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Transcript
Biology
Exam One
You can write on this exam. Please put a W on the top of this page if you do.
Multiple Choice Questions. Choose the answer that best answers or completes the question/statement. (2 pts. each)
1.
Life is organized in a hierarchical fashion. Which of the following sequences correctly lists that hierarchy as it increases in
complexity?
a. molecule, cell, tissue, organ, organ system, organism, population, community, ecosystem
b. ecosystem, population, organ system, cell, community, molecule, organ, organism, tissue
c. cell, molecule, organ system, organ, population, tissue, organism, ecosystem, community
d. organism, organ system, tissue, population, organ, community, cell, ecosystem, molecule
e. ecosystem, molecule, cell, tissue, organism, organ system, organ, community
2.
Organisms that are prokaryotes are in the domains:
a. Bacteria and Archaea
b. Plantae and Animalia
c. Eukarya and Archaea
d. Archaea and Plantae
e. Fungi and Bacteria
3.
Which of the following is a kingdom within the domain Eukarya?
a. Viruses
b. Monera
c. Fungi
d. Archaea
e. Bacteria
4.
If you are asked to look into a microscope to see a prokaryotic cell, you will be looking for a cell that ,
a. has a membrane bound nucleus.
b. does not use DNA as instructions to make proteins.
c. is much smaller than most cells in your body.
d. makes up most of the tissues of your body.
e. none of the above.
5.
Which of the following best demonstrates the unity among all living organisms?
a. descent with modification
b. the structure and function of DNA
c. natural selection
d. the three domains
e. emergent properties
6.
The ultimate source of energy flowing into nearly all ecosystems is _______________ .
a. wind
b. sunlight
c. electricity
d. geothermal vents
e. radioactivity
7.
A hypothesis is,
a. the same as a theory.
b. an explanatory idea that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence.
c. a widely accepted idea about a phenomenon.
d. a tentative answer to some question.
e. a widely accepted theory that is broad in scope and supported by a large body of evidence.
1
Biology
Exam One
8.
To be scientifically valid, a hypothesis must be _____________ .
a. phrased as a question
b. based on faith
c. controlled
d. reasonable
e. testable and falsifiable
9.
A transmission electron microscope,
a. is used to study the details of internal cell structure.
b. is used to study the details of cell surfaces.
c. is less powerful than the light microscope.
d. uses visible light to magnify a specimen.
e. is none of the above.
10. Which of the following statements about the properties of life is FALSE?
a. All organisms have a complex organization.
b. All organisms have the ability to take in energy and use it.
c. All organisms have the ability to respond to stimuli from the environment.
d. All organisms have the ability to reproduce.
e. All organisms have the ability to maintain a constant internal temperature.
11. A collection of organs working together to sustain life is called a(n)
a.
cell
b. tissue
c. organ
d. organ system
e. organism
12. The atomic number of an atom is equal to the________________ .
a.
b.
c.
13. If
a.
number of neutrons
number of neutrons & protons
number of protons only
16
d. average of the mass of all isotopes for that atom
e. valence shell electrons only
O has an atomic number of 8 it has______________neutrons.
8
b. 19
c. 10
d. 26
e. there is not enough information
14. What is the atomic mass of an atom that has 6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons?
a.
6
b. 8
c. +1
d. 12
e. 18
15. The numbers listed represent the number of electrons in the first, second and third energy levels respectively. On this basis, which
of the following is an unstable (reactive) atom?
a.
2,8,1
b.2,8
c.2
d.2,8,8
e.There is not enough information
16. You now know that the old cliché "oil and water don't mix" is true. Why?
a. Oil exhibits polarity and water does not.
b. Water exhibits polarity and oil does not.
c. Oil is hydrophilic.
d. Water is hydrophobic.
e. Oil is an organic compound and water is not.
17. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that contain varying numbers of,
a.
neutrons
b. protons
c. electrons
d. orbitals
e. none of the above
2
Biology
Exam One
18. Cholesterol and vitamin D are examples of __________.
a.
steroids
b. lipids
c. nucleic acids
d. proteins
e. a and b
19. Nonpolar covalent bonds are formed when,
a. valence shell electrons are unequally shared.
b. atoms involved in a bond have an extreme difference in electronegativity.
c. valence shell electrons are equally shared.
d. valence shell electrons are transferred from one atom to another.
e. positively charged ions are formed.
20. Which of the following statements best describes the structure of an atom?
a. Electrons and neutrons circle around the nucleus while protons are in the nucleus.
b. Protons and neutrons circle around the atomic nucleus & electrons are in the nucleus.
c. Protons are in the nucleus, while neutrons and electrons circulate outside of the atomic nucleus.
d. Protons and neutrons are in the nucleus while electrons circulate outside of the nucleus.
e. None of the above
21. The octet rule in chemistry states that,
a. elements cannot be broken down into smaller units.
b. only eight electrons can occupy the first orbital shell.
c. whenever eight atoms are interacting the chemical reaction proceeds quickly than if there are fewer atoms interacting.
d. atoms interact with one another in order to have eight electrons in their valence shell.
e. the 8th electron to be donated from an atom is the most reactive.
22. What is the fundamental difference between covalent and ionic bonding?
a. In a covalent bond, the partners have identical electronegativity; in an ionic bond, one of them is more electronegative.
b. In a covalent bond, the partners share a pair of electrons; in an ionic bond, one partner accepts electrons from the other.
c. Covalent bonding involves only the outermost electron shell; ionic bonding also involves the next electron shell inside the
outermost shell.
d. Covalent bonds form between atoms of the same element; ionic bonds form between atoms of different.
e. None of the above
23. Glucose is an example of a(n)__________.
a.
monosaccharide
b. disaccharide
c. polysaccharide
d. lipid
e. protein
24. Examine the chemical BaCl2 barium chloride, which of the following statements about it is TRUE?
a. it is a protein
b. it is a phospholipid
c. it is a nucleic acid
d. it is an organic compound
e. it is an inorganic compound
25. Which of the following terms includes all others in the list?
a. monosaccharide
b. disaccharide
c. starch
d. carbohydrate
e. polysaccharide
26. Which of the following constitutes a polymer of amino acids?
a.
monosaccharide
b. polysaccharide
c. protein
d. nucleic acid
e. lipid
3
Biology
Exam One
27. Select the most correct statement regarding nucleic acids.
a. Three forms exist: DNA, RNA, and mDNA
b. DNA is a long, double-stranded molecule made up of A,T,G, and C bases.
c. RNA is a long, single-stranded molecule made up of the bases A,T,G, and C.
d. RNA is a long, double stranded molecule made up the bases U, T, G, and C
e. None of the above
28. What is the ratio of fatty acids to glycerol in triglycerides?
a.
1:1
b. 2:1
c. 3:1
d. 4:1
e. 6:1
29. Which of the following statements about phospholipids is TRUE?
a. they are entirely hydrophobic
d. they are the main source of energy in the body
b. they have hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
e. they are important for energy storage in the body
c. they are a type of cholesterol
30. Amino acids joining together to make a polypeptide is a good example of a(n) ___________ reaction.
a.
exchange
b. reversible
c. decomposition
d. dehydration synthesis
e. hydrolysis
31. Which of the following statements about enzymes is FALSE?
a. They increase the rate of chemical reactions.
b. They function as chemical catalysts.
c. They regulate virtually all chemical reactions in a cell.
d. They are produced by cells.
e. They are monomers used to build proteins.
32. Which of the following is an amino group?
a.
–OH
b. –NH2
c. –COOH
d. –SH
e. –CO
33. Which of the following contains only polysaccharides?
a. sucrose, starch, and cellulose
b. starch, amino acids, and glycogen
c. cellulose, starch, and glycogen
d. nucleotides, glycogen, and cellulose
e. fructose,
34. In a water molecule, hydrogen and oxygen are held together by a(n) ____________ bond.
a. adhesion
b. ionic
c. nonpolar covalent
d. hydrogen
e. polar covalent
35. The tendency of water molecules to stick to other charged surfaces (like the sides of a beaker) is referred to as
a.
adhesion
b. polarity
c. cohesion
d. transpiration
e. evaporation
36. A shortage of phosphorus in the soil would make it especially difficult for a plant to manufacture,
a.
DNA
b. proteins
c. cellulose
d. fatty acids
e. sucrose
4
Biology
Exam One
37. Which of the following statements regarding nucleotides is FALSE?
a. Nucleotides have a nitrogenous base backbone.
b. Nucleotides contain sugar molecules.
c. Nucleotides contain phosphate groups.
d. Nucleotides can be linked together to form nucleic acids.
e. Nucleotides contain nitrogenous bases.
38. Amino acids all have a similar structure. Which of the following components of amino acid structure varies from one amino acid
to another?
a. the alpha carbon
b. the amine group (-NH2)
c. the proton
d. the acid group (-COOH)
e. the R group
39. A gene is best defined as,
a. a polypeptide
b. a sequence of monosaccharides
c. a discreet unit of DNA
d. a nitrogenous base, a pentose sugar and a phosphate group
e. none of the above
40. The membranous compartmentalization of a cell
a. divides the cell into two equal-sized halves
b. allows different metabolic processes to occur simultaneously.
c. requires the presence of a cell wall
d. requires the presence of a large central vacuole
e. is common in prokaryotes and eukaryotes
41. Which of the following statements about the plasma membrane is TRUE?
a. it is involved in processing proteins
b. the plasma membrane lacks proteins
c. the plasma membrane regulates what enters into the cell
d. it is a bilayer of lipids
e. c and d
42. What type of cellular junctions need to be present in order to prevent fluids from leaking between cells?
a. gap junction
d. intermediate filaments
b. desmosomes
e. microtubules
c. tight junction
43. The diameter of most animal and plant cells ranges from
a. 0.01 to 0.1 micrometers.
b. 0.1 to 1.0 micrometers.
c. 1.0 to 10 micrometers.
d. 10 to 100 micrometers.
e. 100 to 1000 micrometers.
44. Which of the following cells has the greatest surface-to-volume ratio?
a. bacterium
b. human red blood cell
c. human muscle cell
d. frog egg
e. ostrich egg
5
Biology
Exam One
45. You are told that the cells on a microscope slide are plant, animal, or bacterial. You look at them through a microscope and see
cell walls and membrane-bound organelles. You conclude correctly that the cells
a. are plant cells.
b. are animal cells.
c. are bacterial cells.
d. could be either plant or bacterial cells.
e. could be plant, animal, or bacterial cells.
46. Mitochondria differ from chloroplasts in that mitochondria
a. convert solar energy to chemical energy, whereas chloroplasts convert one form of chemical energy to another.
b. contain three different membrane-bound compartments, whereas chloroplasts contain two.
c. contain membrane folds called cristae, whereas chloroplasts contain disk-like vesicles in stacks called grana.
d. are not found in plants, whereas chloroplasts are not found in animals.
e. produce glucose, whereas chloroplasts break glucose down.
Matching. Choose the term on the right that matches the description on the left (1.5 pts. each).
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
responsible for protein synthesis__ ___
produces ATP for the cell__ ___
a system of cisternae involved in the modification and sorting of proteins ___ __
contains most of the genetic material___ __
regulates the movement of materials into and out of a cell___ __
a. plasma membrane
b. mitochondria
c. ribosome
d. nucleus
e. golgi apparatus
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
system of fibers that maintains cell shape, and aids in cell motility__ ___
fluid medium between the nucleus and the plasma membrane___ __
connection between cells that helps certain tissues withstand mechanical forces__ ____
hair like extensions of the plasma membrane that help a cell move substances along its’ surface__ __
a system of cisternae involved in building most proteins in a cell___ __
a. cilia
b. desmosomes
c. endoplasmic reticulum
d. cytoskeleton
e. cytoplasm
True/False. If any portion of the statement is false, the entire statement is false (1.5 pts. each).
A=True
B=False
57. Cl- is an example of a cation. (T/F)
58. Hydrogen bonds are the strongest type of chemical bond. (T/F)
59. Anions are formed when an atom loses one or more electrons. (T/F)
60. Potential energy is stored or inactive energy, associated with position or location.(T/F)
61. All four nitrogenous bases found in DNA are also found in RNA. (T/F)
62. Glucose is a monosaccharide and a carbohydrate. (T/F)
63. In hydrolysis, a molecule of water is lost while monomers are covalently bonded to one another. (T/F)
64. A population is all the individuals of a species within a specific area. (T/F)
65. By studying a biological structure, you determine what it does and how it works. (T/F)
66. Life emerges at the level of the cell, the lower tier, which is composed of molecules, cells and organelles. (T/F)
67. Consumers are photosynthetic organisms that provide food. (T/F)
68. The nitrogenous bases in the center of the DNA molecule are held together by hydrogen bonds. (T/F)
6