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CAMPBELL
BIOLOGY
TENTH
EDITION
Reece • Urry • Cain • Wasserman • Minorsky • Jackson
42
Circulation and
Gas Exchange
Clicker Questions by
Roberta Batorsky
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of
a typical arthropod is the
a) intracellular fluid.
b) hemolymph.
c) blood plasma.
d) digestive juices.
e) cytosol.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The fluid that moves around in the circulatory system of
a typical arthropod is the
a) intracellular fluid.
b) hemolymph.
c) blood plasma.
d) digestive juices.
e) cytosol.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
An adaptive advantage of having a three-chambered heart,
as found in amphibians, over the two-chambered heart of
fish is that
a) there are capillary beds in both the respiratory organ and
body systems of amphibians but not fish.
b) the additional chamber in the amphibian heart reduces
blood flow to the respiratory organ.
c) fully oxygenated blood returning to the amphibian
heart can undergo additional pumping to reach
higher pressures.
d) fully oxygenated blood is kept completely separate from
relatively deoxygenated blood in the heart.
e) amphibians can tolerate higher environmental pressures.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
An adaptive advantage of having a three-chambered heart,
as found in amphibians, over the two-chambered heart of
fish is that
a) there are capillary beds in both the respiratory organ and
body systems of amphibians but not fish.
b) the additional chamber in the amphibian heart reduces
blood flow to the respiratory organ.
c) fully oxygenated blood returning to the amphibian
heart can undergo additional pumping to reach
higher pressures.
d) fully oxygenated blood is kept completely separate from
relatively deoxygenated blood in the heart.
e) amphibians can tolerate higher environmental pressures.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The normal contraction of specialized atrial cells results
from the activity of the _______, and the simultaneous
contraction of the left and right atria is due to the _______.
a) autorhythmic pacemaker cells; autorhythmic
pacemaker cells
b) gap junctions; gap junctions
c) autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous
system
d) autorhythmic pacemaker cells; gap junctions
e) gap junctions; autorhythmic pacemaker cells
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
The normal contraction of specialized atrial cells results
from the activity of the _______, and the simultaneous
contraction of the left and right atria is due to the _______.
a) autorhythmic pacemaker cells; autorhythmic
pacemaker cells
b) gap junctions; gap junctions
c) autonomic nervous system; somatic nervous
system
d) autorhythmic pacemaker cells; gap junctions
e) gap junctions; autorhythmic pacemaker cells
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
As in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Tell-Tale
Heart,” a heart can continue to beat after it is removed
from the body, because
a) pacemaker cells contract without input.
b) nerves in the heart fire without input.
c) hormones controlling heartbeat are released
spontaneously.
d) powerful ventricular contractions induce rebound
contractions.
e) pulsing of blood in the heart maintains the heartbeat.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
As in Edgar Allan Poe’s short story “The Tell-Tale
Heart,” a heart can continue to beat after it is removed
from the body, because
a) pacemaker cells contract without input.
b) nerves in the heart fire without input.
c) hormones controlling heartbeat are released
spontaneously.
d) powerful ventricular contractions induce rebound
contractions.
e) pulsing of blood in the heart maintains the heartbeat.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fluid is filtered from blood as it enters a capillary due to
the ________, but fluid is reabsorbed as the blood exits
a capillary due to the ________.
a) hydrostatic pressure from smooth muscle; cooler
temperatures in venous blood
b) osmotic pressure from high levels of sodium in
plasma but not extracellular fluid; osmotic pressure
from reversed levels of sodium in extracellular fluid
but not plasma
c) blood pressure from the heart; osmotic pressure
from proteins in the plasma
d) osmotic pressure from salts; hydrostatic pressure
from the veins
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Fluid is filtered from blood as it enters a capillary due to
the ________, but fluid is reabsorbed as the blood exits
a capillary due to the ________.
a) hydrostatic pressure from smooth muscle; cooler
temperatures in venous blood
b) osmotic pressure from high levels of sodium in
plasma but not extracellular fluid; osmotic pressure
from reversed levels of sodium in extracellular fluid
but not plasma
c) blood pressure from the heart; osmotic pressure
from proteins in the plasma
d) osmotic pressure from salts; hydrostatic pressure
from the veins
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concurrent flow is not as efficient in exchange as
countercurrent flow because the latter provides
a) more diffusion at the beginning of capillary flow than
midway through the capillary.
b) more diffusion at the end of capillary flow than
midway through the capillary.
c) adequate diffusion of gases across weaker
concentration gradients.
d) thinner capillary walls to promote diffusion.
e) greater surface area for diffusion.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Concurrent flow is not as efficient in exchange as
countercurrent flow because the latter provides
a) more diffusion at the beginning of capillary flow than
midway through the capillary.
b) more diffusion at the end of capillary flow than
midway through the capillary.
c) adequate diffusion of gases across weaker
concentration gradients.
d) thinner capillary walls to promote diffusion.
e) greater surface area for diffusion.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
After blood enters the right atrium, it enters the
a) right ventricle.
b) left atrium.
c) left ventricle.
d) aorta.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
After blood enters the right atrium, it enters the
a) right ventricle.
b) left atrium.
c) left ventricle.
d) aorta.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
When a girl goes running, her face begins to flush.
Which of the following is most likely responsible
for this?
a) systolic pressure
b) diastolic pressure
c) vasoconstriction
d) vasodilation
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
When a girl goes running, her face begins to flush.
Which of the following is most likely responsible
for this?
a) systolic pressure
b) diastolic pressure
c) vasoconstriction
d) vasodilation
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following have valves within them to
prevent blood backflow?
a) arteries
b) veins
c) capillaries
d) arterioles
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following have valves within them to
prevent blood backflow?
a) arteries
b) veins
c) capillaries
d) arterioles
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following organisms breathe through
tracheae?
a) segmented worms
b) bony fish
c) insects
d) birds
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Which of the following organisms breathe through
tracheae?
a) segmented worms
b) bony fish
c) insects
d) birds
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What percentage of individuals in the study group
had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?
a) about 17%
b) about 35%
c) about 58%
d) about 79%
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What percentage of individuals in the study group
had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?
a) about 17%
b) about 35%
c) about 58%
d) about 79%
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What percentage of individuals in the control group
had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?
a) about 5%
b) about 17%
c) about 40%
d) about 58%
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What percentage of individuals in the control group
had an LDL level below 100 mg/dL?
a) about 5%
b) about 17%
c) about 40%
d) about 58%
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Based on these two histograms, what conclusion can you
draw?
a) On average, individuals with increased PCSK9 enzyme
activity have higher plasma LDL levels than wild-type
individuals.
b) On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation
in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels
than wild-type individuals.
c) On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in
the PCSK9 gene have higher plasma LDL levels than
wild-type individuals.
d) The plasma LDL levels of individuals with an inactivating
mutation in the PCSK9 gene are about the same as those
of wild-type individuals.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Based on these two histograms, what conclusion can you
draw?
a) On average, individuals with increased PCSK9 enzyme
activity have higher plasma LDL levels than wild-type
individuals.
b) On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation
in the PCSK9 gene have lower plasma LDL levels
than wild-type individuals.
c) On average, individuals with an inactivating mutation in
the PCSK9 gene have higher plasma LDL levels than
wild-type individuals.
d) The plasma LDL levels of individuals with an inactivating
mutation in the PCSK9 gene are about the same as those
of wild-type individuals.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
How would you compare the risk for cardiovascular
disease between the study group and the control
group?
a) It is impossible to tell from the data.
b) The study group has the same risk as the control
group.
c) The study group has a lower risk than the control
group.
d) The study group has a higher risk than the control
group.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
How would you compare the risk for cardiovascular
disease between the study group and the control
group?
a) It is impossible to tell from the data.
b) The study group has the same risk as the control
group.
c) The study group has a lower risk than the control
group.
d) The study group has a higher risk than the control
group.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the best explanation for the fact that the two
histograms overlap as much as they do?
a) Many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme
activity affect plasma LDL levels.
b) PCSK9 enzyme activity varies widely among
individuals with an inactivating mutation in only
one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
c) The sample size of the study group is much
smaller than the sample size of the control group.
d) Plasma LDL levels are hard to measure precisely,
so the histograms show the spread around the
true value.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
What is the best explanation for the fact that the two
histograms overlap as much as they do?
a) Many factors in addition to PCSK9 enzyme
activity affect plasma LDL levels.
b) PCSK9 enzyme activity varies widely among
individuals with an inactivating mutation in only
one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
c) The sample size of the study group is much
smaller than the sample size of the control group.
d) Plasma LDL levels are hard to measure precisely,
so the histograms show the spread around the
true value.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Now consider two individuals with a plasma LDL level of 160
mg/dL, one from the study group and one from the control
group. What do you predict regarding their relative risk for
cardiovascular disease?
a) The risk of the wild-type individual is lower because wild-type
individuals had a lower average LDL level than individuals
with an inactivating mutation in one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
b) The risk of the individual from the study group is lower
because individuals with an inactivating mutation in one copy
of the PCSK9 gene had a lower average LDL level than wildtype individuals.
c) It is impossible to tell because the histograms overlap so
much.
d) Their risk is equal because their LDL levels are the same.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.
Now consider two individuals with a plasma LDL level of 160
mg/dL, one from the study group and one from the control
group. What do you predict regarding their relative risk for
cardiovascular disease?
a) The risk of the wild-type individual is lower because wild-type
individuals had a lower average LDL level than individuals
with an inactivating mutation in one copy of the PCSK9 gene.
b) The risk of the individual from the study group is lower
because individuals with an inactivating mutation in one copy
of the PCSK9 gene had a lower average LDL level than wildtype individuals.
c) It is impossible to tell because the histograms overlap so
much.
d) Their risk is equal because their LDL levels are the
same.
© 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.