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MOCK TEST 2 – Spring 2015
1.
Which chamber of the heart has the thickest walls? Why is this so? Blood leaving this
chamber exits through which SPECIFIC valve? Is this blood oxygenated or
deoxygenated?
2.
Draw an electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) tracing and label the P, Q, R, S, and T waves.
What occurs during the T wave? Which ion leaves the cardiac muscle cells?
In what condition does the lower portion of the heart flutter?
Why is nitroglycerin taken for sudden heart pains or risk of heart attack?
3.
Match the following circulatory system structures with their characteristics
____ Carry blood to left atrium
____ Valve through which blood enters RV
____ Hole between the RA and LA during fetal development
____ Brings blood from lower body to right atrium
____ Attach the atrioventricular valves to the heart wall
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
I.
Mitral valve
Circumflex artery
Right ventricle
Inferior vena cava
Aorta
Foramen ovale
Pulmonary veins
Tricuspid valve
Chordae tendonae
____ One of the coronary arteries
____ Valve that has 2 “cusps”
____ Pumps blood into the pulmonary trunk
____ Carries blood away from left ventricle
4.
What is the name of the condition that leads to a heart rate of 53 beats per minute?
What is one group of healthy people in which this may normally occur?
5.
List the 5 parts of the electrical conduction system of the heart in the proper order. Name
one neurotransmitter and one hormone that increase heart rate. Are these part of the
somatic, visceral, sympathetic, or parasympathetic nervous system?
6.
What is the name for a thin-walled section of an artery?
7.
List THREE differences between the adaptive and the innate immune systems
8.
Name the appropriate type of Hypersensitivity Reaction (I, II, III, or IV)
9.
a.
Includes reaction to bee stings and peanuts
b.
Includes Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn
c.
Is involved in the reaction to the skin test used to determine if one has TB
d.
Includes reaction to cheap metals in jewelry
e.
Takes 3-4 days to develop
f.
Is treated by hyposensitization
g.
Involves mast cells and histamine
h.
Is involved when a type B person receives type A blood
Identify the leukocyte types: LIST ALL CORRECT ANSWERS!!!
a.
Involved in causing allergies by binding to IgE
b.
Phagocytic and dumps reactive oxygen species on cancer cells
c.
Rarest leukocyte type
d.
Killed by HIV during AIDS
e.
Kill virally-infected cells and cancer cells
f.
Produce antibodies
10.
Briefly describe what causes hemolytic disease of the newborn, how it is treated, and
how it may be prevented
11.
Antibody classes: LIST ALL CORRECT ANSWERS
a.
Is found is tears
b.
Most abundant antibody class in mucus
c.
Crosses the placenta
d.
Activates the complement system
e.
Contains J chain
12.
BRIEFLY DISCUSS the functions of: a) interferons and b) Th17 cytokines
13.
Hepatic portal system
14.
a.
What is the function of the hepatic portal system?
b.
What digestive system organ does the hepatic portal system carry blood to and
from?
Draw and label an electrocardiograph (ECG) tracing
What occurs during the QRS complex?
15.
Blood vessels (veins, arteries, capillaries)
a.
What type of vessel contains the thickest tunica media?
b.
What type of vessel contains only the tunica intima?
c.
Which type of vessel carries blood toward the heart?
d.
Which type of vessel has valves to prevent backflow of blood?
e.
Which type of vessel spurts blood when cut?
16.
If Sally has a blood pressure reading of 169/105, what is her systolic pressure? Does this
indicate normal blood pressure, hypotension, or hypertension?
17.
Starting with the vena cava and ending with the aorta, name the 4 chambers of the heart
AND the valves through which the blood passes and include the lungs and the vessels
which transport blood to and from the lungs IN THE CORRECT ORDER OF
BLOOD FLOW
18.
What is the FUNCTION of the: (2 pts each)
a.
Cilia in the respiratory tract?
b.
Lacrimal sacs?
c.
Eustachian tube?
d.
Epiglottis?
e.
Red bone marrow?
f.
Larynx?
g.
Alveoli?
h.
Tonsils?
i.
Thymus gland?
j.
Nasal conchae?
19.
Name four types of medicines that lower blood pressure AND how they function
20.
Do each of the following carry oxygenated or deoxygenated blood?
a.
Inferior vena cava
b.
Superior vena cava
c.
Pulmonary veins
d.
Pulmonary trunk
21.
Matching
____ Small air sacs at the ends of bronchioles
____ Hole between vocal cords
____ Allow detection of smells
____ Nostrils
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.
F.
G.
H.
The formation of blood cells
Olfactory receptors
Sinuses
Sulfactant
External nares
Uvula
Alveoli
Glottis
____ Hematopoiesis
____ Slippery fluid that prevents alveoli from
collapsing during exhalation
____ Air-filled cavities in the frontal and sphenoid bones
____ Structure that prevents food from passing upwards into the nasal cavity
22.
What is tachycardia? Give a number.
23.
Which part(s) of the heart:
a.
Is the two major branches of the left coronary artery?
b.
Is connected to the bicuspid valve and the papillary muscle?
c.
Is found between the right and left ventricles?
d.
Prevents backflow of blood from the right ventricle into the right atrium?
e.
Connective tissues that lines the interior of the chambers of the heart?
f.
The sound produced by turbulence of blood flowing backwards through
an incompletely closed valve?
g.
The sound produced by the closure of the semilunar valves?
ANSWERS TO MOCK TEST 3
1.
6.
LV; blood has furthest to go (almost all of body), so the LV pumps very hard, which
requires a large amount of muscle in the wall that must also be able to withstand a large
amount of pressure; aortic semilunar valve: oxygenated blood
See notes; ventricles repolarize as K+ leaves the cells and the muscle relaxes; Vfibrillation; nitro is converted to nitric oxide which increases the diameter of arteries,
including the coronary arteries, increasing blood flow to the heart and decreasing blood
pressure
G, H, F, D, I, B, A, C, E
Bradycardia; well-conditioned athletes
SA node (pacemaker), AV node, AV bundle (Bundle of His), R and L bundle branches,
Purkinje fibers; Epinephrine and norepinephrine (both hormones and neurotransmitters)
that act as part of the sympathetic nervous system
Aneurism
7.
a.
b.
c.
d.
e.
f.
g.
Adaptive
Acquired (starting at around 6 months)
Induces memory response
Stronger; longer-lasting
Takes 10-14 days to develop
Extremely specific
In vertebrates
Uses lymphocytes
8.
I, II, IV, IV, IV, I, I, II
9.
a. Basophils/mast cells
b. PMN/MO/MΦ
d. Th cells
e. NK cells/Tc
f. B cells
10.
Caused by mom’s IgG Ab to Rh+ erythrocytes of second Rh+ child crossing placenta and
lysing fetal rbc, releasing hemoglobin that is converted to bilirubin, toxic to brains;
treated by blood transfusion and exposure to UV light; prevented by giving mom
Rhogam (Ab to Rh antigen) to prevent her from developing her own Ab
11.
IgA; IgA; IgG; IgG/IgM; IgA/IgM
12.
Interferons interfere with viral replication
Th17 cytokines are inflammatory
2.
3.
4.
5.
Innate
Inborn
No memory
Weaker; shorter-lasting
Almost immediately active
Relatively nonspecific
In most forms of life (primitive)
Uses MO/MΦ, PMN, Eos,
Basophils, Dendritic cells, NK cells
c. Basophils
g. Treg
h. Eosinophils
13.
Hepatic portal vein carries blood from the digestive system to the liver for detoxification
and storage of glucose as glycogen (blood sugar homeostasis); hepatic vein carries blood
away from liver to the inferior vena cava
14.
See notes. QRS has atrial repolarization (before atrial diastole) and ventricular
depolarization (before ventricular systole)
15.
Artery; Capillary; Vein; Vein; Artery
16.
169; hypertension
17.
Blood Flow














18.
Inferior and superior vena cava
RA
Tricuspid valve
RV
Pulmonary semilunar valve
Pulmonay trunk
R and L pulmonary arteries
R and L lungs
4 pulmonary veins
LA
Bicuspid (mitral) valve
LV
Aortic semilunar valve
Aorta
a. To sweep particles trapped in mucus away from lungs
b. To collect tears and deposit them into the nasal cavity
c. To equalize pressure on both sides of Eustachian tube
d. To prevent from food/fluid from entering trachea
e. Hematopoiesis
f. Voicebox (produce sounds)
g. Gas exchange between lungs and capillaries
h. Immune protection
i. Maturation of T lymphocytes
j. To warm and humidify air coming into nasal cavity
19.
Medications that lower blood pressure




ACE inhibitors stop production of the hormones angiotensin II and aldersterone that both
raise blood pressure
Diuretics increase water loss through increasing urination
β-blockers decrease effects of sympathetic nervous system
Nitroglycerin increases size of blood vessels
20.
a. Deoxy
b. Deoxy
c. Oxygenated
d. Deoxy
21.
G, H, B, E, A, D, C, F
22.
Heart rate >100 beats/min
23.
a. Circumflex and anterior interventricular arteries
b. Chordae tendonae
c. Interventricular septum d. Tricuspic valve
e. Endocardium
f. Mummer
g. Dub