Download Definition Application of science to criminal and civil laws

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts

Forensic firearm examination wikipedia, lookup

Forensic facial reconstruction wikipedia, lookup

Digital forensics wikipedia, lookup

Forensic epidemiology wikipedia, lookup

Forensic anthropology wikipedia, lookup

Forensic entomology and the law wikipedia, lookup

Forensic entomology wikipedia, lookup

Forensic accountant wikipedia, lookup

Forensic chemistry wikipedia, lookup

Forensic linguistics wikipedia, lookup

Transcript
Chapter 1
Introduction
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 1
Definition
• Application of science to criminal and
civil laws
• Application of science to those criminal
and civil laws
• Enforced by police agencies in a criminal
justice system
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 2
History and Development of
Forensic Science
Important Names
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 3
History
• Mathieu Orfila—the father of forensic
toxicology.
• Alphonse Bertillion—devised the first
scientific system of personal identification
in 1879.
• Francis Galton—conducted the first
definitive study of fingerprints and their
classification.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 4
History
• Leone Lattes—developed a procedure to
determine blood type from dried
bloodstains.
• Calvin Goddard—used a comparison
microscope to determine if a particular
gun fired a bullet.
• Albert Osborn—developed the fundamental
principles of document examination.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 5
Figure 1–1 Bertillon’s system of
bodily measurements as used for
the identification of an individual.
Courtesy Sirchie Finger Print
Laboratories, Inc., Youngsville,
N.C., www.sirchie.com.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 6
History
• Walter McCrone—utilized microscopy and
other analytical methodologies to
examine evidence.
• Hans Gross—wrote the first treatise
describing the application of scientific
principles to the field of criminal
investigation.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 7
History
• Edmond Locard—incorporared Gross’
principles within a workable crime
laboratory.
• Locard’s Exchange Principle—states that
when a criminal comes in contact with an
object or person, a cross-transfer of
evidence occurs.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 8
The Crime Lab
• Rapid growth
• Lack of national and regional
planning and coordination.
• Approximately 350 public crime
laboratories
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1- 9
The Crime Lab
• Result of:
– Supreme court decisions in the 1960s
• Greater emphasis on scientifically
evaluated evidence
– Drug specimens
• Accelerated drug abuse
– DNA profiling
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-10
Employment Outlook
• Increased reliance by police
agencies on civilian personnel
• Highly-sophisticated scientific
analysis of evidence
• DNA databank of convicted
offenders (state & national)
• Re-opening of old cases
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-11
Crime Lab Organization
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-12
Five Basic Services
– Physical science unit:
• Chemistry
• Physics
• Geology
• Identify and compare physical
evidence
– Biology unit:
• Blood samples
• Body fluids
• Hair
• Fiber samples
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-13
Five Basic Services
– Firearms Unit:
• Discharged bullets
• Cartridge cases
• Shotgun shells
• Ammunition
– Document unit:
• Handwriting analysis
• Other questioned-document
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-14
Technical Support
– Photographic Unit:
• Specialized photographic techniques
• Record and examine physical evidence
– Optional services
•
•
•
•
•
Toxicology
Fingerprint analysis
Voiceprint analysis
Evidence collection
Polygraph administration
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-15
Functions of the Forensic
Scientist
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-16
Job Activities: analysis
• Biological and physical analysis of
evidence gathered from a crime or
accident scene
• Judicial “generally accepted” (Frye
v. US)
• Trial judge as gatekeeper
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-17
Job Activities: testimony
•
•
•
•
•
Court testimony
“Expert” witness
Evaluation of evidence
Opinion offered
No absolute certainty
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-18
The Frye Standard
• Set guidelines for determining the
admissibility of scientific evidence into
the courtroom
• Must be “generally accepted” by the
scientific community
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-19
Daubert Criteria
•
•
•
•
•
Technique/theory tested
Peer reviewed
Rate of error
Standards for operation
Widespread acceptance within
scientific community
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-20
Job Activities: training
• Training in recognition, collection
and preservation of evidence
• Agencies without 24/7 evidence
techs
• Officers trained
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-21
Special Forensic Science
Services
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-22
Additional Specialization
• DNA analysis
– Human
– Non human
• Criminalistics
• Latent prints
• Pollen
• Arson
• Engineering
sciences
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
• Physical
anthropology
• Psychiatry
• Pathology
• Odontology
• Toxicology
• Entomology
• Geology
• Jurisprudence
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-23
Figure 1–8 Typical blowfly life cycle from egg deposition to adult fly emergence.
This cycle is representative of any one of the nearly ninety species of blowflies in
North America. Courtesy E. P. Catts, Ph.D., deceased, and Neal H. Haskell,
Ph.D., forensic entomology consultant www.forensic-entomology.com.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-24
Forensic Pathology
• Investigation of unnatural,
unexplained, or violent deaths
• Medical examiners or coroners
• Determines cause of death
• Conducts autopsy
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-25
Stages Of Death
• Rigor mortis
– Shortening of muscle tissue
– Stiffening of body parts in the position at
death
– First 24 hours to 36 hours post mortem
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-26
Stages Of Death
– Livor mortis
• Settling of blood in areas of the
body closest to the ground
• Begins immediately on death and
continues up to 12 hours
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-27
Stages Of Death
– Algor mortis
• Loss of heat by a body
• Begins about an hour after death
• Loses heat by 1 to 1-1/2 degrees
fahrenheit per hour until the body
reaches the environmental
temperature
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-28
Summary
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-29
• 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial
killer who was convicted on the basis of
which type of forensic evidence?
• A. Bite marks
C. DNA
fingerprinting
• B. Latent fingerprints
D. Ballistics
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-30
Answer #1
• 1. Ted Bundy was an American serial
killer who was convicted on the basis of
which type of forensic evidence?
• A. Bite marks
• B. Latent fingerprints
• C. DNA fingerprinting
• D. Ballistics
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-31
• 2. The time of death can be calculated by
various means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for
'the stiffness of death'. Another indication is
livor mortis or lividity. What does this term
refer to?
• A. Cloudiness in the eyes
• B. Gravitational pooling of blood
• C. Degree of digestion of stomach contents
• D. Relaxation of muscles following to rigor
mortis
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-32
Answer #2
• 2. The time of death can be calculated by various
means. One is rigor mortis, Latin for 'the stiffness of
death'. Another indication is livor mortis or lividity.
What does this term refer to?
• A. Cloudiness in the eyes
• B. Gravitational pooling of blood
• C. Degree of digestion of stomach contents
• D. Relaxation of muscles following to rigor mortis
Livor is Latin for 'a black and blue spot' and refers to
the discoloration of the skin in the lowest part of a body
resulting from the gravitational pooling of blood.
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-33
• 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton,
craniofacial morphology (the structure and
form of the skull and face) is the best indicator
of race. One group of human beings has a
unique, rounded jaw bone which is called a
'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which
ethnic group?
• A. Australian Aborigines
C. African
Americans
• B. Chinese
D. Hawaiians
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-34
Answer #3
• 3. When attempting to identify a skeleton, craniofacial
morphology (the structure and form of the skull and
face) is the best indicator of race. One group of human
beings has a unique, rounded jaw bone which is called
a 'rocker jaw'. This is a characteristic of which ethnic
group?
• A. Australian Aborigines
C. African
Americans
• B. Chinese
D. Hawaiians
CRIMINALISTICS
An Introduction to Forensic Science, 9/E
By Richard Saferstein
PRENTICE HALL
©2007 Pearson Education, Inc.
Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458
1-35