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```Periodic groups with given element orders
V. D. Mazurov
Sobolev Institute of Mathematics
Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences
Novosibirsk, November 2012
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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A group G is said to be periodic if the order of every element of G is
finite, i.e., for every g ∈ G, there exist a natural n (depending on g) such
that g n = 1.
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A group G is said to be periodic if the order of every element of G is
finite, i.e., for every g ∈ G, there exist a natural n (depending on g) such
that g n = 1.
Every finite group is periodic, but there exist many periodic groups
which are infinite.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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A group G is said to be periodic if the order of every element of G is
finite, i.e., for every g ∈ G, there exist a natural n (depending on g) such
that g n = 1.
Every finite group is periodic, but there exist many periodic groups
which are infinite.
If there exists a common natural n such that xn = 1 for every x ∈ G
then the smallest such n is called the exponent of G.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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A group G is said to be periodic if the order of every element of G is
finite, i.e., for every g ∈ G, there exist a natural n (depending on g) such
that g n = 1.
Every finite group is periodic, but there exist many periodic groups
which are infinite.
If there exists a common natural n such that xn = 1 for every x ∈ G
then the smallest such n is called the exponent of G.
A group G is said to be locally finite if every finite subset of G generates
a finite subgroup. Every finite group is, of course, locally finite, and
every locally finite group is periodic, but not every periodic group is
locally finite.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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A history of research of periodic groups with prescribed element orders
starts with the famous work of W. Burnside [On an unsettled question
in the theory of discontinuous groups // Quart. J. Pure Appl.
Math.—1902.—Vol. 37.—P. 230–238] where he firstly stated his known
problems.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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A history of research of periodic groups with prescribed element orders
starts with the famous work of W. Burnside [On an unsettled question
in the theory of discontinuous groups // Quart. J. Pure Appl.
Math.—1902.—Vol. 37.—P. 230–238] where he firstly stated his known
problems.
In particular, he posed a question on conditions which guarantee that a
group of given bounded exponent is locally finite.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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19
A history of research of periodic groups with prescribed element orders
starts with the famous work of W. Burnside [On an unsettled question
in the theory of discontinuous groups // Quart. J. Pure Appl.
Math.—1902.—Vol. 37.—P. 230–238] where he firstly stated his known
problems.
In particular, he posed a question on conditions which guarantee that a
group of given bounded exponent is locally finite.
Burnside noted an obvious fact that a group of exponent 2 is locally
finite (in fact, it is commutative), and showed that this is also true for
groups of exponent 3
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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19
A history of research of periodic groups with prescribed element orders
starts with the famous work of W. Burnside [On an unsettled question
in the theory of discontinuous groups // Quart. J. Pure Appl.
Math.—1902.—Vol. 37.—P. 230–238] where he firstly stated his known
problems.
In particular, he posed a question on conditions which guarantee that a
group of given bounded exponent is locally finite.
Burnside noted an obvious fact that a group of exponent 2 is locally
finite (in fact, it is commutative), and showed that this is also true for
groups of exponent 3
He also proved that in groups of exponent 3 every couple of conjugate
elements commute, i. e. in such groups the 2-Engel identity [[y, x], x] = 1
holds where [x, y] = x−1 y −1 xy.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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19
A history of research of periodic groups with prescribed element orders
starts with the famous work of W. Burnside [On an unsettled question
in the theory of discontinuous groups // Quart. J. Pure Appl.
Math.—1902.—Vol. 37.—P. 230–238] where he firstly stated his known
problems.
In particular, he posed a question on conditions which guarantee that a
group of given bounded exponent is locally finite.
Burnside noted an obvious fact that a group of exponent 2 is locally
finite (in fact, it is commutative), and showed that this is also true for
groups of exponent 3
He also proved that in groups of exponent 3 every couple of conjugate
elements commute, i. e. in such groups the 2-Engel identity [[y, x], x] = 1
holds where [x, y] = x−1 y −1 xy.
In a sequel [Burnside W. On groups in which every two conjugate
operations are permutable // Proc. London Math.
Soc.—1902.—Vol. 35.—P. 28–37] of this work Burnside proved that every
2-Engel group satisfies the identities [[x, y], z] = [[y, z], x] and
[[x, y], z]3 = 1, thus it is nilpotent of nilpotency class 2 (this means that
the identity [[x, y], z] = 1 holds), in the case when it has no elements of
Novosibirsk, November 2012
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V. D. Mazurov
(Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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order
3.
Apparently, C. Hopkins [Hopkins C. Finite groups in which conjugate
operations are commutative // Amer. J.
Math.—1929.—Vol. 51.—P.35–41.] was first to prove that a 2-Engel group
is nilpotent of class 3, in particular such are groups of exponent 3.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Apparently, C. Hopkins [Hopkins C. Finite groups in which conjugate
operations are commutative // Amer. J.
Math.—1929.—Vol. 51.—P.35–41.] was first to prove that a 2-Engel group
is nilpotent of class 3, in particular such are groups of exponent 3.
This result is usually ascribed to F. Levi [Levi F. V. Groups in which the
commutator operations satisfy certain algebraic conditions // J. Indian
Math. Soc.—1942.—Vol. 6.—P.166–170], although he published his work
13 years later than Hopkins.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Apparently, C. Hopkins [Hopkins C. Finite groups in which conjugate
operations are commutative // Amer. J.
Math.—1929.—Vol. 51.—P.35–41.] was first to prove that a 2-Engel group
is nilpotent of class 3, in particular such are groups of exponent 3.
This result is usually ascribed to F. Levi [Levi F. V. Groups in which the
commutator operations satisfy certain algebraic conditions // J. Indian
Math. Soc.—1942.—Vol. 6.—P.166–170], although he published his work
13 years later than Hopkins.
In 1932 Levi and B. van der Waerden [Levi F., van der Waerden B. Über
eine besondere Klasse von Gruppen // Abh. Math. Semin., Hamburg
Univ.—1932.—Vol. 9.—P. 157–158.] repeated Burnside’s result that a
group of exponent 3 is 2-Engel.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Apparently, C. Hopkins [Hopkins C. Finite groups in which conjugate
operations are commutative // Amer. J.
Math.—1929.—Vol. 51.—P.35–41.] was first to prove that a 2-Engel group
is nilpotent of class 3, in particular such are groups of exponent 3.
This result is usually ascribed to F. Levi [Levi F. V. Groups in which the
commutator operations satisfy certain algebraic conditions // J. Indian
Math. Soc.—1942.—Vol. 6.—P.166–170], although he published his work
13 years later than Hopkins.
In 1932 Levi and B. van der Waerden [Levi F., van der Waerden B. Über
eine besondere Klasse von Gruppen // Abh. Math. Semin., Hamburg
Univ.—1932.—Vol. 9.—P. 157–158.] repeated Burnside’s result that a
group of exponent 3 is 2-Engel.
They also proved that the order of a group of exponent 3 with d
generators is at most 3k , where
k = (6d + 3d(d − 1) + d(d − 1)(d − 2))/6.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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For convenience in listing further results which are tied with our topic,
we set for a group G the following notations:
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For convenience in listing further results which are tied with our topic,
we set for a group G the following notations:
ω(G) = {n | G has an element of order n} is a spectrum of a group G;
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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For convenience in listing further results which are tied with our topic,
we set for a group G the following notations:
ω(G) = {n | G has an element of order n} is a spectrum of a group G;
µ(G) is a set of maximal by divisibility elements of spectrum of G.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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For convenience in listing further results which are tied with our topic,
we set for a group G the following notations:
ω(G) = {n | G has an element of order n} is a spectrum of a group G;
µ(G) is a set of maximal by divisibility elements of spectrum of G.
A group of period n is a group where the identity xn = 1 holds, and a
group of nilpotency class n is a group in which the equality
−1
[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 ] = 1 holds, where [x1 , x2 ] = x−1
1 x2 x1 x2 and
[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 ] = [[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ], xn+1 ] for n > 2. In this sense
2-group of exponent 2 is nilpotent of class 2 and of period 36.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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For convenience in listing further results which are tied with our topic,
we set for a group G the following notations:
ω(G) = {n | G has an element of order n} is a spectrum of a group G;
µ(G) is a set of maximal by divisibility elements of spectrum of G.
A group of period n is a group where the identity xn = 1 holds, and a
group of nilpotency class n is a group in which the equality
−1
[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 ] = 1 holds, where [x1 , x2 ] = x−1
1 x2 x1 x2 and
[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn+1 ] = [[x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ], xn+1 ] for n > 2. In this sense
2-group of exponent 2 is nilpotent of class 2 and of period 36.
We say that a group G acts freely on a nontrivial group V , if v g 6= v for
any nontrivial v ∈ V and g ∈ G.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Groups with prescribed spectrum
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Groups with prescribed spectrum
In 1937 B. Neumann [Neumann B. H. Groups whose elements have
bounded orders // J. London Math. Soc.—1937.—Vol. 12.—P. 195–198]
saw it natural to investigate groups with prescribed spectrum. In
particular, he proved that a group G with µ(G) = {2, 3} is locally finite
and soluble of length 2. More precisely, such group is an extension of an
elementary abelian p-group V by a cyclic q-group acting freely on V .
Here {p, q} = {2, 3}.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Groups with prescribed spectrum
In 1937 B. Neumann [Neumann B. H. Groups whose elements have
bounded orders // J. London Math. Soc.—1937.—Vol. 12.—P. 195–198]
saw it natural to investigate groups with prescribed spectrum. In
particular, he proved that a group G with µ(G) = {2, 3} is locally finite
and soluble of length 2. More precisely, such group is an extension of an
elementary abelian p-group V by a cyclic q-group acting freely on V .
Here {p, q} = {2, 3}.
The fact that a group G with µ(G) ⊆ {3, 4} is locally finite was proved
by I. N. Sanov in 1940 [In Russian: Solution of Burnside problem for
period 4 // Sci. Notes of Leingrad Stats University. Math. Ser.
—1940.—Vol. 10, no. 55.—P. 166–170].
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Groups with prescribed spectrum
In 1937 B. Neumann [Neumann B. H. Groups whose elements have
bounded orders // J. London Math. Soc.—1937.—Vol. 12.—P. 195–198]
saw it natural to investigate groups with prescribed spectrum. In
particular, he proved that a group G with µ(G) = {2, 3} is locally finite
and soluble of length 2. More precisely, such group is an extension of an
elementary abelian p-group V by a cyclic q-group acting freely on V .
Here {p, q} = {2, 3}.
The fact that a group G with µ(G) ⊆ {3, 4} is locally finite was proved
by I. N. Sanov in 1940 [In Russian: Solution of Burnside problem for
period 4 // Sci. Notes of Leingrad Stats University. Math. Ser.
—1940.—Vol. 10, no. 55.—P. 166–170].
Later D. V. Lytkina [In Russian: Structure of a group whose element
orders are at most 4 // Siberian Math. J.—2007.—Vol. 48,
no. 2.—P. 353–358] described the structure of a group G with
µ(G) = {3, 4}.
She proved that G is soluble of length at most 3 and only one of the
following cases is possible:
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Periodic groups with given element orders
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(a) G = V Q, where V is a non-trivial normal elementary abelian
3-subgroup, Q is a 2-group, acting freely on V , and is isomorphic either
to a cyclic group of order 4, or to quaternion group of order 8;
(b) G = T hai, where T is a normal nilpotent 2-subgroup of nilpotency
class 2, and the order of a equals 3;
(c) G = T S, where T is an elementary abelian normal 2-subgroup, and S
is isomorphic to a symmetric group of degree 3.
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Periodic groups with given element orders
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(a) G = V Q, where V is a non-trivial normal elementary abelian
3-subgroup, Q is a 2-group, acting freely on V , and is isomorphic either
to a cyclic group of order 4, or to quaternion group of order 8;
(b) G = T hai, where T is a normal nilpotent 2-subgroup of nilpotency
class 2, and the order of a equals 3;
(c) G = T S, where T is an elementary abelian normal 2-subgroup, and S
is isomorphic to a symmetric group of degree 3.
For a finite group of period 4 its solubility length grows unlimited with
the number of generators growth [Razmyslov Yu. P. Hall-Higman’s
Problem // Proc. Academy of Sci. USSR. Math. Ser.—1978.—Vol. 42,
no. 4.—P. 833–847.]
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Groups of period 6
In 1956 a famous article by P. Hall and G. Higman [Hall P., Higman G.
[On the p-length of p-soluble groups and reduction theorems for
Burnside’s problem // Proc. London Math. Soc.—1956.—Vol. 6,
№ 3.—P. 1–42] was issued, and it equipped mathematicians with new
powerfull tools for exploration of finite groups.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Groups of period 6
In 1956 a famous article by P. Hall and G. Higman [Hall P., Higman G.
[On the p-length of p-soluble groups and reduction theorems for
Burnside’s problem // Proc. London Math. Soc.—1956.—Vol. 6,
№ 3.—P. 1–42] was issued, and it equipped mathematicians with new
powerfull tools for exploration of finite groups.
In particular, it moved M. Hall to write down his work [Hall M. Solution
of the Burnside problem for exponent six // Illinois J.
Math.—1958.—Vol. 2.—P. 764–786], where he proved that a group of
period 6 is locally finite.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Groups of period 6
In 1956 a famous article by P. Hall and G. Higman [Hall P., Higman G.
[On the p-length of p-soluble groups and reduction theorems for
Burnside’s problem // Proc. London Math. Soc.—1956.—Vol. 6,
№ 3.—P. 1–42] was issued, and it equipped mathematicians with new
powerfull tools for exploration of finite groups.
In particular, it moved M. Hall to write down his work [Hall M. Solution
of the Burnside problem for exponent six // Illinois J.
Math.—1958.—Vol. 2.—P. 764–786], where he proved that a group of
period 6 is locally finite.
This result together with results from the article by Hall and Higman
imply that all such groups are soluble of length at most 4, and the order
of a d-generated group of period 6 is at most
2a 3b+b(b−1)/2+b(b−1)(b−2)/6 ,
where
a = 1 + (d − 1)3d+d(d−1)/2+d(d−1)(d−2)/6 ,
b = 1 + (d − 1)2d ,
and
this
bound
is exact.Periodic groups with given element orders Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D.
Mazurov
(Novosibirsk)
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Note that later M. Newman [Newman M. F. Groups of exponent six //
Computational group theory (Durham, 1982), London: Academic
Press.—1984.—P. 39–41] shortened essentially Hall’s proof, reducing it to
some statement which he checked with the help of a computer.
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Note that later M. Newman [Newman M. F. Groups of exponent six //
Computational group theory (Durham, 1982), London: Academic
Press.—1984.—P. 39–41] shortened essentially Hall’s proof, reducing it to
some statement which he checked with the help of a computer.
I. G. Lysenok [In Russian: Lysenok I. G. A proof of M. Hall on the
finiteness of groups B(m, 6) // Math. Notes—1987.—Vol. 41,
no. 3.—P. 422–428] in 1987 delivered Mewman’s proof of computer
computations.
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Negative solution
In 1959 P. S. Novikov [In Russian: On periodic groups // Reports of
Academy Sciences of USSR—1959.—Vol. 127.—P. 749–752] announced
the existence of infinite, finitely generated periodic groups of finite
period. On the ground of this note Novikov and S. I. Adian in 1968
wrote a big article [On infinite periodic groupI // Izvestiya:
Mathematics—1968.—Vol. 32—P. 212–244; 251-524; 709-731] with a proof
that there exists a m-generated group of period n for every m > 2 and
every odd n > 4381. In the book of Adian [In Russian: Adian S. I.
Burnside Problem and Identities in Groups.—Moscow: Nauka, 1975], the
bound n > 4381 was decreased to n > 665.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Negative solution
In 1959 P. S. Novikov [In Russian: On periodic groups // Reports of
Academy Sciences of USSR—1959.—Vol. 127.—P. 749–752] announced
the existence of infinite, finitely generated periodic groups of finite
period. On the ground of this note Novikov and S. I. Adian in 1968
wrote a big article [On infinite periodic groupI // Izvestiya:
Mathematics—1968.—Vol. 32—P. 212–244; 251-524; 709-731] with a proof
that there exists a m-generated group of period n for every m > 2 and
every odd n > 4381. In the book of Adian [In Russian: Adian S. I.
Burnside Problem and Identities in Groups.—Moscow: Nauka, 1975], the
bound n > 4381 was decreased to n > 665.
Existance of non locally finite groups of finite period of the shape 2t was
announced in 1992 independantly by S. V. Ivanov and Lysenok. Their
works [Ivanov S. V. The free Burnside groups of sufficiently large
exponents // Internat. J. Algebra Comput.—1994.—V. 4.—P. 3–308] and
[In Russian: Lysenok I. G. Infinite Burnside groups of even period //
Izvestiya: Mathematics—1996.—Vol. 60, no 3.—P. 3–224] with full proofs
were issued in 1994 and 1996 correspondingly. In particular, Lysenok’s
work contains a proof of existance of infinite m-generated groups of
period n for every m > 2 and n > 8000.
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Again groups with prescribed spectrum
In 1986 W. Shi [In Chinese: Shi W. A characteristic property of A5 // J.
Southwest-China Teachers Univ.—1986.—V. 3.—P. 11–14] proved that
alternating group A5 ' L2 (4) is the only group with spectrum
{1, 2, 3, 5}, which opened a broad way for getting different
characterisations of finite groups that use the idea of a spectrum. We
shall not refer to this vast topic. We note only that later Shi proved
(among many other results in this direction) that every simple group
L2 (2m ) is recognizable by its spectrum in the class of finite groups.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
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Again groups with prescribed spectrum
In 1986 W. Shi [In Chinese: Shi W. A characteristic property of A5 // J.
Southwest-China Teachers Univ.—1986.—V. 3.—P. 11–14] proved that
alternating group A5 ' L2 (4) is the only group with spectrum
{1, 2, 3, 5}, which opened a broad way for getting different
characterisations of finite groups that use the idea of a spectrum. We
shall not refer to this vast topic. We note only that later Shi proved
(among many other results in this direction) that every simple group
L2 (2m ) is recognizable by its spectrum in the class of finite groups.
In 1999 Zhurtov and V. D. Mazurov [In Russian: Zhurtov A. Kh.,
Mazurov V. D. Recognition of finite simple groups L2 (2m ) in the class of
all groups // Siberian Math. J.—1999.—Vol. 40, no. 1.—P. 75–78] showed
that this is true even if we do not require finiteness of a group:
µ(G) = {2, 2m − 1, 2m + 1} if and only if G ' L2 (2m ).
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In the spectrum of a group L2 (Q), where Q is an arbitrary locally finite
field of characteristic 2, the only even number is 2, and in 2000 Mazurov
[In Russian: Mazurov V. D. Infinite groups with abelian centralizers of
involutions // Algebra and Logic—2000.—Vol. 39, no. 1.—P. 74–86.]
found the general shape of a group G with a spectrum of the type
{2} ∪ ω 0 , where ω 0 contains only odd numbers. He showed that for G one
of the following statements is true:
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Periodic groups with given element orders
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In the spectrum of a group L2 (Q), where Q is an arbitrary locally finite
field of characteristic 2, the only even number is 2, and in 2000 Mazurov
[In Russian: Mazurov V. D. Infinite groups with abelian centralizers of
involutions // Algebra and Logic—2000.—Vol. 39, no. 1.—P. 74–86.]
found the general shape of a group G with a spectrum of the type
{2} ∪ ω 0 , where ω 0 contains only odd numbers. He showed that for G one
of the following statements is true:
(a) G is an extension of an abelian group A by a group hti of order 2,
and at = a−1 for every a ∈ A.
(b) G is an extension of an elementary abelian 2-group A by a group
without involutions, acting freely on A by conjugation in G.
(c) G ' L2 (Q) for sufficient locally finite field Q of characteristic 2.
Groups in items (a) and (c) are locally finite. There exist groups from
item (b), which are not locally finite.
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Periodic groups with given element orders
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In the spectrum of a group L2 (Q), where Q is an arbitrary locally finite
field of characteristic 2, the only even number is 2, and in 2000 Mazurov
[In Russian: Mazurov V. D. Infinite groups with abelian centralizers of
involutions // Algebra and Logic—2000.—Vol. 39, no. 1.—P. 74–86.]
found the general shape of a group G with a spectrum of the type
{2} ∪ ω 0 , where ω 0 contains only odd numbers. He showed that for G one
of the following statements is true:
(a) G is an extension of an abelian group A by a group hti of order 2,
and at = a−1 for every a ∈ A.
(b) G is an extension of an elementary abelian 2-group A by a group
without involutions, acting freely on A by conjugation in G.
(c) G ' L2 (Q) for sufficient locally finite field Q of characteristic 2.
Groups in items (a) and (c) are locally finite. There exist groups from
item (b), which are not locally finite.
Thus, existence of a non locally finite group G with such a spectrum
strictly depends on existence of a group with the spectrum ω 0 , which can
act freely on an elementary abelian 2-group. In particular, if ω 0 is equal
to one of the sets {1, 3, 9} or {1, 3, 5, 9, 15}, then a group is locally finite
[Zhurtov A. Kh., Mazurov V. D. Local finiteness of som groups with
given element orders // Vladikavkaz. Math. J.—2009.—Vol. 11,
Novosibirsk, November 2012
12 /
no.
4.—P. 11–15.]
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
19
In two papers [Gupta N. D., Mazurov V. D. On groups with small orders
of elements // Bull. Austral. Math. Soc.—1999.—V. 60.—P. 197–205.] and
and [Mazurov V. D. On groups of period 60 with given orders of
elements // Algebra and Logic—2000.—Vol. 39, no. 3.—P. 329–346]
N. Gupta and Mazurov considered groups whose spectrum is a subset of
a set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. All of them are locally finite with possible exception
of groups of period 5. More precisely,
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Periodic groups with given element orders
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In two papers [Gupta N. D., Mazurov V. D. On groups with small orders
of elements // Bull. Austral. Math. Soc.—1999.—V. 60.—P. 197–205.] and
and [Mazurov V. D. On groups of period 60 with given orders of
elements // Algebra and Logic—2000.—Vol. 39, no. 3.—P. 329–346]
N. Gupta and Mazurov considered groups whose spectrum is a subset of
a set {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}. All of them are locally finite with possible exception
of groups of period 5. More precisely,
•
•
•
If µ(G) = {3, 5}, then either G = F T , where F is a nilpotent of class
2 normal 5-subgroup, and |T | = 3, or G is an extension of a nilpotent
of class 3 3-group by a group of order 5.
If µ(G) = {4, 5}, then on of the following statements holds.
(a) G = T D, where T is a normal elementary abelian 2-group, and D
is a nonalbelian group of order 10.
(b) G = F T , where F is an elementary abelian normal 5-subgroup,
and T is isomorphic to a subgroup of quaternion group of order 8.
(c) G = T F , where T is a nilpotent of class 6 normal 2-subgroup,
and F is a group of order 5.
If µ(G) = {3, 4, 5}, then G is locally finite and is either isomorphic to
A6 , or G = V C, where V is a nontrivial elementary abelian normal
2-subgroup, and C ' A5 .
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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In 2007 Lytkina and Kuznetsov [Lytkina D. V., Kuznetsov A. A.
Recognizability by spectrum of the group L2 (7) in the class of all
groups // Sib. Electronic Math. Reports.—2007.—V. 4.—P. 300–303]
characterised the simple group L2 (7) by spectrum in the class of all
groups.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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In 2007 Lytkina and Kuznetsov [Lytkina D. V., Kuznetsov A. A.
Recognizability by spectrum of the group L2 (7) in the class of all
groups // Sib. Electronic Math. Reports.—2007.—V. 4.—P. 300–303]
characterised the simple group L2 (7) by spectrum in the class of all
groups.
•
If µ(G) = {3, 4, 7}, then G ' L2 (7).
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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In 2009 Mazurov and A. S. Mamontov [In Russian: Mazurov V. D.,
Mamontov A. S. Periodic groups with elements of small orders //
Siberian Math. J.—2009.—Vol. 50, no. 2.—P. 397–404] proved the
following result.
• Suppose µ(G) = {5, 6}. Then G is a soluble locally finite group and
one of the following statements is true:
(a) G is an extensiion of an elementary abelian 5-group by a cyclic
group of order 6;
(b) G is an extension of a nilpotent of class 3 3-group by a dihedral
group of order 10;
(c) G is an extension of a direct product of a nilpotent of class 3
3-group and elementary abelian 2-group by a group of order 5.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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In 2009 Mazurov and A. S. Mamontov [In Russian: Mazurov V. D.,
Mamontov A. S. Periodic groups with elements of small orders //
Siberian Math. J.—2009.—Vol. 50, no. 2.—P. 397–404] proved the
following result.
• Suppose µ(G) = {5, 6}. Then G is a soluble locally finite group and
one of the following statements is true:
(a) G is an extensiion of an elementary abelian 5-group by a cyclic
group of order 6;
(b) G is an extension of a nilpotent of class 3 3-group by a dihedral
group of order 10;
(c) G is an extension of a direct product of a nilpotent of class 3
3-group and elementary abelian 2-group by a group of order 5.
In 2010 Mazurov [In Russian: Mazurov V. D. On groups of period 24 //
Algebra and Logic—2010.—Vol. 49, no. 6.—P. 766–781] showed that a
group G with µ(G) = {3, 8} is locally finite and for G one of the
following statements holds:
(a) G = V Q, where V is a nontrivial normal elementary abelian
3-subgroup, Q is a 2-group acting freely on V and isomorphic either to a
cyclic group of order 8, or to a quaternion group of order 16;
(b) G = T hai, where T is a normal nilpotent of class 2 2-subgroup, and
the order of a euqals 3;
Novosibirsk, November 2012
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V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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New (yet not published) results
(E. Jabara, D. V. Lytkina) Suppose G is a group of period 36 which
does not possess elements of order 6. Then either G is a group of period
9, or G is locally finite and one of the following statements holds:
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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New (yet not published) results
(E. Jabara, D. V. Lytkina) Suppose G is a group of period 36 which
does not possess elements of order 6. Then either G is a group of period
9, or G is locally finite and one of the following statements holds:
(1) The Sylow 2-subgroup T of G is nilpotent of class two and normal in
G, and the Sylow 3-subgroup is cyclic and acts freely on T ;
(2) O2 (G) is a non-trivial elementary abelian group, the Sylow
3-subgroup R of G is cyclic and acts freely on O2 (G). Besides,
|G : O2 (G)R| = 2;
(3) The Sylow 3-subgroup R of G is abelian and normal in G. The Sylow
2-subgroup T of G acts freely on R and is either a cyclic group, or a
quaternion group. Besides, G = RT .
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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(D. V. Lytkina, V. D. Mazurov, A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of
period 12. If the order of product of any two involutions in G is different
from 6 then G is locally finite. This is a generalization of Sanov’s result.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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(D. V. Lytkina, V. D. Mazurov, A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of
period 12. If the order of product of any two involutions in G is different
from 6 then G is locally finite. This is a generalization of Sanov’s result.
(V. D. Mazurov, A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of period 12. If the
order of product of any two involutions in G is different from 4 then G is
locally finite. This is a generalization of M. Hall’s result.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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(D. V. Lytkina, V. D. Mazurov, A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of
period 12. If the order of product of any two involutions in G is different
from 6 then G is locally finite. This is a generalization of Sanov’s result.
(V. D. Mazurov, A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of period 12. If the
order of product of any two involutions in G is different from 4 then G is
locally finite. This is a generalization of M. Hall’s result.
(A. S. Mamontov). Let G be a group of period 12. If G does not contain
an element of order 12 then G is locally finite. In other words, a group G
with µ(G) = {4, 6} is locally finite.
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Problem [G. Cutolo, H. Smith, J. Wiegold. Groups covered by
conjugates of proper subgroups. J. Algebra, 293, no.1 (2005), 261-268].
Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a subgroup H.
What conditions on H allow us to deduce that G = H?
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Problem [G. Cutolo, H. Smith, J. Wiegold. Groups covered by
conjugates of proper subgroups. J. Algebra, 293, no.1 (2005), 261-268].
Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a subgroup H.
What conditions on H allow us to deduce that G = H?
What about condition that H is finite simple nonabelian?
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Problem [G. Cutolo, H. Smith, J. Wiegold. Groups covered by
conjugates of proper subgroups. J. Algebra, 293, no.1 (2005), 261-268].
Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a subgroup H.
What conditions on H allow us to deduce that G = H?
What about condition that H is finite simple nonabelian?
Proposition. Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a
subgroup H. If H is isomorphic to one of the following simple groups
then H = G:
• L2 (Q) where Q is any (locally) finite field of characteristic two;
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Problem [G. Cutolo, H. Smith, J. Wiegold. Groups covered by
conjugates of proper subgroups. J. Algebra, 293, no.1 (2005), 261-268].
Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a subgroup H.
What conditions on H allow us to deduce that G = H?
What about condition that H is finite simple nonabelian?
Proposition. Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a
subgroup H. If H is isomorphic to one of the following simple groups
then H = G:
• L2 (Q) where Q is any (locally) finite field of characteristic two;
• L2 (9);
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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An application
Problem [G. Cutolo, H. Smith, J. Wiegold. Groups covered by
conjugates of proper subgroups. J. Algebra, 293, no.1 (2005), 261-268].
Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a subgroup H.
What conditions on H allow us to deduce that G = H?
What about condition that H is finite simple nonabelian?
Proposition. Suppose that the group G is the union of conjugates of a
subgroup H. If H is isomorphic to one of the following simple groups
then H = G:
• L2 (Q) where Q is any (locally) finite field of characteristic two;
• L2 (9);
• L2 (7).
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Some open questions
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Some open questions
1. Let G be a group of exponent 5, 8, 9 or 12. Is G locally finite?
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Some open questions
1. Let G be a group of exponent 5, 8, 9 or 12. Is G locally finite?
2. Suppose that µ(G) = {4, 5, 6} or {8, 9}. Is G locally finite?
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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Some open questions
1. Let G be a group of exponent 5, 8, 9 or 12. Is G locally finite?
2. Suppose that µ(G) = {4, 5, 6} or {8, 9}. Is G locally finite?
3. Suppose that µ(G) = {5, 6, 11}. Is it true that G is a finite simple
group of order 660?
Novosibirsk, November 2012
V. D. Mazurov (Novosibirsk)
Periodic groups with given element orders
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