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Cornell
Note-taking
Geographic Regions of Georgia SS6G11b
8/28/09
SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and
location.
b. Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge
Mountains, Valley and Ridge, Appalachian Plateau, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain.
c. Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the
development of Georgia; include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian
Mountains, Chattahoochee and Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands.
(Two Column Notes)
Step 3: Record
Step 2: Recall
Essential
Question?
How would
you describe
the different
geographic
regions of
Georgia?
During lesson, take
notes here to record the
details relating to the
main idea.
•Skip lines to end one
idea and to start
another. Use
abbreviations (b/c,
gov., etc., lol) and
phrases
Step 4: summarize the ideas and facts
in as few words as possible include notes
about upcoming quizzes/tests
Warm-Up
1. Which statement BEST describes Georgia’s relative location?
A. Georgia is a northeastern state.
B. Georgia is located north of Florida
C. Georgia is located in the southwestern United States
D. Georgia is located between 30º and 35º N latitude and between 80º and 85º W
longitude.
2. How many states border Georgia?
A. 5
B. 6
C. 7
D. 8
3. What are the names of the states that border Georgia?
A. Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Tennessee, and South Carolina
B. Alabama, Arkansas, Tennessee, South Carolina, and Florida
C. Alabama, South Carolina, Florida, Tennessee, and North Carolina
D. Alabama, Mississippi, South Carolina, Florida, and North Carolina
4. Into which hemisphere does the prime meridian place Georgia?
A eastern hemisphere
B northern hemisphere
C southern hemisphere
D western hemisphere
The Regions of Georgia
© 2010 Clairmont Press
Geographic Regions of Georgia
SS8G1 The student will describe Georgia with regard to physical features and location.
b. Describe the five geographic regions of Georgia; include the Blue Ridge Mountains, Valley and
Ridge, Appalachian Plateau, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain.
c. Locate and evaluate the importance of key physical features on the development of Georgia;
include the Fall Line, Okefenokee Swamp, Appalachian Mountains, Chattahoochee and
Savannah Rivers, and barrier islands.
What is Physical Geography?
• Physical geography
• Physical geography focuses on understanding
the processes and pattern of natural
environment
Georgia has 5 physiogeographic regions.
• Appalachian Plateau
• Ridge and Valley
• Blue Ridge
• Piedmont
• Coastal Plain
The characteristics of each region make
unique contributions to our state.
Appalachian Plateau Region
aka: Cumberland Plateau/ TAG corner
• Smallest Region
• Appalachian Mountains stretch from
north Georgia into Canada (over
2000 miles).
• Among the oldest mountains in the
world; worn down by thousands of
years of erosion.
• The plateau region is the western
side of the Appalachian range. It is
known for high, scenic bluffs of
relative flat lands overlooking wide,
beautiful valleys.
• In northwest corner of Georgia and
part of the 80 mile-long Lookout
Mountain.
• Many caves due to limestone
underground.
• Coal and iron mined in the region.
• Cloudland Canyon State Park is in
this region.
7
Appalachian Plateau
aka: Cumberland Plateau/ TAG corner
•
•
•
•
•
Worn away by erosion
Northwest corner of Georgia
Ellison’s Cave is 12th largest
Coal fields and iron ore mines
Made up of old mountains
Ridge and Valley Region
• The Ridge and Valley region
has long ridges of mountains,
separated by long valleys.
• Chickamauga, Armuchee, and
Great Valley are important
valleys.
• Valleys have fertile land good
for farming.
• Roads and streams follow the
valleys. A few roads cross the
ridges to connect roads in the
valleys.
• Region is divided from the
mountains in the east by the
Carter’s Dam Fault.
9
Ridge and Valley
• Lower elevation than Appalachian Plateau
• Low open valleys and narrow ridges
• Soil good for forests, pastures, and crops such as
grain and apples (Ellijay)
• Industry includes textiles and carpet (Dalton is the
carpet capital of the world)
Ridge and Valley
•
•
•
•
Long ridge of mountains with long valleys
Chickamauga valley and the Great Valley
Divided by Cartersville Great Fault Valley
Fertile Farmland
Blue Ridge Mountains Region
• The Blue Ridge range is a part of the
larger Appalachian Mountains.
• The mountains are more rugged and
the valleys randomly arranged as
compared to the Ridge and Valley
region.
• Most roads follow the winding valleys.
• Elevations of 1,600 to 4,700 feet above
sea level give the region a cooler
climate.
• Brasstown Bald (4,784 feet) is tallest
mountain.
• Appalachian Trail begins here.
• Gold has been found in the region, and
marble is an important natural
resource.
• Tourists come to hike, view wildlife,
canoe, raft, and enjoy trees in their fall
colors.
12
Blue Ridge
• Highest mts. in the state including Brasstown
Bald- Georgia’s highest point.
• Provides water for the entire state through
precipitation from trapping warm moist Gulf air
• Sandy loam and clay soil good for hardwoods,
vegetable farming and apples
• Beginning of Appalachian Trail, home to Amicalola
Falls, Tallulah Gorge, and Helen
• See it while you can. Erosion continues to wear
down the height of the mountains.
Blue Ridge
Brasstown Bald is highest Point
North East Georgia
Stretches from VA to NE GA
Waterfalls and rapid streams
Hiking trail known as Appalachian Trail
1800’s gold was found
Cherokee Indians lived here until forced off their
land
Blue Ridge Images
Brasstown Bald: You can
see 3 states from this point.
Can you name them?
Ga. Fruits &
Vegetables
Helen, Georgia has a strong
German influence. Why do
you think that is? How does
the town of Helen contribute
to our state?
Amicalola Falls
Piedmont Region
• The Piedmont is known for its rolling
hills between the mountains and
Coastal Plain.
• Plentiful granite and clay soil with
fertile farms.
• Many Georgians live in the region.
• Rivers flow through the Piedmont,
including the Chattahoochee and
Savannah.
• Pine trees as well as hardwood forests
(oak, elm, maple, hickory, etc.).
• Southern boundary is the Fall Line.
• Changes in rock type cause the ground
to fall away, creating waterfalls at the
“fall” line across the state.
• Cities grew along the Fall Line since
ships could navigate from the Atlantic
to this point (Augusta: Savannah River;
Milledgeville: Oconee River; Macon:
Ocmulgee River; Columbus:
Chattahoochee River).
16
Piedmont: “Foot of the mountain”
• Begins in the mountain foothills of N. Georgia and
goes to the central part of the state.
• You live in the Piedmont region.
• Granite based foundation (What’s our largest granite
outcropping?)
• Soil is sandy loam and red clay suitable for growing
hardwoods, pine, and agriculture.
• Cotton belt before the Civil War, now wheat,
soybeans, corn, poultry, and cattle.
• Some of the most densely populated cities and
crossed by Chattahoochee, Flint, Ocmulgee, and
Oconee rivers.
Piedmont: “Foot of the mountain”
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Largest populated region
Rolling Hills
Red clay caused by iron oxide in the soil
Chattahoochee River flows through this region
Stone Mountain
Granite mines
Atlanta
Piedmont Images
Georgia’s Flint River
starts in Clayton County.
Why do you think most of
Georgia’s rivers start in the
Piedmont region?
Why do you think most of
Georgia’s major cities are
located in the Piedmont
region?
Sandy loam and
red clay are make
good soil for
agriculture.
Coastal Plain Region
• The Coastal Plain is in the southern half
of state and is the largest region.
• Region has underground limestone and
sandy soil.
• A part of the Floridan Aquifer
(underground water storage region)
which stores much fresh water.
• Lower coastal plain has Georgia’s barrier
islands, 100 miles of coastline, marshes,
and the Okefenokee Swamp.
• Flatland makes for highways that are
straight and level.
• Home to many types of wildlife.
• Farming is important to the region’s
economy.
• Longleaf pines grew above acres of
wiregrass before the 1800s; railroads
made it possible to transport large trees
for lumber. There are few of these areas
left.
• Loblolly and slash pines are grown in the
region today for lumber.
20
Coastal Plain Region
•
•
•
•
Largest Region in size
100 miles of coastline
Once covered by the Atlantic
Aquifers are the largest
source of fresh water
• Low, flat, marshland
• Okefenokee Swamp
21
Coastal Plain
There are two parts to
Georgia’s coastal plain:
•The Inner Coastal Plain
•The Outer Coastal Plain
Which color do you
think represents the
Inner Coastal Plain and
which color represents
the Outer Coastal Plain?
Why?
The Inner Coastal Plain
• Good supply of underground water
• Major agricultural region: Vidalia Onions,
peanuts, pecans, and corn
• Why do you think President Jimmy Carter was
known as “The Peanut Farmer from Georgia”
during his campaign?
The Outer Coastal Plain
• Soil not good for agriculture but trees provide
naval stores and pulp production
• Deep harbors and barrier islands also provide for
tourism/recreation, fishing industry, and ports
for importing/exporting goods.
• Location of the earliest visits by explorers, first
forts for protection, and Georgia’s first
settlements.
Outer Coastal Plain Images
Trees are used to
produce pulp and naval
stores. The processed goods
are then shipped from our
shores.
Why do you think a British
flag flies over Fort Frederica?
Our shores continue to
bring visitors to our
state.
Early map of Savannah
Other Important Coastal Plain Features
• Okefenokee Swamp:
– Covers 681 square miles making it the largest swamp
in North America
– Freshwater wetland (wetland: low-lying land area
where water lies close to the surface)
Another type of wetland
• Salt Marshes:
– A wetland that is influenced by tides
– Georgia ranks 4th in the nation in wetland acres
A marsh at low tide.
The same marsh at high tide.
Georgia’s Barrier Islands
“Islands of Gold”
• Barrier islands protect the mainland from wind,
sand, and water that cause erosion.
• Georgia has 18 barrier islands.
• These islands are tourist destinations but 2/3 of the
land remains wilderness sanctuaries.
Other Georgia Geographic Features
• Continental Shelf:
– Where the land meets the sea
• The Fall Line:
– Where hilly land meets the coastal plain
– Runs from Columbus through Macon to Augusta
– Prevented exploration but provided for settlements