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Transcript
Monitoring Operating Temperature and Supply
Voltage in Achieving High System Dependability
Muhammad Aamir Khan, Hans G. Kerkhoff
Testable Design and Test of Integrated Systems (TDT) Group,
University of Twente, Centre of Telematics and Information Technology (CTIT),
Enschede, the Netherlands
m.a.khan / [email protected]
Abstract— System dependability being a set of number of
attributes, of which the important reliability, heavily depends on
operating temperature and supply voltage. Any change beyond the
designed specifications may change the system performance and
could result in system reliability and hence dependability
problems. These reliability problems could be short-term
variations and can be solved if the system returns back to its
normal operational temperature and supply voltage. Therefore,
these reliability problems should be differentiated from the other
long-term reliability problems resulting from aging mechanisms.
These are a function of stress time and have a cumulative nature.
This differentiation is essential to better manage the system
dependability during its operational life. This separation of two
reliability problems requires a regular monitoring of the system
operating temperature and the supply voltage during its
operational life. The problem has been solved in the proposed
hardware architecture and workflow that takes this monitoring
into account to tackle them separately and carries out proper
actions in order to enhance the system dependability. The
simulation results for a target system carried out in LabVIEW
environment fully support the proposed idea.
Keywords- reliability; system dependability; self-calibration; selfdiagnosis; redundancy
I. INTRODUCTION
Dependability of electronic systems is becoming an
important design concern as the technology is shrinking
towards the nanometer limits. On one side different physical
degradation mechanisms like negative bias temperature
instability (NBTI), positive bias temperature instability (PBTI),
hot carrier injection (HCI), time-dependent-dielectricbreakdown (TDDB), and electromigration (EM) are becoming
prominent [1-4]. On the other hand fabrication related process
variations, supply voltage, and operational temperature (PVT)
related variations are also affecting the performance of these
electronic systems [5-10].
The interesting thing to note here is that some of these
performance degrading effects have a common source of
disturbance. For example, NBTI and PBTI are heavily
dependent on stress temperature and input stress voltage
causing serious performance degradations in electronic systems
[1-3, 11]. While operational-temperature and supply-voltage
variations, on the other hand, also individually contribute to the
performance degradation of these electronic systems [7-10].
The difference lies in the parameter “time”. Temperature and
voltage variations beyond specifications can cause serious
c
978-1-4673-6040-1/13/$31.00 2013
IEEE
performance degradations that could be of instantaneous,
temporary or short-term nature and could diminish if the
temperature and voltage values return back to their nominal
values. With respect to the time duration for which these
variations will remain effective, they will cause long-term
aging (NBTI, PBTI) effects. These effects may or may not be
contributing to the performance degradation of the electronic
systems at a particular time. The cumulative effect of these
degradation mechanisms (short and long-term) over the
operating time will decide about their contribution in degrading
the performance of these electronic systems. Therefore,
variations in system reliability as a function of operational
temperature and voltage will be of short-term as well as longterm nature. Similarly, dependability being a set of a number of
attributes, like reliability, maintainability, availability, safety,
security, and survivability, should be tackled separately
according to these short-term and long-term effects.
The purpose of the current paper is to understand these
effects and to investigate:
- how operational-temperature and supply-voltage
variations can cause short-term (non-permanent) and
long-term (could be permanent) performance
degradations?
- how would it be possible to differentiate between these
two performance degradation scenarios?
- how this differentiation could be helpful in achieving
high system dependability during its operational life?
The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Section II will describe the importance of supply-voltage and
operational-temperature (VT) variations in affecting the
performance parameters of both digital and analog circuits.
Sections III, IV and V will present the basic idea, the proposed
hardware architecture, and the simulation results for enhancing
system dependability respectively. The conclusions and some
important references will be presented at the end of the paper.
II. VT VARIATIONS
Technology scaling is forcing both VDD and VTH to reduce,
making it critical for electronic designers especially for analog
designers as shown in Fig. 1 [12]. The distance (VDD-VTH),
known as free-voltage space for analog design, is also
reducing. Therefore, any variations in VDD or VTH will
influence this free-voltage space and hence affecting the
performance of electronic systems. Similarly, MOSFETs
device characteristics like threshold voltage, carrier mobility,
108
Percentage Change in Delay
4
Voltage [V]
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
3.5
4
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0
22nm 32nm 45nm 65nm 90nm 130nm 180nm 250nm 350nm 500nm
4.5
1V,25C
0.5V,25C
1V,100C
0.5V,100C
Technology Node (nm)
1/8Y
1/4Y
1/2Y
Time (Years)
1Y
4.5
@1V
@0.5V
4
Percentage Change in Delay
Vdd [V]
Vth [V]
3
Percentage Change in Delay
4.5
3.5
3.5
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2Y
1/8Y
1/4Y
1/2Y
Time (Years)
1Y
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
2Y
@25C
@100C
3.5
1/8Y
1/4Y
1/2Y
Time (Years)
1Y
2Y
0.6
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0
5
10
Aging [year]
15
20
0.77
Stressed at 125C
Stressed at 100C
Stressed at 75C
Stressed at 50C
Stressed at 25C
0.76
0.75
0.74
0.73
0.72
0.71
0.7
0.69
0.68
0
5
10
15
20
Aging [year]
Change in Gain due to VDD change [dB]
Stressed at 125C
Stressed at 100C
Stressed at 75C
Stressed at 50C
Stressed at 25C
0.7
Change in Gain due to temp chnage [dB]
Change in Gain due to NBTI effect [dB]
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 2: Percentage change in delay of a five-stage ring oscillator due to change in (a) NBTI effect at two different
Figure 1: Power supply (VDD) and
threshold voltage (VTH) vs
temperatures and two different supply voltages, (b) operating temperature from 25°C-100°C at two different supply voltages,
technology node [12]
and (c) supply voltage from 0.5V-1.0V at two different temperatures versus time respectively (extracted from [7]).
1.8
Stressed at 125C
Stressed at 100C
Stressed at 75C
Stressed at 50C
Stressed at 25C
1.7
1.6
1.5
1.4
1.3
1.2
1.1
1
0
5
10
15
20
Aging [year]
(a)
(b)
(c)
Figure 3: Change in open-loop gain of an opamp, stressed at different temperatures, due to (a) NBTI effect, (b) change in Figure 4: The distribution function of an
arbitrary performance parameter ‘P’ of
supply voltage from 1.1V-1.3V (c) change in operating temperature from 25°C-125°C versus stress time respectively.
‘n’ identical electronic systems.
and saturation velocity are heavily affected by temperature
variations [9] therefore varying the performance of associated
electronic systems. For example, in automotive applications,
electronic systems attached to automobile engines usually
operate at higher temperature variations ranging from -40°C to
150°C [13]. Therefore, any variations in temperature will affect
the performance of these electronic systems.
In digital systems the propagation delay is a function of
drain saturation current provided by active transistors which
further depends on supply voltage (VDD) and operational
temperature [9]. Therefore digital system performance is highly
affected by both operational temperature and supply voltage.
This variation in delay is independent of aging effects (NBTI
etc.). Figures 2abc show the percentage change in delay of a
five-stage ring oscillator over two years due to aging (NBTI),
operational-temperature change from 25°C to 100°C and
supply-voltage change from 0.5V to 1.0V respectively.
Similarly, analog circuit performance is also sensitive to the
operating temperature and the supply voltage. Figures 3abc
show the change in open-loop gain of an amplifier designed in
65nm technology over twenty years due to aging (NBTI),
operational-temperature from 25°C to 125°C, and supply
voltage change from 1.1V to 1.3V respectively.
It is clear from these figures that the change in delay of a
five-stage ring oscillator and open-loop gain of an amplifier is
higher due to change in operating temperature and supply
voltage at a particular time as compared to the change due to
the NBTI (aging) effect. This means the operationaltemperature and the supply-voltage variations play a significant
role in the performance of digital and analog systems for the
time these variations in operating temperature and supply
voltage are present. These changes in performance are
independent from the cumulative changes in performance due
to the aging (NBTI) effect.
III. ENHANCING SYSTEM DEPENDABILITY
The distribution function of an arbitrary performance
parameter ‘P’ of ‘n’ identical systems (e.g. open-loop gain ‘A’
of ‘n’ identical opamps) can be divided into three regions as
shown in Fig. 4. The allowed region (green) of performance
parameter (e.g. ±3ı of ‘A’) comprises the designed
specification region under which the system will function
correctly as desired. The not-allowed region of the
performance parameter is the region where the performance
parameter ‘P’ goes beyond the designed specifications and the
system starts disfunctioning. Although under this condition the
system still be working, the results will be unsatisfactory.
Similarly, the permanent failure region of the performance
parameter is the region where the performance parameter ‘P’ is
not only beyond the designed specifications but the system
stops working and hence results in a permanent failure (e.g.
saturation at the output of an opamp for any input Vout = Vdd
or 0).
The allowed region shows the normal operation but in order
to enhance the dependability or to prolongate the operational
life of the system the second and third regions should be
counter-acted with proper actions. This can be accomplished
by:
1) bringing back the operating temperature and supply
voltage to normal operating values for short-term
(non-permanent) effects.
2) digitally tuning back performance parameters to
normal specifications for long-term effects.
3) incorporating some fault-tolerant strategies, like
redundant systems, for permanent-failure effects.
For example, cooling fans for adjusting temperature,
digitally-tunable power supplies for adjusting supply voltages,
and digitally-assisted electronic systems for reconfiguring or
2013 8th International Conference on Design & Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS)
109
Figure 5: Proposed hardware architecture for enhancing the dependability of a
system on chip.
Figure 6: Workflow of the proposed dependable hardware architecture for
achieving high dependability
digitally adjusting different performance parameters [14] can
be used to restore the second region of disfunctioning
performance parameters to the normal region. Similarly, the
third region of permanent failure can also be restored to the
normal region of performance parameters by completely
replacing the permanent faulty unit with a spare unit.
Enhancing system dependability means enhancing its
individual attributes [15]. However, in this paper the primary
focus will be on three attributes namely the reliability, the
maintainability and the availability. The reliability, the
probability as a function of time that the system will be
functioning correctly, can be enhanced by using options 1, 2,
and 3. The maintainability, the probability as a function of
time that the system will be repaired if it fails to function
correctly, can be enhanced by making the right choice between
options 1, 2, and 3. Similarly the availability, the probability as
a function of time that the system will be available for its
service, can be enhanced by reducing the repair time. One
approach is by estimating the reliability of the system in
advance and making the proper decisions at the right time for
repair.
IV. DEPENDABLE HARDWARE ARCHITECTURE
In order to enhance the dependability of a system on chip, a
new hardware architecture is proposed as shown in Fig. 5. It
consists of redundant sub-blocks (SB1-SB4) and a number of
110
Figure 7: An example of a system where an arbitrary performance
parameter ‘P’ is being monitored for its variations due to VT and NBTI effects.
Time points t1-t10 show VT adjustment points, T1-T3 show digitally tuning
points and T4 show the replacement point with a fresh unit.
monitoring, tuning and decision making circuits. The on-chip
temperature and supply-voltage monitoring circuits can be used
to monitor the overall temperature and supply-voltage of the
whole chip or it can be used to monitor the temperature and
supply-voltage of each individual sub-block as shown by the
red and blue lines respectively. A performance parameter
monitoring circuit is also present to monitor the most sensitive
performance parameter(s) to short-term and long-term effects
for estimating reliability of the whole system or reliability of
each sub-block. These three monitoring blocks then
communicate with the decision making and tuning circuitry,
which is responsible for digital repair strategies as shown by
dotted black lines.
Fig. 6 shows the workflow of this dependable architecture.
This is further explained by an example of a system where an
arbitrary performance parameter ‘P’, considered most sensitive
to short-term and long-term effects, is being monitored for its
variations due to short-term VT and long-term NBTI (aging)
effects as shown in Fig. 7. The dotted blue line shows the
variations in ‘P’ due to VT effects and the green line shows the
variations due to the NBTI effect. During regular testing mode
(Fig. 6), first, the performance parameter ‘P’ will be checked
that either it is within the specified limits of the system
specification or not. The system specifications stored in the
database will be used here for comparison purposes. If ‘P’ is
within the defined system specifications then the current value
of ‘P’ along with the operating temperature and supply voltage
values will be logged and stored in the database. These values
are subsequently used to estimate the reliability of the current
state of the system that can be further used to predict in
advance a possible hazard if any. Similarly, in case ‘P’ is out of
the defined system specifications stored in the database, proper
actions as discussed in previous section will be taken.
It is clear from Fig. 7 that at time points t1-t5 the VT effects
try to move the performance parameter ‘P’ beyond its
performance margin. At each of these time points (t1-t5, Fig. 7)
the VT values are brought back (option 1) to their normal
values and the performance parameter ‘P’ returns to its normal
allowed region of specification. This can be done by cooling
techniques, switching off unnecessary parts, regulating or
reconfiguring power supply to each sub-block etc. On the other
hand at each of these time points (t1-t5, Fig. 7) the variations
due to the NBTI effect continue accumulating and at time point
2013 8th International Conference on Design & Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS)
T1 ‘P’ is moved beyond its performance margin. Therefore, at
time point T1 the digital tuning capabilities (option 2) of the
system are used to bring ‘P’ back to its normal region of
specifications. Similarly, at t6-t10 and T2-T3 time points (Fig. 7)
the performance parameter ‘P’ also returns to its normal
specification using above mentioned techniques. Most
importantly, at time point T4 the system capabilities to move
‘P’ back to its normal specifications are not feasible anymore.
That is there are no more digital tuning and VT adjustment
options available to bring ‘P’ back to its normal specifications.
Therefore, at this time point T4 the system will be replaced
(option 3) by a spare unit and it will start functioning again.
This approach of dealing with the problem has a number of
benefits. Adjusting temperature and supply voltage, on one
side, will bring the system back to its normal operating
conditions and on the other side will lower the gradual effect of
aging phenomena hence slowing down its effect. Similarly, the
digital tuning and replacement options will be solely used for
adjusting long-term aging and permanent failure effects
respectively. This will certainly increase the reliability of the
system.
Estimating reliability in advance will make it easy to
anticipate possible solutions and hence lowering the repair
time. By lowering the repair time the maintainability will be
increased. This decrease in repair time will further increase the
availability of the system to perform its operation. Hence by
increasing reliability, availability, and maintainability, the
dependability of the system will be increased.
V. SIMULATIONS AND RESULTS
In order to investigate the feasibility of the proposed
architecture and the workflow, a target system has been
modeled in the LabVIEW environment. The proposed idea is
explained based on the simulation results of a single sub-block
(SB1) of the system in Fig. 5 and is compared to a similar subblock simulated without the proposed idea. The ‘gain’ of the
SB1 has been considered as the most sensitive parameter to VT
and NBTI variations. Table 1 shows the designed
specifications of SB1 at the design stage and the possible VT
variations in the system working environment.
Fig. 8 shows the possible ‘gain’ (GPSB1) variations in SB1
due to possible VT variations in the system working
environment. It is clear from this figure that GPSB1 can go
beyond designed specifications (GDSB1) as a result of possible
VT variations in the system working environment. Similarly,
Fig. 9 shows the simulation results of SB1 with and without the
proposed architecture and workflow.
Let SB1C (subscript C as an indicator) represents the subblock which is compensated by means of the proposed idea and
has eight possible digital tuning options for adjusting ‘gain’
performance parameter. Similarly, SB1NC represents the subblock which is neither compensated by means of the proposed
idea nor has any digital tuning capabilities. The four subgraphs in Fig. 9 represent the four monitors (M1-M4). Monitor
M4 shows the change in gain due to aging (NBTI) effect only
and the results of the decision making and tuning circuitry. The
other three modeled monitors are the temperature monitor
Table 1: Designed specifications of SB1 and the possible VT variations in the
system working environment
Name
Designed gain of SB1
Designed supply voltage variations of SB1
Designed temperature variations of SB1
Designed gain variations of SB1
Possible working supply voltage variations
Possible working temperature variations
GSB1
VDSB1
TDSB1
GDSB1
VPSB1
TPSB1
Value
20dB
[1.175V-1.225V]
[-25°C - 75°C]
[19dB - 21dB]
[1.1V - 1.3V]
[0°C - 125°C]
Figure 8: Possible gain variations of SB1 due to VT variations in the
system working environment.
(M1), the supply voltage monitor (M2), and the performance
(the ‘gain’ in current case) monitor (M3). The vertical red lines
in M4 show the time points when temperature and supply
voltage for SB1C are adjusted back (option 1) to normal values
(i.e. 25°C and 1.2V respectively) if the GDSB1 goes beyond
designed specifications ([19dB-21dB]). These adjustments in
temperature, supply voltage and resulting ‘gain’ of SB1C are
shown by the white lines in monitors M1, M2, and M3
respectively. The T1-T8 show the time points when the
adjustments in ‘gain’ of SB1C are no more possible by means
of adjusting temperature and supply voltage back to normal
values. At these time points (T1-T8) the aging (NBTI) effect is
moving the ‘gain’ of SB1C beyond its designed specifications
and the digital tuning (option 2) capabilities of SB1C are used
to move the ‘gain’ back to its normal designed specification.
The ‘gain’ values of SB1NC and the corresponding
unadjusted variations in temperature and supply voltage are
shown by a red line in monitors M3, M1, and M2 respectively. It
is clear from these monitors that because of no adjustments in
temperature and supply voltage at several time points (t1-t15)
the ‘gain’ parameter of SB1NC remains out of specification
bounds either for short duration or long duration depending on
the VT and aging variations respectively.
The comparison between the two ‘gain’ parameters of
SB1C (white line) and SB1NC (red line) from M3 have made it
clear that due to the proposed architecture and workflow the
SB1C can be used for a longer time till time point R1. It needs a
replacement (option 3) with a new SB1C at time point R1 (Fig.
9) when there is no digital tuning option left for tuning the
‘gain’ back to its normal specifications. On the other hand
SB1NC needs a replacement at each time point T1-T8. The worst
thing is it will behave out of specification bounds at several
time points (t1-t15). Similarly, the presented idea can be
extended to other sub-blocks for enhancing the dependability
of the whole system.
2013 8th International Conference on Design & Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS)
111
Figure 9: Simulation results of a single sub-block (SB1) of the system in Fig. 5 with and without the proposed architecture (Fig. 5) and workflow (Fig. 6)
[2]
VI. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper the dependability enhancement of electronic
systems has been discussed. Reliability being one attribute of
dependability is being influenced for short-term or nonpermanently by operating temperature, supply voltage and for
long-term or permanently by a number of aging phenomena.
Therefore, by separating them as short-term and long-term
effects proper actions can be taken in order to enhance the
dependability of the system. This has been achieved in the
proposed hardware architecture and workflow which regularly
monitors and stores the operating temperature and supply
voltage along with the most sensitive performance parameter(s)
of the system in the logged database. It then estimates the
reliability of the system based on these stored values. These
estimations are subsequently used in anticipating system
performance in advance or taking proper actions by adjusting
back temperature and supply-voltage variations to nominal
values, or by digitally tuning and replacing system sub-blocks
to enhance the overall dependability of the system.
Unfortunately due to lack of system-level dependability
enhancement techniques especially for analog and mixedsignal systems, according to our best knowledge, the current
technique cannot be compared to other techniques. However,
the simulation results for a dummy system, modelled in a
LabVIEW environment, under random supply voltage and
working temperature variations show that the proposed
technique for enhancing system dependability during
operational life is a valid technique. Furthermore, these
simulations are based on the high-level abstract models that do
not include the detailed implementation complexities and
fabrication related area overheads. Similarly, fabrication
related process variations are not discussed here rather they
will be discussed in future publications.
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2013 8th International Conference on Design & Technology of Integrated Systems in Nanoscale Era (DTIS)