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In order to market Online chat there needs to be some understanding of how
communication works. Below is a communication model that shows how communication
is accomplished.
Reciprocal nature of communications
Cutlip and Center, fig 8.1
As figure 8.1 illustrates, communication is a reciprocal process of exchanging
signals to inform, instruct, or persuade, based on shared meanings and
conditioned by the communicators' relationship and the social context.
The process of informing involves four steps:
attracting attention to the communication,
achieving acceptance of the message,
having it interpreted as intended, and
getting the message stored for later use.
The more demanding process of instruction adds a fifth step: stimulating
active learning and practice. The process of persuasion goes beyond active
learning to the sixth step of accepting change: yielding to the wishes or point
of view of the sender. Clearly, barriers to achieving the outcomes of informing,
instruction and persuasion increase with the addition of the fifth and sixth
steps in the process. 1
Extracted from Effective Public Relations by Cutlip, Center and Broom for use on the Public Relations course in the Tipperary
Insititute Multimedia Degree Program.
See also Wilbur Schramm, "The Nature of Communication between Humans," in The Process and Effects of Mass
Communications, Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1971.
Getting Started:
There are several questions that need to be answered before beginning your marketing.
STEP 1: Brainstorming
 What message do you want to send?
 Who is the audience?
 What media or channels should be used to communicate the message?
 Who is responsible for completing what tasks?2
STEP 2: Implementation
 Develop a list of current and potential community partners and collaborators.
 Identified public relations activities with which key community leaders and
groups, etc., can assist.
 Participate in one or more community events.
Develop a process for tracking community connections made and a schedule for
following up and staying in touch.
Developed a thorough list of media with emphasis on target group contacts.
Can the media type selected get your message out in a timely manner?
. Is there a cost? Can you afford to use that type of media?
When deciding to use a printed medium, such as a newsletter or the organization’s
annual report, several questions need to be kept in mind:
o To who and how will the material be distributed?
o What printing method will be used?
o What size will the print run be?
o How long do you expect to use this material?
Meet with each major media contact for the target group at least once to begin the
Be sure Library staff, volunteers, Friends, and Trustees are aware of what and
how you are marketing online chat.
Include your promotional information on the library Website.3
Types of media you can use to get your message out to the public.
 Brochures
 Flyers or company-wide e-mails
 Reading lists and bibliographies
 Newsletters
 Annual reports
 Bookmarks
 Posters
 Schedules, calendars and directories
 Videos
 Webpage’s4