Thermopyle
Salamis
Delian League
Pericles
Demagogue
Peloponnesian Wars
“survivors”
Sophism
•
Socrates
Examples of Archaic Cities:
Eunomia (“good order”) in
Corinth
Sparta
Athens
•
Greek influence in the Mediterranean
•
1st Persian War (vs. Darius):
Darius enters Europe- 512 BC
Persian Empire
Revolt in Miletus- 499 BC
- Support (fr. Athens)
- Persian suppression
Athenian propaganda:
Democracy vs. despotism
Persian invasion- 490 BC
Battle of Marathon
•
Battle of Marathon
Larger Persian army
Greek strategy
Phalanx
Greek victory
March to Athens
Lasting “message”
-
Superiority of the phalanx (and) democracy
•
Trireme
•
Ostracism
Effect of victory over Persian despotism
Started by Themistocles
Safeguard vs. tyranny
Potential threats
6,000 votes
10-year exile and loss of property
Democratic?
•
II) Second Persian Invasion
•
Persian Empire
•
Second Persian Invasion
Xerxes
2nd Persian invasion- 480 BC
250K men
Northern cities surrender
Sparta joins defense vs. Persians
•
Battle of Thermopylae (480 BC)
40K Greek troops
Mountain pass
Three days
“Go tell the Spartans,
you have read,
we have fought,
and now we are dead.”
•
Battle of Salamis
Athenian fleet of triremes
Decision to fight
Greek victory
Persian retreat
•
“Greek Fire”
•
Results of the Second Persian War
Thermoplyae
Salamis
Results:
- army- Sparta
- navy- Athens
Postwar leadership- Athens
•
III) “Golden Age” of Athens
•
Delian League
(478 BC- 404 BC)
Delian League
-naval protection vs. Persians
-Athenian domination
-funds
-duties
-garrisons
-coercion
-rival alliance
Postwar glory
-
Democracy
Naval protection
Athenian leadership
Athenian Empire?
Delian funds
Citadels
Tolls
Coercion
•
Internal Contradictions and Athenian Democracy
1) Limited vote-women, slaves, metics
2) Collective basis, not individual
3) “safeguards”- ostracism, term limits
4) Result- demagogues (ex. Pericles)
•
Pericles
(r. 461-430 BC)
Demagogue:
- using popular prejudices for political gain
-appealed to thetes
-elevated larger councils
-aggressive
toward other polis
•
Athenian Sophism
Athenian use of reason during “the Golden Age of Athens” (5th Century BC)
Relativism: “Man is the measure.”
Schools
•
Sophism at work- Athenian imperialism:
Athenians: “. . . You know as well as we do that right, as the world goes, is only in question between
equals in power, while the strong do what they can the weak suffer what they must. . . . We would
desire to exercises empire over you without trouble, and see you preserved for the good of us both.
Melians: “And how, pray, could it turn out as good for us to serve you to rule?”
Athenians: “Because you would have the advantage of submitting before suffering the worst, and we
should gain by not destroying you.”
Melians: “So you would not consent to our being neutral, friends instead of enemies, but allies of
neither side?”
Athenians: “No, for your hostility cannot so much hurt us as your friendship will be an argument to our
subjects of our weakness, and your enmity of our power.”
•
The Peloponnesian Wars
1st war- 431-421BC
Pericles
Delian League vs. Spartan League
Fight vs. Corinth (SL)
Stalemate
2nd war- 415-404
Alliances
Athenian defeat
“Survivors”