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NON-MENDELIAN GENETICS IT’S NOT ALWAYS DOMINANT AND Review of Simple Mendelian Genetics Law of Segregation: each gene has two different alleles that are separated when gametes form One allele goes to one gamete and the other allele to a different gamete Law of Independent Assortment: genes for different traits are inherited independently from each other Review of Simple Mendelian Genetics Dominant vs. Recessive alleles for a gene The dominant allele masks the recessive one, so you see the dominant trait (for RR or Rr) The only way to see a recessive trait is to have two recessive alleles (rr) Dominant allele is represented as a capital letter (R) Recessive allele is represented as a lowercase letter (r) UNFORTUNATELY, IT’S NOT ALL THAT EASY… Incomplete Dominance Sometimes neither allele is fully dominant over the other Incomplete Dominance: neither allele is dominant but combine and display a new trait that is a mixing of the two alleles Incomplete Dominance R’R’ RR RR’ RR RR’ RR’ R’R’ Incomplete Dominance In incomplete dominance, the two alleles are represented as Two capital letters, one with an apostrophe to indicate the different allele that is involved Ex. R (for the red allele) and R’ (for the white allele) When these two alleles come together, they portray a mixing of the two phenotypes! Codominance Other times both alleles are fully dominant Codominance: both alleles of a gene are dominant and the heterozygous phenotype has both traits equally expressed Codominance x BB WW BW Codominance In codominance the two alleles are represented as Two capital letters: Use the first letter of one trait (B for Brown) and the first letter of the other trait (W for White) When they come together as a heterozygote, both traits show as the phenotype Winter xgames? Let’s Stop and Think… Let’s say there are two alleles for the hair color trait- red and blue What would be the resulting phenotype of a heterozygous pair if the alleles showed codominance? A. B. C. D. Red Blue Purple Red and Blue patches Multiple Alleles Sometimes there are more than two alleles that govern the phenotype of a trait Multiple Alleles: the presence of more than two alleles for a genetic trait Multiple Alleles Blood Type Human blood type is governed by the presence of 3 different alleles: A B O However, each person only has 2 of these 3 alleles in their DNA ABO Blood Type Blood types follow both Codominant and simple Dominant inheritance The A allele and B allele are codominant with each other The A allele and B allele are both purely dominant over the O allele The O allele is recessive Which blood type are you if you have… AA Type A blood BB Type B blood AB Type AB blood AO Type A blood BO Type B blood OO Type O blood ABO Blood Types The blood type gene and alleles are represented differently than you have seen before The blood type gene is I For this I gene you can have the following alleles: For A: IA For B: IB For O: i Let’s stop and think… What are the two allele combinations you can have for type A blood? IAIA and Iai What are the two allele combinations you can have for type B blood? IBIB and IBi Let’s Stop and Think… What is the only allele combination you can have for type AB blood? IAIB What is the only allele combination you can have for type O blood? ii Sex-Linked Traits genes which are carried only on the sex chromosomes ex: red green color blindness 2:25 males 1:150 females Sex-Linked Traits Traits are usually not seen in women because it can be masked by another dominant gene on the other X-chromosome Female – XBXb Male – XbY But it is possible for it to happen in women! Color Blindness Test Can you see the letters and numbers in these squares? Hemophilia Polygenic Inheritance Sometimes traits are carried on more than one gene, making it difficult to tell if it’s dominant or recessive Examples: Skin color, height, body mass Polygenic Inheritance There’s often a wide range of phenotypes: you can be anywhere from 5’ to 7’ tall, there is no tall or short in humans! Human Height It’s often hard to tell where a person might get their height from Multiple Genes In this pattern there is more than one gene responsible for a single trait Makes it possible for many types of genotypes and phenotypes Continuous variation With simple patterns of inheritance like dom/rec, and incomplete dominance you It’sco-dominance very easy to distinguish each phenotype may only get a few phenotypes and each is distinct from one another. Imagine people with only these skin colors When there are multiple genes involved with a single trait you can expect more of a continuum of variation. This is more representative of human skin color Sorry Smurfs!