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Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures
2015
A Sourcebook for Planning and Implementing Programs
for Cancer Prevention and Control
Introduction Letter
Table of Contents
Dear Hoosiers,
Introduction Letter
1
The Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 is the fourth
iteration of our state’s only comprehensive report on the
burden of cancer. This report provides the most recent
and accurate data available for the state of Indiana,
covering a wide variety of current cancer issues and
trends, including cancer incidence, mortality, and survival
statistics as well as information on decreasing the risk of
cancer, cancer symptoms, risk factors, early detection,
and treatment.
The Indiana Cancer Consortium (ICC) is proud to
promote the message that this report sends from the
Indiana cancer community to Hoosiers across the state.
The Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 perfectly
demonstrates the willingness and the passion that
Hoosiers have to work together to improve and overcome
our state’s cancer burden. We know that we can only
make a real difference through collective effort and action.
The size and scope of this report becomes that much
more admirable when considering that nearly 100 percent
of it is completed voluntarily by ICC members. As such,
we trust that the collaborative efforts of our contributing
partners will benefit all Indiana residents and serve as
a rallying call for us to move forward as a single cancer
control alliance.
From the ICC, we thank the American Cancer
Society and the Indiana State Department of Health for
their organizational partnership in the development of
this report. We also thank all those who helped make
this report a reality. The time, the resources, and the
expertise shared will establish this report as a leading
tool for Indiana’s cancer prevention and control efforts.
Furthermore, we also recognize the value of all those who
will now take this report and act according to its findings.
Finally, to all Indiana residents, the ICC promises
to continue convening partners, identifying cancer
burdens, and developing and implementing evidencebased interventions that will improve the health of all
citizens of Indiana.
Table of Contents
1
Acknowledgments
2
Collaborating to Conquer Cancer
3
Understanding Cancer Data
5
Common Questions about Cancer
7
Breast Cancer
22
Cervical Cancer
26
Childhood Cancer
30
Colon and Rectum Cancer
34
Lung Cancer
38
Melanoma/Skin Cancer
42
Prostate Cancer
46
Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans
50
Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics
56
What is a Survivor?
62
Recommended Cancer Screening Guidelines
66
The Impact of Cancer Infographic
71
Sincerely,
Sara Edgerton
Steve Tharp, M.D.
Co-Chair
Indiana Cancer Consortium
Co-Chair
Indiana Cancer Consortium
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 1
Acknowledgments
Lead Content Editors
• Caleb Levell — Indiana Cancer Consortium
• Dawn Swindle — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State Department of
Health
Lead Data Analysts
• Amanda Raftery, M.P.H., R.D. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Linda Stemnock — Epidemiology Resource Center, Indiana State
Department of Health
Edit and Review Committee
• Katie Crawford — American Cancer Society
• Emily Jones — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State Department of
Health
• Anita Ohmit, M.P.H. — Indiana Minority Health Coalition
• Laura Ruppert, M.H.A. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Teasa Thompson, M.P.H. — Indiana Cancer Consortium Member
• Keylee Wright, M.A. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
Maps
• Chris Waldron — Epidemiology Resource Center, Indiana State
Department of Health
Breast Cancer
• Robert Goulet, M.D. — Community Health Network
• Wendy Noe — Indiana Cancer Consortium Member
• Natalie Sutton, M.P.A. — Komen for the Cure Central Indiana
Cervical Cancer
• Dave McCormick — Immunization Division, Indiana State Department
of Health
• Kate Tewanger, M.P.H. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Gregory Zimet, Ph.D. — Department of Pediatrics, Indiana University
School of Medicine
Childhood Cancer
• Indra Frank, M.D., M.P.H. — Hoosier Environmental Council
• Amanda Raftery, M.P.H., R.D. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
Colorectal Cancer
• Sue Rawl, Ph.D., R.N. — Indiana University School of Nursing
• Linda Stemnock — Epidemiology Resource Center, Indiana State
Department of Health
Lung Cancer
• Lisa Carter Harris, Ph.D., A.P.R.N. — Indiana University School of
Nursing
• Latoija Snodgrass, M.P.H. — Indiana Cancer Consortium Member
• Miranda Spitznagle, M.P.H. — Tobacco Prevention and Cessation
Commission, Indiana State Department of Health
Melanoma and Skin Cancer
• Anita Day — Outrun the Sun
• Jiali Han, Ph.D. — Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana University
Purdue University Indianapolis
• Hongmei Nan, M.D., Ph.D. — Fairbanks School of Public Health, Indiana
University Purdue University Indianapolis
• Doug Schwartzentruber, M.D., Indiana University Melvin and Bren
Simon Cancer Center
Prostate Cancer
• William Dugan, M.D. — Community Cancer Care, Inc.
• Linda Stemnock — Epidemiology Resource Center, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Teasa Thompson, M.P.H. — Indiana Cancer Consortium Member
2 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Cancer Facts and Figures for African Americans
• Adrienne Durham, M.P.H. — Office of Minority Health, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Anita Ohmit, M.P.H. — Indiana Minority Health Coalition
• Calvin Roberson, M.H.A., M.P.H. — Indiana Minority Health Coalition
• Priscilla Ryder, M.P.H., Ph.D. — Butler University
Cancer Facts and Figures for Hispanics
• Adrienne Durham, M.P.H. — Office of Minority Health, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Anita Ohmit, M.P.H. — Indiana Minority Health Coalition
• Calvin Roberson, M.H.A., M.P.H. — Indiana Minority Health Coalition
• Priscilla Ryder, M.P.H., Ph.D. — Butler University
Survivorship
• Amanda Raftery, M.P.H., R.D. — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State
Department of Health
• Tanya Shelburne, M.P.H. — Little Red Door Cancer Agency
• Dawn Swindle — Cancer Control Section, Indiana State Department of
Health
Primary data sources were provided by:
Publication Design:
• Jean Hura — Hura Design LLC
Other Acknowledgements:
To ensure the information shared in this report is consistent with the
American Cancer Society’s (ACS) findings and recommendations, the authors, with the permission of the ACS, incorporated text and several of the
figures from the ACS’s Facts and Figures publications. The ACS’s figures are
acknowledged throughout the report. This publication was supported in part
by grant number 5U58DP003884 from the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do
not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention. At the time of publication, this report contains the most
timely and accurate data available from its data sources and most recent
evidence-based recommendations from national resources. The breadth
of content and conclusions, cancer prevention and control recommended
guidelines, and data sources were agreed upon by this publication’s editors,
and thus, may not fully represent the opinions, views, and feedback of each
contributing subject matter expert or corresponding organization.
Collaborating to Conquer Cancer
The Comprehensive Cancer Control National Partnership
is a movement of states, tribes, territories, US Pacific Island
Jurisdictions, and local communities working together to
reduce the burden of cancer for all people. In the Hoosier state,
the Indiana Cancer Consortium (ICC) serves as that comprehensive cancer control coalition, responsible for developing,
implementing, and evaluating a statewide cancer control plan,
which address cancer from prevention through palliation.
Collaborating to Conquer Cancer is the underlying philosophy, vision, and model that directs the ICC, as well as our
partners across the nation. In Indiana, we are proud to say that
Collaborating to Conquer Cancer represents the more than
200 organizational and individual members of the ICC who
work to bring together Indiana’s cancer community, identify
disease challenges facing both state and local communities,
and develop evidence-based solutions that make a difference.
The ICC membership plans, contributes, and takes advantage of a full range of free services — including professional
trainings, educational publications, mini-grants, and guidance. By listening to our partners, public health and medical
experts, and other interested Hoosiers, we continually evolve to
better address the gaps in cancer prevention and control across
the state. The larger our coalition grows, the bigger impact we
have. Become a member at IndianaCancer.org.
The Plan
The collaborative process is best reflected through the
development and implementation of Indiana’s current cancer
control plan, our roadmap to coordinate cancer control efforts.
The plan is comprised of six focus areas, including primary
prevention, early detection, treatment, quality of life, data,
and advocacy. Within those six areas, experts in the fields of
public health, cancer research, and treatment identified the
most important activities that, when implemented, can reduce
cancer in Indiana. Day by day, as more partners engage in
strategies from this plan, extraordinary accomplishments are
made. This is the power of our unique cancer control alliance.
Together we are stronger than cancer.
Key Activities
• Lead in the ongoing development, implementation, and
evaluation of an Indiana-focused comprehensive cancer
control plan that addresses cancer across the continuum.
• Provide guidance to members on current issues in cancer
advocacy, research, detection, and treatment.
• Provide a forum for a multi-sectored and diverse membership to discuss the cancer issues challenging Indiana.
• Strengthen communication, resource sharing, and collaboration in the cancer community, and reduce duplication
and inefficiency.
• Educate Indiana health workers and cancer advocates on
current evidence-based strategies and best practices.
• Support and inform Indiana on policy, system, and environmental changes that decrease risk factors which impact
Hoosier communities.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
The Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 includes the
most up-to-date cancer information available and identifies
current cancer trends and their potential impact on Indiana
residents. This report significantly helps the ICC measure
Indiana’s progress toward meeting the goals and objectives
outlined in the Indiana Cancer Control Plan. This publication
is an exemplary application of collaboration in public health.
We hope that the sharing of knowledge, resources, and expertise among the many participating organizations to produce
this tool will inspire organizations across the state to tackle
the cancer burden together.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 3
Understanding Cancer Data
Cancer data can sometimes be difficult to interpret. Here is
some information about common terms and methods used
to better understand cancer data so that it can be effectively
used to guide interventions and policy decisions.
Incidence (New cases)
Incidence refers to annual or average annual incidence.
Annual incidence is the number of new cases of cancer diagnosed during a calendar year. Average annual incidence is the
number of new cases diagnosed during a specified number of
years. Indiana resident incidence data in this report, unless
otherwise noted, were obtained from the Indiana State Cancer
Registry (ISCR). Because there are delays in health care providers reporting cancer cases to the ISCR and the ISCR has to
make sure data are complete and accurate before publishing
them, the most current data available for this report were from
2012. Visit www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm to see if more up-todate data are available.
Mortality (Deaths)
Mortality refers to annual or average annual mortality. Annual
mortality is the number of deaths from cancer during a calendar year (Note: the cancer was not necessarily diagnosed in the
same year). Average annual mortality is the average number
of deaths during a specified number of years. Mortality data
reflect the underlying cause of death as recorded on the death
certificate. Indiana resident mortality data in this report,
unless otherwise noted, are from the ISCR who obtains
annual death certificate record information from the Indiana
State Department of Health Vital Records Department. Data
from 2012 were the most current mortality data available for
this report. Visit www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm to see if more
up-to-date data are available.
Cancer Rates
In this document, cancer rates represent the number of new
cases of cancer per 100,000 people (incidence) or the number
of cancer deaths per 100,000 people (mortality) during a specific period [see example below]. Typically, incidence rates are
calculated based only on the number of invasive cancer cases
that occurred during a period and do not include in situ cases.
Invasive cancer is cancer that has spread beyond the layer of
tissue in which it developed and is growing into surrounding,
healthy tissues. See page 9 for additional information about in
situ cancer.
Example: If a county’s lung cancer incidence rate is 40.0
cases per 100,000 people that means 40 new cases of invasive
lung cancer were diagnosed for every 100,000 people. If the
county’s population is 25,000, then an incidence rate of 40.0
means 10 new cases of invasive lung cancer were diagnosed
in that county during that year. Rates provide a useful way
to compare cancer burden irrespective of the actual population size. Rates can be used to compare demographic groups
(males have higher lung cancer rates than females), race/
ethnic groups (African American males have higher prostate
cancer rates than white males), or geographic areas (Indiana
has higher lung cancer incidence rates than California).
Population data to calculate the incidence rates were obtained
from www.seer.cancer.gov/popdata.
Age-Adjusted Rates
Older age groups generally have higher cancer rates than
younger age groups. For example, in Indiana, more than 60
percent of new lung cancer cases occur in those ages 60 and
older. As a result, if one county’s lung cancer incidence rate
is higher than another, the first question asked is whether the
county with a higher rate has an older population.
To address this issue, all mortality and incidence rates
presented in this report, unless otherwise noted, have been
age-adjusted. This removes the impact of different age distributions between populations and allows for direct comparisons of those populations. Additionally, age-adjustment
allows for a comparison of rates within a single population
over time. An age-adjusted rate is not a real measure of the
burden of the disease on a population, but rather an artificial
measure that is used for comparison purposes. All mortality and incidence rates in this publication were age-adjusted
using the direct method. This method weights the age-specific rates (i.e., rates calculated for each age group) for a given
sex, race, or geographic area by the age distribution of the
standard population. The 2000 US standard million population and five-year age group population numbers were used
to calculate all of the age-adjusted rates in this report.
Confidence Intervals
and Statistical Significance
Because the ISCR collects information on all reportable
cancer cases that occur in Indiana, the incidence and mortality rates in this report are not subject to sampling error (i.e.,
error in estimating rates because one is working with sample
rather than population data). However, cancer rates are often
impacted by random variation, especially when looking at
rates for rare types of cancer or among small geographic areas.
Because of this random variation, confidence intervals (CIs)
are used to describe the range of that variation. Most typically,
95% CIs are calculated, which provide a range of values in
which one is 95% confident that the true rate exists, or, more
technically, a 95% CI is such that if one repeated a study 100
times, 95 of the intervals would include the true rate.
For this report, CIs for the age-adjusted rates were calculated with a method based on the gamma distribution.1 This
method produces valid CIs even when the number of cases is
very small. When the number of cases is large, the CIs produced with the gamma method are equivalent to those produced with the more traditional methods. The formulas for
computing CIs can be found at www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 5
(click “Help” then “Index”). Generally, when the 95% CI for
the area of interest does not overlap with the 95% CI for the
comparison area, we would say that the two areas are statistically significantly different at the P<.05 level (i.e., the difference between the two rates is more than that expected by
random variation). The limitation of this method, though,
is that if two rates have overlapping CIs, they are probably not significantly different, but there is a chance that they
still could be. Therefore, some of the rates in this report (e.g.,
county rates) not designated as being significantly above or
below the comparison rate (e.g., Indiana rate) could still be significantly different.
Other Common Terms Used and Groups
Referenced in this Report:
Adults. Used in this report to refer to people ages 18 years
and older.
Age-specific Rate. The total number of new cases or deaths
among residents in a specific age group divided by the population of that age group then multiplied by 100,000.
American Cancer Society (ACS). A nationwide, commu­
nity-based voluntary health organization dedicated to elim­
inating cancer as a major health problem by preventing cancer,
saving lives, and diminishing suffering from cancer, through
research, education, advocacy, and service. Additional information is available at www.cancer.org.
Burden. The number of new cases or deaths from cancer or
overall impact of cancer in a community.
Carcinogen. Any chemical, physical, or viral agent that is
known to cause cancer.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The
CDC’s mission is the following: “Collaborating to create the
expertise, information, and tools that people and communities need to protect their health — through health promotion,
prevention of disease, injury and disability, and preparedness
for new health threats.” Additional information is available at
www.cdc.gov.
Five-year Survival. The percentage of people who are alive
five years after their cancer is diagnosed. While statistically
6 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
valid, these percentages are based on historical data and might
not reflect current advances in treatment. Therefore, five-year
survival rates should not be seen as a predictor in an individual case.
Lifetime Risk. The probability that an individual, over the
course of a lifetime, will develop or die from cancer.
Malignant. Cancer that has spread beyond the location in
which it started.
Metastasis. Movement of cancer from part of the body to a
separate area of the body.
Morbidity. The number of people who have a disease.
National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). Contained
within the CDC, the NCHS is the nation’s principal health statistics agency. They compile statistical information to guide
actions and policies to improve health. Additional information is available at www.cdc.gov/nchs.
Prevalence. A calculation of the proportion of people with
a certain disease at a given time.
Risk Factor. Anything that increases a person’s probability
of getting a disease. Risk factors can be lifestyle-related, environmental, or genetic (inherited).
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)
Program. Contained within the National Cancer Institute,
SEER works to provide information on cancer statistics in an
effort to reduce the burden of cancer among the US population. Additional information is available at www.seer.cancer.
gov.
Staging. The process of finding out whether cancer has
spread and, if so, how far. There is more than one system for
staging (see page 9 for additional information).
References are provided throughout this report to provide
readers with additional information. Web addresses are provided
for online information.
References
1
Fay MP, Feuer EJ. Confidence intervals for directly
standardized rates: a method based on the gamma
distribution. Statistics in Medicine. 1997; 16: 791–801.
Common Questions about Cancer
What is cancer?
Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled
growth and spread of abnormal cells. The cancer cells form
tumors that destroy normal tissue. If cancer cells break away
from a tumor, they can travel through the blood stream or the
lymph system to other areas of the body, where they might
form new tumors (metastases). If this growth is not controlled,
cancer might be fatal.
Are all growths and tumors cancerous?
Not all irregular growths of abnormal cells lead to cancer.
A tumor can be either benign (non-cancerous) or malignant
(cancerous). Benign tumors do not metastasize and, with
very rare exceptions, are not life threatening. Benign tumors
usually grow slowly, remain localized, and do not destroy
surrounding normal tissue.
What causes cancer?
All cancers develop because of damage to or mutation of genes
that control cell growth and division. These genetic changes
can be caused by exposure to external factors (e.g., tobacco,
poor diet, alcohol, chemicals, sunlight, radiation, infectious
organisms) or internal factors (e.g., inherited mutations,
hormones, immune conditions, mutations that occur from
metabolism). Only about five to ten percent of all cancers are
the result of inherited gene mutations.1
External and internal factors often act together or in
sequence to initiate or promote cancer development. Many
years often pass between exposures or mutations and detectable cancer. Because of this, it is often difficult to directly
identify causes of specific cancer cases.
Who gets cancer?
Anyone can get cancer at any age; however, middle and older
aged people are most likely to develop cancer. In Indiana,
during 2012, 66 percent of all cancers cases occurred among
people ages 55–84, including 23 percent among people ages
55–64, 26 percent among people ages 65–74, and 18 percent
among people ages 75–84 [Figure 1].
Additionally, individuals who have been exposed to certain
external and internal risk factors have an increased risk of
developing cancer. For example, male smokers are about 23
times more likely to develop lung cancer than nonsmokers.2
Also, females who have a first degree relative (i.e., mother,
sister, or daughter) with a history of breast cancer have about
twice the risk of developing breast cancer, compared to females
who do not have this family history.2
Can cancer be prevented?
Many cancers can be prevented by modifying external risk
factors and making lifestyle changes, such as eliminating
tobacco use, improving dietary habits, increasing physical
Figure 1. Number and Rate of New Cancer Diagnoses among Residents — Indiana, 2012
4,360
Number of new cases
4000
2,100.
2500
2000
New Cases
Age-specific Incidence Rate
3000
1500
2000
1000
1000
500
5–
0–
9
10
–1
4
15
–1
9
20
–2
4
25
–2
9
30
–3
4
35
–3
9
40
–4
45 4
–4
9
50
–5
4
55
–5
9
60
–6
65 4
–6
9
70
–7
4
75
–7
9
80
–8
4
85
+
0
4
0
Cases per 100,000 population
5000
Age Group (years)
Data are provided for the age groups with the largest number of cases and highest rate.
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 7
Figure 2. Preventive Cancer Behaviors and Access to Medical Care among Adults* — Indiana, 2013
Adults Who Have Consumed Fruits and Vegetables
Five or More Times Per Day†
941,975
20.6%
Did not Participate in Enough Aerobic and Muscle
Strengthening Exercises to Meet Guidelines
Did not Participate in Muscle Strengthening
Exercises More Than Twice Per Week
Did not Participate in 150 Minutes or More of
Aerobic Physical Activity Per Week
84.2%
74.4%
3,336,354
56.3%
2,406,603
31.8%
Considered Obese (BMI ≥30.0)
3,570,695
1,496,242
Current Smoker
21.9%
1,057,885
Have No Health Care Coverage‡
20.9%
833,674
Could Not See Doctor Because of Cost During the
Past Year
15.5%
0%
* Adults are people ages 18 years and older
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
769,995
Source: Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
† Data from 2009
‡ Adults ages 18–64
activity, losing weight, and avoiding excessive sun and
infectious disease exposures. Additionally, many cancers can
be prevented or identified at an early stage if people receive
regular medical care and obtain early detection cancer
screenings. Figure 2 describes the burden of some lifestyle and
external factors among Indiana adults and Figure 3 describes
cancer screening rates among Indiana adults.
Additional information about cancer risk factors include:
• Tobacco. All cancers caused by the use of tobacco products
could be prevented. The American Cancer Society (ACS)
estimates that, during 2014, almost 176,000 cancer deaths
were caused by tobacco use.2 During 2013, 21.9 percent of
Indiana adults were current smokers.3
• Body Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity. The World
Cancer Research Fund estimates that about one-third
of the 585,720 cancer deaths expected to have occurred
during 2014 were related to overweight or obesity, physical
inactivity, and poor nutrition.2 During 2013, 31.8 percent of
Indiana adults were considered obese.3 Additionally, during
2013, 56.3 percent of Indiana adults did not get the recommended 150 minutes of exercise per week (recommendations available at www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/
guidelines/index.html).3 During 2009, approximately 80
percent failed to eat fruits and vegetables five or more times
each day.3 Diets low in animal fat and high in fruits and
vegetables could help prevent certain cancers.
• Infection with HPV and Other Infectious Diseases. The
human papillomavirus (HPV) is the single greatest risk
factor for cervical cancer.4 The Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) estimates that 21,000 cancer cases
each year could potentially be prevented with HPV
8 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
vaccines. In all, an estimated 15 to 20 percent of cancers
worldwide are related to infectious exposures, such as
hepatitis B virus (HBV), human papillomavirus (HPV),
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Helicobacter bacteria, and others.5 Many of these infections can be prevented through behavioral changes or the use of vaccines
or antibiotics.5
• Sun Exposure. Excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV)
radiation from the sun or other sources, like tanning
beds, is the greatest risk factor for developing skin cancer.
The US Department of Health and Human Services and
the International Agency of Research on Cancer panel
has found that exposure to sunlamps or sun beds is a
known carcinogen.6
• Health Care Coverage. Uninsured and underinsured
patients are substantially more likely to be diagnosed with
cancer at a later stage, when treatment can be more extensive and costly.2 According to the US Census Bureau, almost
48.6 million Americans were uninsured in 2011 — including one-third of Hispanics and one in 10 children (18 years
and younger).2 In 2013, approximately 21 percent (20.9) of
Indiana residents ages 18-64 reported to having no health
care coverage.3 The Affordable Care Act is expected to continue to reduce the number of uninsured people — improving the health care system for cancer patients.2
• Screening. Early diagnosis through regular screening
examinations saves lives by identifying cancers when
they are most curable and treatment is more successful.
Cancers that can be detected by screening include breast,
cervix, colon, lung, oral cavity, rectum, skin, and testicular cancers.
Figure 3. Cancer Screening Rates — Indiana, 2012
Women Ages 18 and Older Who Have Had a Pap
Screening During the Past 3 Years
73.2%
Women Ages 40 and Older Who Have Had a
Mammography Screening During the Past 2 Years
67.7%
Men Ages 40 and Older Who Have Had a Prostatespecific Antigen (PSA) Test During the Past 2 Years
46.6%
Persons Ages 50 and Older Who Have Ever Had a
Colorectal Screening Test*
62.5%
0%
20%
40%
60%
80%
* Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
Source: Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
How is cancer staged?
How is cancer treated?
A cancer’s stage is based on the primary tumor’s size and
location in the body and whether it has spread from the site of
origin to other areas of the body. There are two main staging
systems used to classify tumors.
The TNM staging system assesses tumors in three ways:
extent of the primary tumor (T), absence or presence of
regional lymph node involvement (N), and absence or presence of distant metastases (M). Once the T, N, and M are
determined, a stage is assigned. Stages are given numbers (I,
II, III, IV) and represent a scale — stage I is the earliest possible diagnosis, and stage IV is advanced.
Summary staging is useful for descriptive and statistical
analyses of cancer data and is used throughout this report. An
in situ tumor is a tumor at the earliest possible stage — when
cells have not invaded surrounding tissue. This stage can only
be diagnosed by microscopic examination. A localized tumor
is any tumor that has not spread beyond the primary organ. A
regional or distant tumor is one that has spread to other parts
of the body (this is also referred to as a tumor that has metastasized), either through the blood or lymph systems. With an
unstaged/unknown tumor, there is insufficient information
available to determine the stage of the disease.
What is the impact of stage at diagnosis
on survival?
Staging is essential in determining the choice of therapy and
assessing prognosis. It is a strong predictor of survival; generally, the earlier the stage, the better the prognosis. Locally and
nationally, about half of newly diagnosed cases are either in
situ or localized [Figure 4].
100%
Treatment depends on the cancer type and stage, specific diagnosis, and overall health of the individual. Cancer is treated by
one or more of the following therapies:
• Surgery removes the tumor by cutting out the cancerous
mass; it is mostly used for localized tumors.
• Chemotherapy uses either intravenous or oral drugs to
destroy cancer cells. It is used with the intention of curing
or inducing remission in cancers in early stages.
• Hormone therapy might be given to block the body’s
natural hormones and to slow or stop the growth of certain
cancers.
• Immunotherapy or biologic therapies are used to stimulate and strengthen a person’s own immune system to
destroy the cancer cells.
• Radiation or radiotherapy uses high-energy rays to destroy
or slow the growth of cancer cells. It can be done with the
intention of curing some cancers that have not spread too
far from their site of origin or to relieve symptoms.
Can cancer be cured?
Many cancers can be cured if detected and promptly treated.
For most types of cancer, if a person’s cancer has been in
remission (all signs and symptoms of the disease are absent)
for five years, the cancer is considered cured. However, the
length of remission at which a person is considered cured
differs by cancer type. Certain skin cancers, such as a basal
cell carcinoma, are considered cured as soon as the lesion is
removed. For other cancers (e.g., pancreatic), eight to ten years
must pass before the person is considered cured.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 9
Figure 4. Percent of Cancer Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Unknown
6.5%
In Situ
8.5%
Distant
24.5%
Local
40.7%
During 2008–2012, of the 169,378 Indiana
residents who received an in situ or invasive
cancer diagnosis, 83,269 (49.2%) were
diagnosed in the in situ or local stage,
75,026 (44.3%) were diagnosed in the
regional or distant stage, and 11,083 (6.5%)
had unknown staging.
Regional
19.8%
* Includes all in situ and invasive cancers except for basal and squamous cell skin
cancers and in situ bladder, cervical, and prostate cancers, which are not reportable.
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
What are the most common cancers?
How many new cases of cancer are expected
to occur this year?
The most commonly occurring cancers for both the state
and the nation are the same. Excluding skin cancers, breast
and prostate are the most prevalent cancers among females
and males, respectively. Lung, including bronchus, and colon
cancers are the next most common cancers among both sexes
[Table 1]. Annually, lung cancer is responsible for the most
cancer-related deaths among both sexes [Table 1].
How many people alive today will get cancer?
About 2.4 million Hoosiers, or 2 in 5 people now living in
Indiana, will eventually develop cancer. Nationally, men have
slightly less than a one in two chance of developing cancer
in their lifetime; for women, the lifetime risk of developing
cancer is a little more than one in three.2
How many people alive today have ever
had cancer?
Approximately 13.7 million Americans with a history of
cancer were alive on January 1, 2012.2 Some of these individuals were cancer free, while others still had evidence of cancer
and might have been undergoing treatment.
10 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
The ACS estimated that approximately 35,620 Indiana residents will be diagnosed with cancer in 2015, amounting to
almost four new cases of cancer diagnosed every hour of every
day. Nationally, an estimated 1.6 million new cancer cases
were diagnosed in 2014.2 These estimates did not include cases
of non-melanoma skin cancer and carcinoma in situ (except
for in situ urinary bladder cancer cases).
How many people are expected to die from
cancer this year?
During 2015, about 13,420 Indiana residents are expected to
die of cancer, which translates to approximately 36 people
every day.2 Cancer is the second leading cause of death in
Indiana following heart disease. Among children ages five
to 14, cancer is the second leading cause of death following
deaths from accidents.
How many people today survive cancer?
Using data from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End
Results (SEER) registry, the five-year survival rate for
Table 1. Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths among Indiana Residents by Sex, 2012
Number (%) of New Cases
Males
Count
%
Prostate
2,844
19.25%
Lung and Bronchus
2,540
Colon and Rectum
Urinary Bladder
Count
%
Breast
4,366
27.83%
17.20%
Lung and Bronchus
2,134
13.60%
1,447
9.80%
Colon and Rectum
1,378
8.78%
1,071
7.25%
Corpus and Uterus, NOS
994
6.34%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
688
4.66%
Brain and Other
Nervous System
615
3.92%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
657
4.45%
Thyroid
588
3.75%
Melanoma of the Skin
589
3.99%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
545
3.47%
Oral Cavity and Pharynx
567
3.84%
Melanoma
502
3.20%
Brain and Other
Nervous System
444
3.01%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
429
2.73%
Pancreas
430
2.91%
Pancreas
420
2.68%
All Sites
14,771
Females
All Sites
15,689
Number (%) of Deaths
Males
Count
%
Lung and Bronchus
2,250
31.89%
Colon and Rectum
613
8.69%
Prostate
606
Pancreas
Females
Count
Lung and Bronchus
%
1,708
27.29%
Breast
872
13.93%
8.59%
Colon and Rectum
556
8.88%
395
5.60%
Pancreas
388
6.20%
Leukemia
308
4.37%
Leukemia
238
3.80%
Liver and Intrahepatic
Bile Duct
294
4.17%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
203
3.24%
Esophagus
280
3.97%
Corpus and Uterus, NOS
200
3.20%
Urinary Bladder
255
3.61%
Brain and Other
Nervous System
161
2.57%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
239
3.39%
Liver and Intrahepatic
Bile Duct
156
2.49%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
212
3.00%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
118
1.89%
All Sites
7,055
All Sites
6,258
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 11
Table 2. Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rate Comparisons between Indiana and the US, by Sex and
Race, 2006–2010*
Incidence rate
per 100,000 people
(2006–2010)
Mortality rate
per 100,000 people
(2006–2010)
Indiana
US
Difference
(%)
Indiana
US
Difference
(%)
Total
464.0†
469.1
-1.73
192.6†
176.4
9.18
Males
527.4†
541.1
-2.53
223.8†
215.3
3.95
Females
422.0†
417.8
1.01
161.5†
149.7
7.88
Whites
458.9†
469.3
-2.22
191.4†
175.8
8.87
African Americans
472.8
476.5
-0.78
221.4†
210.3
5.28
* Age-adjusted
† Indiana rate is significantly higher (P<.05) than the US rate
2004–2010 from the 18 SEER geographic areas was 66.1
percent.7 Factors such as early stage of disease at diagnosis can
greatly improve the probability of survival after five years.
What are the costs of cancer?
During 2014, $1.83 billion was the estimated direct cost of
treating Indiana residents with cancer. The estimated indirect
costs totaled $11.12 billion for the same year.8 The Milken
Institute estimated that, should current trends continue,
Indiana residents would spend $2.76 billion on direct costs for
cancer care in 2023.9
How does cancer incidence and mortality
in Indiana compare with the rest of the US?
Indiana’s age-adjusted cancer incidence rate during 2006–2010
was 464.0 per 100,000 people. This was statistically higher
than, but very similar to, the national rate of 469.1 per 100,000
people (<2% difference) [Table 2; Figure 5].
However, during the same period, Indiana’s age-adjusted
mortality rate was nine percent higher than the national rate
(192.6 versus 176.4 deaths per 100,000 people). This included
being almost four percent higher among Indiana males (223.8
versus 215.3 deaths per 100,000 males) and almost eight percent
higher among Indiana females (161.5 versus 149.7 deaths per
100,000 females) [Table 2; Figure 6].
Lung cancer had the largest differences between the Indiana
and US incidence and mortality rates, as the incidence rate
among Indiana residents was almost 15 percent higher and the
mortality rate was over 18 percent higher. This increase in risk
is mostly attributable to Indiana having a high prevalence of
12 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: United States Cancer Statistics: 1999 — 2010 Mortality, WONDER Online
Database. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers
for Disease Control and Prevention; 2013. Accessed at http://wonder.cdc.gov/
CancerMort-v2010.html on Mar 28, 2014 3:20:11 PM
smokers compared to the rest of the US. In 2013, Indiana had
the 12th highest adult smoking rate in the country.3
Is the cancer burden in the US
and Indiana lessening?
The burden of specific cancer types among US residents has
changed over the years [Figures 7 and 8]. For example, with
the gradual decrease in smoking rates among Americans over
the past several decades, lung cancer mortality rates have
begun to decrease, especially among US males.
In Indiana, from 2003 to 2012, the age-adjusted incidence
rates for all cancers combined decreased 13 percent from 490.2
to 428.0 cases per 100,000 people. Likewise, the age-adjusted
mortality rates decreased 9.4 percent from 206.0 to 186.7
deaths per 100,000 people. However, trends varied among the
different cancer types.
These statistics indicate that progress continues to be made
in the early detection and treatment of certain cancers, and
that the incidence and mortality of some cancers is declining. However, a significant cancer burden still exists among
Indiana residents that require continued and more targeted
cancer control efforts.
How does Indiana track changes in cancer
risk and risk behavior data?
The Indiana State Cancer Registry was established in 1987 to
compile information on cancer cases and other related data
necessary to conduct epidemiological studies of cancer and
develop appropriate preventive and control programs. The data
in this registry allows for the evaluation of cancer prevention
Figure 5. How Do Indiana Cancer Incidence Rates Compare to US Rates?* (2006–2010)
-40%
-40%
Lung and Bronchus
Larynx
Esophagus
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
Corpus Uteri
Colon and Rectum
Brain and Other Nervous System
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Pediatric Cancers
Gallbladder
Oral Cavity and Pharynx
All Sites Combined*
Ovary
Myeloma
Leukemias
Pancreas
Cervix Uteri
Breast†
Urinary Bladder‡
Melanoma of the Skin
Thyroid
Prostate
Stomach
Liver
Percent Above or Below US Rate
-30%
-30%
-20%
-20%
-10%
-10%
0%
0%
10%
10%
20%
20%
14.6%↑
13.6%↑
12.5%↑
8.7%↑
7.0%↑
5.9%↑
5.6%↑
2.5%
1.5%
0.0%
0.0%
-1.1%↓
-1.7%
-1.7%
-2.4%
-2.6%
-2.6%
-3.8%↓
-4.5%↓
-9.7%↓
-18.1%↓
-19.5%↓
-28.8%↓
-29.2%↓
* Age-adjusted
† Female breast cancers only
‡ Urinary Bladder includes invasive and in situ.
Note: ↑↓ symbols denote whether Indiana’s rate is significantly different than the US
rate based on the 95% confidence interval overlap method (see Page 4 for description). ↑ = significantly higher; ↓ = significantly lower.
efforts and the measurement of progress toward reaching the
state goal of reducing cancer incidence and mortality among
Indiana residents.
Additionally, several data sources are used to describe
the burden of risk factors (e.g., obesity) and cancer screening rates among Indiana residents. The Behavioral Risk
Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is the main source utilized to do this because it provides yearly data that can be used
to generate Indiana-specific estimates for a large number of
cancer risk and preventative factors. These findings can then
be tracked over time and compared to other states to evaluate how Indiana is progressing in those areas. Additional
local, state, and national data resources can be found in the
Source: United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2010 Incidence, WONDER Online
Database. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2013. Accessed at
http://wonder.cdc.gov/cancer-v2010.html on Jul 14, 2014 3:56:43 PM
Indiana Community Health Information Resource Guide
(www.indianactsi.org/chep/resourceguide).
References
American Cancer Society. Family Cancer Syndromes. [Online]
June 2014. Accessed at www.cancer.org/cancer/cancercauses/
geneticsandcancer/heredity-and-cancer on December 9, 2014.
2
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014.
[Online] Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at www.cancer.org/
Research/CancerFactsFigures/index on December 9, 2014.
3
Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Accessed
at www.in.gov/isdh/25194.htm on December 9, 2014.
1
4
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cervical
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 13
Figure 6. How Do Indiana Cancer Mortality (Death) Rates Compare to US Rates?* (2006–2010)
Percent Above or Below US Rate
-40%
-30% -20%
-20% -10%
-10%
-40% -30%
Lung and Bronchus
Esophagus
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
Melanoma of the Skin
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
All Sites Combined*
Larynx
Leukemias
Pediatric Cancers
Colon and Rectum
Breast†
Brain and Other Nervous System
Urinary Bladder‡
Ovary
Myeloma
Pancreas
Prostate
Cervix Uteri
Corpus Uteri
Gallbladder
Thyroid
Oral Cavity and Pharynx
Liver
Stomach
18.2%↑
14.0%↑
11.1%↑
10.0%↑
9.9%↑
8.4%↑
8.3%↑
7.8% ↑
7.7%
5.7% ↑
5.4% ↑
4.4%↑
4.3%↑
3.6%
2.9%
0.9%
0.9%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
0.0%
-1.3%
-22.9%↓
-29.6%↓
* Age-adjusted
† Female breast cancers only
‡ Urinary Bladder includes invasive and in situ.
Note: ↑↓ symbols denote whether Indiana’s rate is significantly different than the US
rate based on the 95% confidence interval overlap method (see Page 4 for description). ↑ = significantly higher; ↓ = significantly lower.
Cancer Fact Sheet. [Online] Revised Jul 2012. Accessed at
www.cdc.gov/cancer/cervical/pdf/cervical_facts.pdf on
December 9, 2014.
5
American Cancer Society. Infections that Lead to Cancer.
[Online] Sept 2014. Accessed at www.cancer.org/Cancer/
CancerCauses/OtherCarcinogens/InfectiousAgents/
InfectiousAgentsandCancer/infectious-agents-and-cancer-
intro on December 9, 2014.
6
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public
Health Services, National Toxicology Program. 13th Report
on Carcinogens 2014. Accessed at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/
pubhealth/roc/roc13/index.html on December 9, 2014.
7
Howlader N, Noone AM, Krapcho M, Garshell J, Miller D,
Altekruse SF, Kosary CL, Yu M, Ruhl J, Tatalovich Z, Mariotto
14 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
0% 10%
10% 20%
20%
0%
Source: United States Cancer Statistics: 1999–2010 Incidence, WONDER Online
Database. United States Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention and National Cancer Institute; 2013. Accessed at
http://wonder.cdc.gov/cancer-v2010.html on Jul 14, 2014 3:56:43 PM
A, Lewis DR, Chen HS, Feuer EJ, Cronin KA (eds). SEER
Cancer Statistics Review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute.
Bethesda, MD, http://seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/, based
on November 2013 SEER data submission, posted to the SEER
web site, April 2014.
8
DeVol R, Bedroussian A. An Unhealthy America: The Economic
Burden of Chronic Disease. Milken Institute. [Online]
Oct 2007. Accessed at http://www.milkeninstitute.org/
publications/view/321 on December 9, 2014.
9
American Cancer Society. Economic Impact of Cancer.
[Online] Aug 2011. Accessed at www.cancer.org/Cancer/
CancerBasics/economic-impact-of-cancer on December
9, 2014.
Figure 7. Cancer Mortality (Death) Rates among Males by Site* — US, 1930–2011
100
Lung & bronchus
80
60
Prostate
Colon & rectum
Stomach
40
20
Liver†
Pancreas†
Leukemia
0
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965
* Per 100,000 age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.
† Mortality rates for pancreatic and liver cancers are increasing.
Note: Due to changes in IDC coding, numerator information has changed over time.
Rates for cancer of the liver, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum are affected
by these coding changes.
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2011
Source: US Mortality Volumes 1930 to 1959 and US Mortality Data 1960 to 2011,
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
©2015, American Cancer Society, Inc., Surveillance Research.
Figure 8. Cancer Mortality (Death) Rates among Females by Site* — US, 1930–2011
100
80
60
Lung & bronchus
40
Breast
Stomach
20
Colon & rectum
Uterus†
Pancreas‡
Liver‡
0
1930
1935
1940
1945
1950
1955
1960
1965
* Per 100,000 age adjusted to the 2000 US standard population.
† Uterus refers to uterine cervix and uterine corpus combined.
‡ Mortality rates for pancreatic and liver cancers are increasing.
1970
1975
1980
1985
1990
1995
2000
2005
2011
Source: US Mortality Volumes 1930 to 1959 and US Mortality Data 1960 to 2011,
National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
©2015, American Cancer Society, Inc., Surveillance Research.
Note: Due to changes in IDC coding, numerator information has changed over time.
Rates for cancer of the liver, lung and bronchus, and colon and rectum are affected
by these coding changes.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 15
Table 3. Indiana Cancer Incidence Rates by County*, 2008–2012
County
All Cancers
Count
Rate
Prostate
(Male-only disease)
Count
Rate
Female Breast
Count
Rate
Count
Lung
Rate
Colon and Rectum
Count
Rate
Indiana
163,104
466.6
17,643
106.9
22,073
118.1
25,837
73.9
15,483
44.4
Adams
821
440.7
98
115.0
112
113.6
92
48.5
102
55.7 ↑
Allen
8,121
447.7 ↓
865
101.6
1,142
116.2
1,117
62.5 ↓
780
42.8
Bartholomew
2,028
467.7
180
87.9 ↓
283
122.3
331
76.0 ↓
178
41.1
Benton
226
424.8
X
X
X
X
46
83.0
26
51.8
Blackford
427
493.9
53
129.2
54
116.0
69
78.9
44
48.7
Boone
1,246
428.0 ↓
134
95.9
213
133.8
176
63.7
110
38.1
Brown
470
448.9
57
96.4
57
96.1
66
63.3
44
44.0
Carroll
530
431.2
71
107.9
65
96.6
78
61.9
52
42.0
Cass
970
422.1 ↓
119
112.7
121
102.1
192
82.9
98
42.1
Clark
2,825
468.3
198
66.2 ↓
376
110.9 ↑
512
86.1 ↑
261
43.5
Clay
807
505.9 ↑
94
119.1
93
110.6
118
69.7
91
57.7 ↑
Clinton
854
454.7
94
104.4
108
112.4
150
80.9
98
49.6
Crawford
309
479.5
29
80.4
45
138.1
56
83.7
25
37.7
Daviess
Dearborn
774
438.9
82
98.5
84
89.4 ↓
120
67.2
88
48.3
1,237
439.1
152
107.7
167
113.2
216
76.0
125
46.0
Decatur
660
443.8
81
114.8
68
84.8 ↓
108
72.0
57
37.8
DeKalb
1,044
458.9
109
97.7
151
124.1
167
72.1
104
46.8
Delaware
3,228
492.6 ↑
394
128.5 ↑
406
118.2
553
82.9 ↑
312
46.0
Dubois
1,092
445.0
132
114.1
144
110.9
138
55.5 ↓
111
44.7
Elkhart
4,695
468.3
506
110.5
600
113.2
700
69.8
420
42.1
Fayette
669
426.8 ↑
73
95.4
63
78.3
138
84.7
61
37.7
1,992
481.4
162
81.4 ↓
282
122.3
338
82.2
166
39.2
521
459.0
64
114.4
71
122.8
92
76.9
60
51.3
Franklin
523
386.3 ↓
71
115.6
62
92.4
84
60.1
41
30.2 ↓
Fulton
625
473.3
69
104.9
76
110.3
110
81.2
72
54.0
Floyd
Fountain
Gibson
908
450.3
111
116.6
133
125.3
141
68.2
109
53.7
Grant
2,265
519.5 ↑
284
139.1 ↑
287
124.8
357
78.9
235
53.6 ↑
949
463.6
87
85.3
110
101.6
172
79.6
90
43.9
Hamilton
Greene
4,895
412.3 ↓
548
93.1 ↓
888
129.6 ↑
484
47.2 ↓
414
36.2 ↓
Hancock
1,827
480.6
142
74.5 ↓
242
118.7
312
82.8
153
40.2
Harrison
1036
457.9
85
71.9 ↓
140
118.1
186
82.0
77
33.8 ↓
Hendricks
3,398
485.0
361
105.1
500
129.2
482
72.0
269
38.6
Henry
1,479
475.9
159
107.5
172
102.3
250
79.3
166
52.1
Howard
2,263
437.0 ↓
219
86.3 ↓
291
106.5
398
75.3
205
39.0
Huntington
1,038
475.5
110
106.1
129
111.1
136
62.3
102
46.3
Jackson
1,232
504.9 ↑
121
105.9
170
134.8
200
78.5
116
48.5
Jasper
913
488.1
109
116.7
122
126.3
166
88.1 ↑
88
46.6
Jay
628
496.1
67
110.7
98
140.2
91
71.0
77
60.6 ↑
Jefferson
873
459.7
89
94.5
91
89.4 ↓
145
75.3
80
42.6
Jennings
757
499.5
63
84.8
94
115.3
148
97.3 ↑
50
35.5
Johnson
3,279
453.8
267
75.5 ↓
446
114.5
522
73.2
329
45.4
Knox
1,182
510.4 ↑
142
131.9 ↑
154
123.8
171
71.4
121
53.0
Kosciusko
1,953
460.3
227
112.1
261
119.5
302
69.8 ↓
188
44.1
LaGrange
703
401.2 ↓
66
78.3 ↓
93
104.2
110
62.2
63
35.1
13,516
494.8 ↑
1,714
136.4 ↑
1,840
124.7
1,978
72.2
1,435
52.5 ↑
LaPorte
3,179
486.9 ↑
432
140.0 ↑
398
115.9
508
77.1
308
47.7
Lawrence
1,385
470.7
135
90.3
171
111.0
250
82.7
149
50.6
Lake
16 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
County
All Cancers
Count
Rate
Prostate
(Male-only disease)
Count
Rate
Female Breast
Count
Rate
Lung
Count
Rate
Colon and Rectum
Count
Rate
Madison
3,779
476.6
505
133.9 ↑
468
112.7
636
79.0
350
44.1
Marion
19,952
462.5
1,802
91.7 ↓
2,926
122.2
3,357
80.1 ↑
1,715
40.1 ↓
Marshall
1,281
470.8
167
131.4
163
111.8
167
60.0 ↓
121
44.7
344
541.9 ↑
40
120.7
48
148.9
49
75.3
47
73.4 ↑
913
428.1 ↓
103
95.1
103
98.4
167
78.4
66
32.1 ↓
2,644
450.7
257
93.3
368
116.1
374
63.8 ↓
235
41.2
Martin
Miami
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan
Newton
Noble
955
419.1 ↓
93
86.3
109
91.4 ↓
176
77.1
92
40.1
1,952
503.2 ↑
213
109.4
275
131.7
307
80.2
201
52.5 ↑
388
432.2
46
100.8
46
101.0
66
70.4
41
46.9
1,056
417.3 ↓
107
91.0
152
113.9
161
64.9
103
40.5
Ohio
206
542.2
X
X
29
147.0
43
109.0 ↑
24
66.5
Orange
608
493.9
48
75.0 ↓
74
110.9
119
93.8 ↑
69
57.3
Owen
677
515.3 ↓
73
95.7
72
106.4
120
92.0 ↑
68
54.7
Parke
474
441.2
56
99.2
57
99.5
96
86.0
39
35.8
Perry
527
443.2
46
81.4
72
111.3
106
90.7
49
40.4
Pike
363
425.1
38
91.8
53
120.5
56
62.1
43
49.6
Porter
4,315
486.7 ↑
618
141.5 ↑
606
126.6
663
76.0
393
46.2
Posey
735
468.9
99
129.7
101
120.1
94
62.2
69
44.4
Pulaski
390
452.5
49
110.7
41
93.2
63
69.6
45
52.3
Putnam
998
473.8
82
80.0 ↓
121
114.6
200
94.0 ↑
100
47.7
Randolph
846
502.2
106
130.7
104
120.2
143
81.4
87
51.2
Ripley
768
462.9
78
97.7
100
113.6
133
78.2
73
43.3
Rush
527
500.7
45
86.1
61
115.3
87
78.1
46
42.8
Scott
647
479.5
31
47.2 ↓
77
108.1
124
89.5
71
51.3
Shelby
1,304
509.7 ↑
130
105.2
184
138.4
206
80.4
131
49.8
573
448.5
63
100.5
78
120.5
100
75.7
63
50.4
Spencer
St. Joseph
6,805
469.3
827
122.6 ↑
937
121.9
1,050
71.8
688
47.1
Starke
725
507.1 ↑
91
124.9
81
111.1
129
85.9
57
40.3
Steuben
840
411.9 ↓
91
87.3
99
93.0 ↓
139
65.5
76
37.7
Sullivan
583
454.0
55
92.0
70
105.7
101
75.6
64
50.0
Switzerland
285
472.3
27
85.2
22
72.4 ↓
51
84.4
38
66.5 ↑
Tippecanoe
3,355
477.7
356
113.2
469
125.3
472
68.5
293
42.9
Tipton
464
443.0
41
76.2
72
129.8
76
72.2
61
56.0
Union
207
457.3
31
150.5
20
86.9
34
67.7
X
X X
4,617
445.3 ↓
491
102.2
599
109.3
827
78.7
427
41.0
545
515.4 ↑
75
149.3 ↑
64
110.4
95
86.7
59
57.5
2,971
506.2 ↑
312
117.9
409
131.3
477
81.0
270
45.2
988
457.5
126
122.1
120
107.5
136
62.9
108
45.6
Warren
251
469.6
29
108.4
37
127.8
38
71.6
27
50.8
Warrick
1,611
476.2
201
115.3
252
137.7 ↓
215
64.4
143
42.7
Vanderburgh
Vermillion
Vigo
Wabash
Washington
815
518.8 ↑
60
76.8 ↓
112
137.5
158
97.8 ↑
74
48.6
2,089
484.1
221
112.6
234
102.7
392
88.3 ↑
176
39.3
Wells
689
410.4 ↓
67
85.8
92
106.3
89
51.5 ↓
55
31.7 ↓
White
753
466.1
82
100.6
84
97.8
135
79.1
74
44.5
Whitley
913
470.2
106
114.7
120
119.8
132
67.2
83
42.5
Wayne
* Rates are per 100,000 people and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
“x” Rate and comparison to state rate is suppressed if fewer than 20 cases occurred
because rate is considered unstable.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 17
Table 4. Indiana Cancer Mortality (Death) Rates by County*, 2008–2012
All Cancers
Count
Rate
Prostate
(Male-only disease)
Count
Rate
Female Breast
Count
Rate
Count
Indiana
65,367
187.3
2,918
21.9
4,410
22.6
Adams
320
162.4 ↓
23
27.7
X
X
Allen
3,166
175.6 ↓
144
21.4
258
Bartholomew
804
185.2
33
19.4
53
County
Lung
Rate
Colon and Rectum
Count
Rate
20,028
57.5
5,818
16.6
66
34.0 ↓
35
19.6
25.0
855
48.2 ↓
288
15.7
21.6
257
58.7
63
15.1
Benton
98
178.3
X
X
X
X
44
82.2 ↑
X
X
Blackford
172
194.5
X
X
X
X
49
55.7
28
32.0 ↑
Boone
537
192.5
33
33.3 ↑
45
27.4
159
59.3
41
14.7
Brown
189
184.8
X
X
X
X
63
62.4
X
X
Carroll
229
181.0
X
X
X
X
54
41.8 ↓
22
17.5
Cass
450
192.0
X
X
28
22.8
162
69.3 ↑
34
14.9
Clark
1,158
195.4
36
17.8
50
15.1 ↓
414
70.5 ↑
102
17.0
Clay
311
189.9
X
X
22
24.6
96
58.2
36
22.1
Clinton
383
196.0
23
29.5
X
X
129
67.2
45
22.1
Crawford
110
171.1
X
X
X
X
43
63.7
X
X
Daviess
327
182.4
X
X
X
X
104
58.9
33
18.9
Dearborn
496
180.4
21
19.6
27
19.0
168
59.7
49
18.6
Decatur
301
199.5
X
X
X
X
96
64.1
20
13.5
DeKalb
439
193.4
X
X
25
20.5
122
53.4
41
17.4
Delaware
1,297
191.4
41
15.2 ↓
81
23.4
417
62.0
126
17.8
Dubois
434
173.7
23
24.7
32
22.6
97
39.0 ↓
49
19.4
Elkhart
1,720
171.3 ↓
81
21.4
112
19.9
492
49.7 ↓
155
15.8
Fayette
364
231.5 ↑
20
28.5
25
29.1
123
76.1 ↑
34
20.6
Floyd
761
186.2
21
13.1 ↓
56
23.0
252
60.7
51
12.2
Fountain
236
202.2
X
X
X
X
77
65.1
26
23.6
Franklin
255
186.4
X
X
X
X
79
57.1
29
21.4
Fulton
277
207.2
X
X
X
X
88
66.3
21
15.5
Gibson
357
174.3
X
X
28
25.7
97
46.9
47
22.7
Grant
893
201.3
30
18.0
62
25.2
284
63.1
73
16.5
Greene
413
194.6
X
X
X
X
144
67.5
34
16.0
Hamilton
1,618
154.2 ↓
75
19.4
141
22.1
375
36.4 ↓
124
11.4 ↓
Hancock
677
185.5
24
17.0
50
23.8
220
60.6
47
13.2
Harrison
385
173.6
X
X
23
19.2
132
59.7
25
11.3
Hendricks
1,121
169.5 ↓
44
18.6
81
20.7
329
50.8
83
12.1 ↓
Henry
624
196.4
24
20.2
32
18.5
213
68.0 ↑
50
15.4
Howard
936
176.3
31
15.9
61
20.8
299
56.3
74
13.7
Huntington
445
197.5
27
30.4
33
25.4
119
52.3
39
17.6
Jackson
512
207.5 ↑
26
26.2
25
18.7
171
68.1
46
18.9
Jasper
384
208.0
21
29.4
33
32.3
140
75.4 ↑
25
13.6
Jay
273
211.9
X
X
X
X
80
62.6
32
24.9
Jefferson
323
169.0
X
X
X
X
109
55.9
29
15.2
Jennings
318
217.3 ↑
X
X
X
X
110
71.5 ↑
23
16.9
Johnson
1,215
171.6 ↓
48
17.8
70
17.5
376
53.0
109
14.9
Knox
439
181.0
X
X
27
19.9
130
53.7
50
20.3
Kosciusko
800
188.3
40
25.5
50
21.2
242
56.7
66
15.0
LaGrange
295
168.9
X
X
X
X
80
45.7
29
15.6
Lake
5,333
194.8 ↑
245
22.4
403
26.2 ↑
1,497
54.8
546
20.1 ↑
LaPorte
1,278
195.5
67
27.4
91
25.8
362
55.7
133
19.7
Lawrence
570
188.9
X
X
40
24.0
185
60.8
55
18.1
18 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
All Cancers
Count
Rate
County
Prostate
(Male-only disease)
Count
Rate
Female Breast
Count
Rate
Lung
Count
Rate
Colon and Rectum
Count
Rate
Madison
1,573
194.2
63
20.0
94
21.0
546
67.5 ↑
129
15.7
Marion
8,503
203.2 ↑
394
25.8 ↑
601
24.9
2719
65.4 ↑
704
16.7
Marshall
462
163.8 ↓
23
21.9
30
18.9
128
46.0 ↓
38
13.3
Martin
125
189.3
X
X
X
X
38
58.7
X
X
Miami
409
192.6
X
X
21
19.5
145
68.1
25
11.8
Monroe
1,014
172.1 ↓
49
21.8
68
20.5
292
49.7 ↓
79
13.7
Montgomery
415
177.7
20
19.9
20
14.8
131
57.1
36
15.3
Morgan
721
196.9
29
25.2
49
23.8
242
63.1
62
17.1
Newton
179
197.0
X
X
X
X
56
60.3
23
25.1
Noble
473
189.7
29
30.8
38
29.3
133
52.8
51
20.7
Ohio
77
198.2
X
X
X
X
32
81.0
X
X
Orange
257
206.6
X
X
X
X
94
73.7 ↑
20
15.4
Owen
269
214.2
X
X
20
29.1
86
65.4
21
18.4
Parke
200
188.6
X
X
X
X
68
61.1
X
X
Perry
257
212.7
X
X
X
X
93
79.4 ↑
31
24.6
Pike
155
180.3
X
X
X
X
54
60.8
X
X
Porter
1,567
180.6
76
23.4
119
24.2
468
53.8
150
17.4
Posey
255
165.2
X
X
X
X
64
41.5 ↓
21
13.5
Pulaski
170
192.4
X
X
X
X
50
55.4
X
X
Putnam
413
196.9
X
X
23
20.6
158
74.9 ↑
54
25.4 ↑
Randolph
335
193.1
20
26.2
X
X
100
56.9
32
18.7
Ripley
343
200.5
X
X
X
X
98
58.1
35
20.9
Rush
226
209.0
X
X
X
X
70
63.1
X
X
Scott
285
217.2 ↑
X
X
X
X
108
78.8 ↑
22
17.2
Shelby
478
186.9
X
X
28
20.2
151
58.6
40
14.9
Spencer
231
181.0
X
X
X
X
70
53.7
29
22.2
St. Joseph
2,717
180.5
143
23.5
178
20.9
780
52.4 ↓
245
16.3
Starke
306
219.0 ↑
X
X
23
31.4
108
72.7 ↑
21
15.0
Steuben
346
170.4
21
26.0
31
26.2
99
46.7
29
14.7
Sullivan
284
217.5 ↑
X
X
X
X
87
65.5
27
21.1
Switzerland
139
229.5 ↑
X
X
X
X
51
81.2 ↑
X
X
Tippecanoe
1,200
172.5 ↓
49
17.9
107
26.5
330
48.9 ↓
120
17.1
Tipton
177
163.6
X
X
X
X
46
42.9
23
20.3
Union
75
173.4
X
X
X
X
25
56.9
X
X
Vanderburgh
1,987
187.0
83
19.3
138
24.0
617
58.6
150
13.8
Vermillion
220
205.2
X
X
X
X
87
79.1 ↑
25
25.0
Vigo
1,200
202.1 ↑
39
17.2
82
24.3
398
68.1 ↑
101
16.7
Wabash
432
186.3
29
29.6
25
18.9
115
52.3
39
15.2
Warren
94
172.2
X
X
X
X
32
58.4
X
X
Warrick
554
167.5 ↓
33
27.2
44
24.1
153
46.0 ↓
40
12.3
Washington
323
206.4
X
X
X
X
117
73.7 ↑
23
15.6
Wayne
902
202.0 ↑
27
14.5
52
21.3
292
66.1 ↑
74
16.2
Wells
266
150.7 ↓
X
X
X
X
77
44.4 ↓
28
15.7
White
339
204.2
X
X
20
22.1
113
66.8
29
17.7
Whitley
371
189.8
32
44.1 ↑
24
21.8
107
54.1
30
15.7
* Rates are per 100,000 people and age-adjusted to the 2000 US Standard Population
† “↑↓” symbols denote whether the county’s rate is significantly different than the Indiana
rate based on the 95% confidence interval overlap method (see Page 4 for description).
Because of limitations of this method, some of the counties without ↑↓ symbols could
still have significantly different rates than the state.
“x” Rate and comparison to state rate is suppressed if fewer than 20 deaths occurred because rate is considered unstable; counts <5 are suppressed to maintain confidentiality.
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 19
Map 1. Incidence Rates for All Cancers Combined by County — Indiana, 2008-2012
* Significantly different (higher or lower) than state rate (P<.05)
Technical note: This map presents age-adjusted county incidence rates using a
smoothed interpolated surface and is intended to provide a generalized depiction of
rate variability throughout the state.
20 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Map 2. Incidence Rates for Selected Cancer Types by County — Indiana, 2008-2012
Breast Cancer
Colon & Rectum Cancer
Prostate Cancer
Lung Cancer
* Significantly different (higher or lower) than state rate (P<.05)
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Technical note: This map presents age-adjusted county incidence rates using a
smoothed interpolated surface and is intended to provide a generalized depiction of
rate variability throughout the state.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 21
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 5. Burden of Invasive Female* Breast Cancer — Indiana, 2008–2012
Indiana Incidence
Indiana Deaths
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
females†
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
females†
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
4,415
118.1
4,366
115.7
882
22.6
872
21.9
* Fewer than 40 cases of breast cancer occur among Indiana males each year. The
annual incidence rate (typically around 1.0 case per 100,000 males) remained stable
during 2008-2012.
† Age-adjusted
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Breast Cancer
Bottom Line
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death and,
excluding skin cancers, the most frequently diagnosed cancer
among females in the US.1 The lifetime risk of developing breast
cancer among females is one in eight.1 Breast cancer is typically
diagnosed during a screening examination. An estimated
231,840 new cases of invasive breast cancer and 40,290 breast
cancer-related deaths are expected to occur among females
nationally in 2015.1 White and African American females have
similar incidence rates; however, African American females have
significantly higher mortality rates.2 This may be, in part, because
of late diagnosis, diagnosis in younger individuals, and barriers
to healthcare access [Figure 9].2 Today, there are 3 million US
females who are breast cancer survivors. Females should have
frequent conversations with their health care provider about
their risks for breast cancer and how often they should be
screened. Breast cancer is rare among males as an estimated 2,350
cases will occur in 2015.1 However, because males are prone to
ignoring warning signs, they are often diagnosed at later stages
and have poorer prognoses. During 2015, it is estimated that 440
males are expected to die nationally from breast cancer.
Who Gets Breast Cancer?
Sex and age are the two greatest risk factors for developing
breast cancer. Females have a much greater risk of developing
breast cancer (>99% of Indiana cases occur among females),
and that risk increases with age. Overall, in Indiana, 79 percent
of all breast cancer incidence and 88 percent of breast cancer
deaths occur in females over the age of 50.
Factors associated with increased breast cancer risk include
weight gain after the age of 18, being overweight or obese,
use of menopausal hormone therapy, physical inactivity,
and alcohol consumption. Research also indicates that longterm, heavy smoking increases breast cancer risk, particularly
among females who start smoking before their first pregnancy.
Additional risk factors include:
• Family history — Females who have had one or more
first degree relatives who have been diagnosed with breast
cancer have an increased risk. Additionally, breast cancer
risk increases if a woman has a family member who carries
the breast cancer susceptibility genes (BRCA) 1 or 2, which
accounts for five to ten percent of all female breast cancers.
BRCA mutations also account for five to 20 percent of all male
breast cancers, and 15 to 20 percent of familial breast cancers.1
• Race — In Indiana, during 2008-2012, the breast cancer
incidence rates for African American and white females
were similar, but the mortality rate for African American
females was 39 percent higher than for whites.3 African
American females had significantly higher rates of diagnosis at the regional or distant stage [Figure 10].
• Reproductive factors — Females may have an increased risk
if they have a long menstrual history (menstrual periods that
start early and/or end later in life), have recently used oral
contraceptives or Depo-Provera, have never had children, or
had their first child after the age of 30.1
• Certain medical findings — High breast tissue density, high
bone mineral density, type 2 diabetes, certain benign breast
conditions, and lobular carcinoma in situ may increase risk
Figure 9. Female Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates Trends by Race* — Indiana, 2003–2012
140
per 100,000 females
120
100
White Incidence Rate
African American Incidence Rate
White Mortality Rate
African American Mortality Rate
124.2
116.4
115.4
109.1
80
60
40
20
36.6†
34.5†
25.8
20.9‡
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Year
* Age-adjusted
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Rate among African-Americans was significantly higher than rate among whites
(P<.05)
‡ The breast cancer mortality rate among white females was significantly lower
(P<.05) in 2012 compared to 2003
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 23
Figure 10. Percent of Female Breast Cancer Cases by Stage of Diagnosis and Race — Indiana, 2008–2012
100
100
White African American
Percent
80
80
70.0%
60
60
64.1%*
40
40
27.7%
33.4%†
20
20
00
2.3%
In Situ or Local
Regional or Distant
Stage at Diagnosis
* Proportion of cases diagnosed in the local stage was significantly lower (P<.05)
among African American females when compared to white females, but significantly
higher than whites for the in situ stage.
2.5%
Unknown
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Proportion of cases diagnosed in the regional or distant stage was significantly higher (P<.05) among African American females when compared to white
females
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Breast Cancer
• The most common symptom of breast cancer is a
new lump or mass. It’s important to have anything
new or unusual checked by a doctor.
• Other symptoms of breast cancer may include:
Hard knots, or thickening
Swelling, warmth, redness, or darkening
Change in size or shape
Dimpling or puckering of the skin
Itchy, scaly sore, or rash on the nipple
Pulling in of the nipple or other parts of the breast
Nipple discharge that starts suddenly
New pain in one spot that doesn’t go away
Although these symptoms can be caused by things other
than breast cancer, it is important to have them checked
out by your doctor.
for developing breast cancer. In addition, high dose radiation to the chest for cancer treatment increases risk.1
Factors associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer
include breastfeeding, regular moderate or vigorous physical activity, and maintaining a healthy body weight. Two
24 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
medications — tamoxifen and raloxifene — have been
approved to reduce breast cancer risk in female at high risk.1
Can Breast Cancer Be Detected Early? — see
the “Be Aware” box for additional information
Females should have frequent conversations with their health
care provider about their risks for breast cancer and how often
they should be screened. In general, females should follow
these recommendations:
• Breast Self-Awareness. Females in their 20s should be
aware of the normal look and feel of their breasts, so that
they can identify potentially dangerous changes.
• Clinical Breast Exams. The American Cancer Society recommends that females in their 20s and 30s have a clinical
breast exam by a health care professional every three years.
Asymptomatic females in their 40s should have yearly clinical breast exams.
• Screening Mammograms. The United States Preventive
Services Task Force recommends a screening mammogram
every two years for females aged 50 to 74, which help detect
cancers before a lump can be felt. Females between the ages of
40 to 49, especially those with a family history of breast cancer,
should discuss the risks and benefits of mammography with
their health provider to determine if it is right for them.
According to the 2012 Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System (BRFSS), only 69.5 percent of females ages
Figure 11. Percent of Female Breast Cancer Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Unknown
1.6%
Distant
5.2%
In Situ
18.2%
During 2008–2012, of the 26,996
female Indiana residents who received a
breast cancer diagnosis, 18,969 (70%)
were diagnosed in the in situ or local
stage, 7,608 (28.2%) were diagnosed
in the regional or distant stage, and 419
(1.6%) had unknown staging.
Regional
22.9%
* Includes all in situ and invasive cases
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Local
52.0%
and based both on medical and personal choices. Individuals
should partner with their medical providers and be active participants in the development of a treatment and care plan.
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015.
Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2015. Accessed at
http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/
cancerfactsfigures2015/index on February 5, 2015.
2
Susan G. Komen, Dallas, TX. Accessed at http://ww5.komen.
org/BreastCancer/Statistics.html on December 3, 2014.
3
Indiana State Cancer Registry Statistics Report Generator.
Accessed online at http://www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm on
December 3, 2014.
1
50 and older had a mammogram during the past two years.
The Affordable Care Act requires preventive screening services to be included in most insurance policies. Often, these
services are paid in full. Individuals should check with their
individual insurance providers for specific plan information.
What Factors Influence
Breast Cancer Survival?
Staging of breast cancer takes into account the number of
lymph nodes involved and whether the cancer has moved
to a secondary location [Figure 11]. When breast cancer is
detected early, before it is able to be felt, the five-year survival
rate is 99 percent.1 During 2012, in Indiana, only 52 percent
of breast cancer cases were diagnosed at the local stage.
Approximately 18 percent were diagnosed in situ (the earliest
stage possible for diagnosis).3 During this same time, almost
30 percent of Indiana’s breast cancer cases were diagnosed in
the regional or distant stages.3
There are multiple treatment options available for breast
cancer patients. Surgical treatment options include mastectomy (the medical term for the surgical removal of one or
both breasts, either partially or completely) and lumpectomy
(the removal of only the cancerous area of the breast). Local
radiation can be used to treat the tumor without affecting
the rest of the body. Other treatments include chemotherapy,
hormone therapy, and targeted therapy. These can be given
orally or intravenously in order to reach cancer cells anywhere
in the body. An individual’s treatment plan is personalized
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Breast Cancer
• Know your risk! Talk to your doctor about your personal and family history, and screening.
• Get screened regularly.
• Be smoke free! Visit www.in.gov/quitline for free,
evidence-based smoking cessation assistance.
• Maintain a healthy weight.
• Adopt a physically active lifestyle.
• Limit alcohol consumption.
• Limit postmenopausal hormone use. When evaluating treatment options for menopausal symptoms,
consider the increased risk of breast cancer associated with the use of estrogen and progestin and discuss this with your physician.
• Breastfeed, if you can. Studies suggest that breastfeeding for one year or more slightly reduces a woman’s overall risk of breast cancer.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 25
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 6. Burden of Invasive Cervical Cancer — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
females†
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
females†
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
250
7.4
240
7.1
Indiana Deaths
86
2.4
100
2.7
† Age-adjusted
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Cervical Cancer
Bottom Line
Cervical cancer is almost 100 percent preventable through
regular routine screening, avoidance of controllable risk
factors, and vaccination against the human papillomavirus
(HPV). In the US, an estimated 12,900 cases of invasive cervical cancer cases will be diagnosed in 2015 and 4,100 deaths
will occur.1 Large declines in incidence rates over most of
the past several decades have begun to taper off, particularly
among younger females; from 2006 to 2010, rates were stable
in females younger than 50, and decreasing by only 3.1 percent
in females ages 50 and older.1 In Indiana, approximately 250
new cases of cervical cancer and 86 cervical cancer-related
deaths occur annually among females [Table 6].
Who Gets Cervical Cancer?
• Infection with HPV is the single greatest risk factor for cervical cancer. Most cervical cancers are caused by persistent
infection with certain types of HPV. The CDC estimates
that at least 91 percent of cervical cancer cases are caused
by HPV each year.2 Other risk factors for cervical cancer
include a compromised immune system and smoking.
• HPV is passed person-to-person through skin-to-skin
sexual contact. Risk of transmission can be reduced by
delaying first sexual activity, limiting the number of sexual
partners, and using condoms.
• HPV vaccination is the best method of prevention. There
are two vaccines (Cervarix and Gardasil) for females
that are approved ages 9 through 26. HPV vaccination is
routinely recommended for girls ages 11 and 12 and for
females ages 13 through 26 who did not get any or all of
the doses when they were younger. One vaccine (Gardasil)
is approved for males ages 9 through 26. HPV vaccination is routinely recommended for males ages 11 and 12
and for males ages 13 through 21 who did not get any
or all of the doses when they were younger. Vaccination
is routinely recommended for immunocompromised
males and for males who have sex with males who are
ages 22-26. 3 A new vaccine, Gardasil 9, has recently
been approved by the Food and Drug Administration,
which would protect against nine strains of HPV and
can prevent almost 90 percent of HPV-related cervical
cancers. Due to the recent approval of Gardasil 9, it has
not yet been included in vaccination recommendations.
• According to the National Immunization Survey (NIS), in
2013 only 54 percent of girls and 18 percent of boys ages 13
through 17 in Indiana received the first in the three dose
series of HPV vaccine.4 Only 71 percent of girls in Indiana
who began the series got all three shots.4
• Indiana females are most often diagnosed with cervical
cancer during their middle adult years. During 2012, 85
percent of cervical cancer cases occurred among Indiana
females less than 65 years-old, including 38 percent of cases
occurring among females ages 25 to 44 and 46 percent
among females ages 45 to 64.5
• During 2003-2012, African American females in Indiana,
compared to white females, had a 21 percent higher cervical cancer incidence rate (9.2 versus 7.6 cases per 100,000
females, respectively) and a 46 percent higher mortality
Per 100,000 females
Figure 12. Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates by Race* — Indiana, 2003–2012
* Age-adjusted
10
10
99
88
77
66
55
44
33
22
11
00
9.2†
7.8
7.6
All Females
White
African American
3.5†
2.5
Incidence
2.4
Mortality
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Rate among African American females is significantly higher (P<.05) than the rate
among white females
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 27
Figure 13. Percent of Cervical Cancer Cases by Stage of Diagnosis and Race* — Indiana, 2003–2012
60
60
50
50
51.0% 51.4%53.1%
43.6% 43.9%
Percent
40
40
All Females
White
40.4%
African American
30
30
20
20
10
10
00
5.4%
Local
Regional or Distant
Stage at Diagnosis
* Proportion of cases diagnosed in the regional or distant stage compared to the local
stage is significantly higher (P<.05) among African American females than among
white females
rate (3.5 versus 2.4 deaths per 100,000 females, respectively)
[Figure 12]. While many factors are probably impacting
this disparity, one apparent issue is that African American
females tend to be diagnosed more often after the cervical
cancer is no longer localized [Figure 13]. 5
Can Cervical Cancer Be Detected Early?
In the US, the cervical cancer mortality rate declined by
almost 70 percent between 1955 and 1992, mainly because
of the effectiveness of Pap smear screening.3 Pap screenings
allow for early identification and treatment of abnormal cervical cells before they become cancerous. This is important
because, typically, the pre-cancerous conditions do not cause
pain or other symptoms and are only detected through Pap
screenings.
The American Cancer Society, in collaboration with the
American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology and
the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend all
average-risk females ages 21 through 65 receive a routine Pap
screening every three years. The preferred screening method
for females ages 30 through 35 is a HPV and Pap test (called
co-testing) every five years.1
In 2012, 73.2 percent of Indiana females ages 18 and older
reported having had a Pap screen during the past three years.
This rate was similar for all racial and ethnic groups.5
28 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
9.3%
12.3%
Unknown
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
What Factors Influence Cervical
Cancer Survival?
Figure 14 provides the percent of Indiana females diagnosed
during each stage of cervical cancer during 2008-2012. The
five-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with cervical
cancer at the local stage is 91 percent.1
In Indiana, from 2003-2007 to 2008-2012, the incidence
of cervical cancer decreased, but the mortality rate remained
constant [Figure 15]. There is no clear reason for this finding;
however, it might be because while routine screening is catching most cases of cervical cancer prior to it becoming invasive,
there still remains a consistent group of females who are not
being screened and are diagnosed after the cancer has spread.
These females are at increased risk for poor health outcomes.
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015.
Atlanta, GA. 2015. Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/
research/cancerfactsstatistics/index on February 5, 2015.
2
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. How Many
Cancer are Linked with HPV Each year? Atlanta, GA. 2011.
Accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/hpv/statistics/cases.
htm on April 16, 2014.
3
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Human
Papillomavirus. Atlanta, GA. 2011. Accessed at http://www.
1
Figure 14. Percent of Cervical Cancer Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Unknown
3.3%
Distant
12.8%
Local
33.7%
Regional
31.0%
During 2008–2012, of the 1,547 Indiana
females who received a diagnosis of
invasive cervical cancer, 521 (33.7 percent)
were diagnosed in the local stage, 677 (43.8
percent) were diagnosed in the regional or
distant stage, and 51 (3.3 percent) had
unknown staging.
* Only includes invasive cases; in situ cases are not reportable
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Figure 15. Changes in Cervical Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates among Indiana Females between
the Five-year Periods of 2003–2007 and 2008–2012*
Per 100,000 females
10
10
8
8
8.2
2003–2007
7.4
2008–2012
6
6
4
4
2.6
2
2
0
0
Incidence Rate
2.4
Mortality Rate
* Age-adjusted
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
cdc.gov/hpv/vaccine.html on April 16, 2014.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Immunization
Managers. Accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/imzmanagers/coverage/nis/teen/figures/2013-map.html on
January 12, 2015.
5
Indiana State Cancer Registry Statistics Report Generator.
Accessed at http://www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm on June 16, 2014.
4
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Cervical Cancer
• Get vaccinated — Protecting yourself from HPV
decreases your risk for cervical and other cancers.
• Practice safe sex.
• Be smoke-free — Visit www.in.gov/quitline for free
smoking cessation assistance.
• Have routine Pap screenings.
• Ask for an HPV test with your Pap smear if you are
age 30 or older.
• Watch for abnormal vaginal discharge and bleeding.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 29
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 7. Burden of Cancer among Children Ages 0–19 Years — Indiana, 2008-2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
children*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
children*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
368
20.5
378
21.1
Indiana Deaths
42
2.3
46
2.6
* Age-specific
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Childhood Cancer
Bottom Line
The occurrence of cancer during childhood is rare, representing approximately one percent of all new cancer diagnoses in
the US.1 Although uncommon, cancer is the second leading
cause of death among children ages five to 14, exceeded only
by accidents.1 Between 2008-2012, 368 cases of cancer and 42
cancer-related deaths occurred each year among Indiana children ages 0–19 [Table 7]. In general, childhood cancer trends
in Indiana are similar to what is seen nationwide. For most
cases of childhood cancer, the cause is unknown.
The incidence rate of cancer among Indiana children ages
0–19 during 2008-2012 was 20.5 cases per 100,000 children,
which was similar to the national rate of 19.1 cases per 100,000
children for 2007–2011, the most recent years for which
national data are available.2 In Indiana, the childhood cancer
mortality rate was 2.3 deaths per 100,000 children compared
to the US mortality rate of 2.4 deaths per 100,000 children
[Figure 16].2
Using the International Classification of Childhood Cancer
system, the most common cancer types diagnosed among
Indiana children ages 0–14 were leukemias and brain tumors.
In children ages 15–19, the most common cancer types were
lymphomas and a group of cancers that include epithelial
cancers (cancers that develop from the cellular covering of
internal and external body surfaces or related tissues in the
skin, hollow viscera and other organs) and melanoma.
Who Most Often Gets Childhood Cancer?
• White children. During 2008-2012, in Indiana, white children had a significantly higher incidence rate than African
American children (21.2 versus 14.8 per 100,000 children,
respectively) [Figure 16]. This difference in rates between
races is also seen nationally. The reasons for these differences are not known.1
• Children born with certain genetic disorders or familial
syndromes. Children with a familial neoplastic syndrome,
inherited immunodeficiency, certain genetic syndromes,
and chromosomal abnormalities are at greater risk for
developing various types of childhood cancer.3
• Males born with undescended testes. They are at greater
risk for testicular cancer.3
• Additional risk factors include:3
•• Radiation exposure, especially prenatally (includes x-rays);
•• Tanning bed or sun exposure increases the risk of
melanoma, one of the more common cancers among
teenagers;
•• Prior chemotherapy with an alkylating agent or
epipodophyllotoxin;
•• Infection with the Epstein-Barr virus is associated with
certain types of lymphoma; and
•• Insecticide exposure, especially prenatally, is associated
with leukemia.
Figure 16. Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates among Children Ages 0–19 Years by Sex and Race —
Indiana, 2008–2012
All Races White African American
Age-specific Rate per 100,000
25
25
20
20
15
15
20.5
21.2
20.8
14.8*
21.8
20.1
20.5
15.9
13.7*
10
10
55
00
Both Sexes
Males
Females
Incidence Rate†
* Rate is significantly lower (P<.05) among African Americans than among whites
2.3 2.1 2.2
2.6 2.4 2.3
2.0 1.9 2.1
Both Sexes
Males
Females
Mortality Rate†
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Age-specific rate per 100,000 children
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 31
Figure 17. Five-year Survival Rates for the Most Common Childhood Cancers — United States, 2003–2009
Retinoblastoma
Hodgkin Lymphoma
Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
Wilms Tumor
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Neuroblastoma
Brain and Other Nervous System Tumor
Ewing Sarcoma
Osteosarcoma
Acute Myelogenous Leukemia
Rhabdomyosarcoma
0%
99%
97%
90%
90%
85%
79%
75%
72%
71%
64%
64%
20%
40%
60%
80%
100%
5-Year Survival Rate
Source: American Cancer Society. Childhood Cancer. Atlanta, GA. 2011. Accessed
at www.cancer.org/acs/groups/cid/documents/webcontent/002287-pdf.pdf on June
03, 2013.
Can Childhood Cancer Be Detected Early? —
see “Be Aware” box for additional information
Early symptoms are usually nonspecific. Par­ents should ensure
that children have regular medical checkups and should be
aware of any unusual symptoms that persist.
What Factors Influence Childhood
Cancer Survival?
Overall, US childhood deaths due to cancer have dropped
more than 50 percent since 1975 because of improved
treatment options. The five-year survival rate for childhood
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Cancer
Childhood cancer is rare, but your child should be examined by a health care provider if you notice any of these
potential cancer-related signs and symptoms:
• Unusual mass or swelling
• Unexplained paleness or loss of energy
• Sudden tendency to bruise
• Persistent, localized pain
• Prolonged, unexplained fever or illness
• Frequent headaches, often with vomiting
• Sudden eye or vision changes
• Excessive, rapid weight loss
32 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
cancers is now 83 percent.1 However, rates vary considerably
depending on cancer type; moreover, within the major catego­
ries, cancer subtypes might vary in response to treatment or
survival characteristics [Figure 17].
The earlier a cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better.
Childhood cancers can be treated by a combina­tion of therapies (surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy) chosen based
on the type and stage of cancer. Treatment is coordinated by
a team of experts, including pediatric oncologists, pediatric nurses, social workers, psychologists, and others. Because
these cancers are uncommon, outcomes are more successful
when treatment is managed by a children’s cancer center.1
Survivors of childhood cancer might experience treatment-related side effects. Information for survivors of childhood cancer is available at www.survivorshipguidelines.org.
References:
Ward, E., DeSantis, C., Robbins, A., Kohler, B., Jemal, A.
(2014). Childhood and adolescent cancer statistics, 2014. CA
Cancer J Clin., 64:83-103.
2
Howlader, N, Noone, AM, Krapcho, M, Garshell, J, Miller, D,
Altekruse, SF, et al. (eds) (April 2014). SEER cancer statistics
review, 1975-2011, National Cancer Institute. Bethesda, MD.
Accessed at seer.cancer.gov/csr/1975_2011/.
3
McLaughlin, CC.(2008). Childhood cancer. Fundamentals
of Cancer Epidemiology, 2nd ed, Nasca, PC, and Pastides, H.
editors. Jones and Bartlet Publishers, Sudbury, MA.
1
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 33
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 8. Burden of Invasive Colon and Rectum Cancer — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
(New cases)
3,097
44.4
2,825
39.6
Indiana Mortality
(Deaths)
1,164
16.6
1,169
16.3
* Age-adjusted
34 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Colon and Rectum Cancer
Bottom Line
Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed
cancer and cause of cancer-related death among both males
and females in the US and Indiana. The American Cancer
Society (ACS) estimated that 2,890 Indiana residents will be
diagnosed with colorectal cancer and 1,080 will die because
of the disease during 2015.1 The lifetime risk of developing
colorectal cancer is 1 in 22 for females and 1 in 21 for males.1
In Indiana, African Americans have higher colorectal cancer
incidence and mortality rates than whites, and males have
higher rates than females.
Who Gets Colon and Rectum Cancer?
Age and sex are the two greatest risk factors for developing
colorectal cancer. During 2012, 91 percent of cases diagnosed
were among Indiana residents age 50 and older. In addition,
during 2008-2012, colorectal cancer incidence rates were 27
percent higher among Indiana males than females (50.3 versus
39.5 cases per 100,000 people) [Figure 18].
Additional risk factors for colorectal cancer include:
• Race. In Indiana, during 2008–2012, African Americans
had an 18 percent higher incidence rate (51.5 versus 43.7
cases per 100,000 people) and a 37 percent higher mortality rate (22.0 versus 16.1 deaths per 100,000 people) when
compared with whites [Figure 18].
• Personal or family history. Risk is increased by having a
personal or family history of colorectal cancer or polyps, a
personal history of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, or
certain inherited genetic conditions (e.g., Lynch syndrome,
also known as hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer,
and familial adenomatous polyposis [FAP]).2
• Smoking. According to Surgeon General’s Report, The Health
Consequences of Smoking — 50 Years of Progress, smoking is
a known cause of colorectal cancer. In addition, smoking
increases the failure rates of treatment for all cancers.
• Diabetes. Studies have found that individuals with type
2 diabetes are at higher risk.2 Although diabetes and colorectal cancer share similar risk factors, this increased risk
remains even after those are taken into consideration.2
Studies also suggest that the relationship may be stronger in males than in females. In addition, some research
indicates that some dia­betic medications independently
affect colorectal cancer risk. In general, colorectal cancer
patients with diabetes appear to have slightly poorer survival rates than non-diabetic patients.2
• Modifiable risk factors. Overweight and obesity, physical inactivity, a diet high in red or processed meat, and
alcohol consumption have been found to increase colorectal cancer risk.2 There are some factors that may help lower
risk or even prevent colorectal cancer. Moderate daily
fruit and vegetable intake has been shown to decrease
risk. In addition, consumption of dairy products and
higher blood levels of vitamin D appear to decrease risk.2
Intake of dietary folate, dietary fiber, cereal fiber, and
whole grains is associated with reduced risk; specifically,
for every 10 grams of daily fiber consumption there is a
10 percent reduction in cancer risk.2 Some studies suggest
that long-term, regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (such as aspirin), and use of postmenopausal hormones may reduce risk; however, these drugs
and therapies are not recommended for the prevention of
colorectal cancer because they can have serious adverse
health effects.2
Can Colon and Rectum Cancer Be Detected
Early? — see the “Be Aware” box for additional
information
Colorectal cancer incidence rates increased from 1975
through the mid-1980s, but have been decreasing for the past
two decades in the US.2 Declines have accelerated during the
past few years. From 2008 to 2010, incidence rates decreased
by more than four percent per year in both males and females.2
These declines are largely attributed to increases in the use of
colorectal cancer screening tests that allow the detection and
removal of colorectal polyps before they progress to cancer.2 A
similar trend has been seen in Indiana [Figure 19].
Symptoms of advanced disease include rectal bleeding,
blood in the stool, a change in bowel habits, and cramping
pain in the lower abdomen. In some cases, blood loss from
cancer leads to anemia (low red blood cells), causing symptoms such as weakness and fatigue.
Beginning at age 50, both males and females with average
risk for colorectal cancer should follow one of these testing
schedules:
• Tests that find polyps and cancer:
•• Colonoscopy every ten years; or
•• Flexible sigmoidoscopy, double-contrast barium enema,
or computed tomography (CT) colonography (also
referred to as a “virtual colonoscopy”) every five years.
If any of these three tests are positive, a colonoscopy
should be done.
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Colorectal Cancer
• Early Stage: No symptoms
• Late Stage:
Rectal bleeding
Blood in stool
Change in bowel habits
Cramping pain in lower abdomen
Weakness
Extreme fatigue
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 35
Figure 18. Colorectal Cancer Incidence (a) and
Mortality (Death) (b) Rates by Sex and Race* —
Indiana, 2008–2012
a. Incidence
Rate per 100,000 people
80
80
All Races White African American
60
60
51.5†
44.4
57.6†‡
47.2†
43.7
39.5
40
40
In recent years, colorectal cancer incidence rates have
increased among younger adults in the US. Therefore, timely
evaluation of symptoms consistent with colorectal cancer in
adults under age 50 is important.
38.8
20
20
0
0
Both Sexes
b. Mortality
80
80
Rate per 100,000 people
50.3‡ 49.6‡
Males
What Factors Influence Colorectal
Cancer Survival?
Females
All Races White African American
60
60
40
40
20
20
16.6
22.0†
16.1
26.7†‡
20.2‡ 19.7‡
19.0†
13.8
13.3
0
0
Both Sexes
* Age-adjusted
Males
Females
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Rate among African Americans is
significantly higher (P<.05) than
rate among whites
‡ Rate among males is significantly
higher (P<.05) than rate among
females
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Colorectal Cancer
• Get screened regularly
• Maintain a healthy weight
• Adopt a physically active lifestyle
• Avoid tobacco products
• Limit consumption of alcohol
• Consume a healthy diet that:
Emphasizes plant sources
Supports a healthy weight
Includes at least 2 ½ cups of a variety of vegetables and fruits each day
Includes whole grains rather than processed
(refined) grains
Limits processed and red meats
36 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
• Tests that primarily find cancer
•• Yearly fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or fecal immunochemical test (FIT) or a stool DNA test (undetermined interval). If any of these three tests are positive, a
colonoscopy should be done.
• Individuals who have an increased risk should talk to their
health care provider about whether they should be screened
at a younger age, more frequently, or with colonoscopy.
Nationally, mortality rates for colorectal cancer have declined
in both males and females over the past two decades.2 In
Indiana, mortality rates decreased 31 percent from 2002 to
2012 (from 21.3 to 16.6 deaths per 100,000 people) [Figure 19].
This included a 32 percent decrease among both males (from
25.9 to 19.7 deaths per 100,000) and females (from 17.9 to 13.6
deaths per 100,000).
In the US, the five- and ten-year relative survival rates for
people with colorectal cancer are 65 percent and 58 percent,
respectively.2 When colorectal cancers are detected early, at
the local stage, the five-year survival rate is 90 percent. In
Indiana, during 2008–2012, 44.2 percent of colorectal cancers
were identified early, in the in situ or local stage [Figure 20]. If
the cancer has spread regionally beyond the colon or rectum,
the five-year survival rate decreases to 70 percent. The fiveyear survival rate for colorectal cancer that is diagnosed late,
or in the distant stage, is 13 percent.
Surgery is the most common treatment for colorectal
cancer. Chemotherapy alone, or in combination with radiation, is given before or after surgery to patients whose cancer
has deeply penetrated the bowel wall or spread to lymph
nodes. Three targeted monoclonal antibody therapies, which
block growth of blood vessels to the tumor or the effects of
hormone-like factors that promote cancer cell growth, are
approved to treat metastatic colorectal cancer.
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015.
Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at www.cancer.org/Research/
CancerFactsFigures/index on February 5, 2015.
2
American Cancer Society. Colorectal Cancer Facts & Figures
2014–2016. Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at www.cancer.org/
Research/CancerFactsFigures/index on May 29, 2014.
1
Figure 19. Trends in Colorectal Cancer Incidence* and Screening Rates† — Indiana, 2002–2012
Had Colonoscopy / Sigmoidoscopy Trend
Mortality Rate
70
70
60
60
50
50
40
§
40
30
30
20
20
10
10
Percent Screened
Age-Adjusted Rate per 100,000
Incidence Rate
0
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
* Incidence rates are age-adjusted.
† Persons ages 50 and older who have ever had a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy.
Starting in 2002, these data have been collected every two years. A trend line is provided. Beginning in 2011, the BRFSS methodology changed with the inclusion of cell
phone respondents and a new weighting procedure; thus, 2011 and forward are not
directly comparable to previous years.
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
Sources: Indiana State Cancer Registry (Incidence data); Indiana Behavioral Risk
Factor Surveillance System (Screening data)
§ Incidence rate in 2012 is significantly lower (P<.05) than the rate in 2002
Figure 20. Percent of Colon and Rectum Cancer Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
In Situ
Unknown 5.7%
5.3%
Distant
18.8%
Local
38.5%
During 2008–2012, of the 16,419 Indiana
residents who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer, 7,251 (44.2%) were diagnosed in
the in situ or local stage, 8,290 (50.5%) were
diagnosed in the regional or distant stages,
and 878 (5.3%) had unknown staging.
Regional
31.7%
* Includes all in situ and invasive cases
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 37
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 9. Burden of Invasive Lung Cancer — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
5,167
73.9
4,674
65.4
Indiana Mortality
4,006
57.5
3,958
55.7
* Age-adjusted
38 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Lung Cancer
Bottom Line
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in the US
and Indiana, killing over 158,000 Americans and approximately 4,000 Indiana residents each year. The American
Cancer Society (ACS) estimated that 5,510 Indiana residents
will be diagnosed with lung and bronchus cancer and 4,060
are expected to die because of the disease during 2015.1 If
all tobacco smoking were stopped, the occurrence of lung
cancer would decrease by an estimated 90 percent2; however,
in Indiana, 21.9 percent of adults continue to smoke tobacco,
placing them at great risk for developing lung and other types
of cancer.3
Who Most Often Gets Lung Cancer?
• Smokers. Smoking accounts for 87 percent of lung cancer
deaths and at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths. Lung
cancer mortality rates are about 23 times higher for
current male smokers and 13 times higher for current
female smokers when compared to people who have never
smoked.4 Over one million (21.9 percent) adults in Indiana
are current smokers, and Indiana’s adult smoking rate
remains among the highest in the nation (median adult
smoking rate in the US was 19 percent in 2013).5
• Individuals exposed to secondhand smoke. Each year, an
estimated 50,000 American and 1,240 Indiana resident nonsmokers die from exposure to secondhand smoke (smoke
breathed in involuntarily by someone who is not smoking).4
• Individuals exposed to other cancer-causing agents.
Exposure to asbestos, radon, arsenic, talc, vinyl chloride,
coal products, and radioactive ores, like uranium, can
increase risk for developing lung cancer, especially if they
also smoke tobacco. Radon is a naturally occurring gas that
comes from rocks and dirt and can get trapped in houses
and buildings. It cannot be detected by smell, taste, or sight.
The Environmental Protection Agency reports radon as the
cause of 20,000 cases of lung cancer each year, making it
the second leading cause of lung cancer behind smoking.9
• Males, especially African American males. During 2008–
2012, Indiana males, compared to females, had a 50 percent
greater lung cancer incidence rate (91.3 versus 61.0 cases
per 100,000 people, respectively) and a 69 percent greater
mortality rate (75.1 versus 44.5 deaths per 100,000 people,
respectively). This is mainly because a higher percentage
of males have been smokers compared to females. In 2013,
23.5 percent of adult males and 20.4 percent of adult females
reported being current smokers [Figure 21].3 African
American males in Indiana have approximately 17 percent
greater incidence and 20 percent greater lung cancer mortality rates than do white males [Figure 22].
Can Lung Cancer Be Detected Early? — see
the “Be Aware” box for additional information
Findings from the National Cancer Institute’s National Lung
Screening Trial established screening with the use of low-dose
computed tomography in specific high-risk groups has been
shown to be effective in reducing mortality from lung cancer.
Individuals at high-risk are defined as those ages 55 to 74 who
have a minimum 30 pack per year tobacco smoking history,
who currently smoke, or have quit within the past 15 years.
Figure 21. Percent of Indiana Residents, Ages 18 Years and Older, who Reported Being Current Smokers —
Indiana, 2004–2013
35
All Adults
Females
Males
30
27.6
Percent
26.8*
25
25.6
24.9
23.5†
23.3*
21.2
23.1
21.9†
23.8
20
20.4†
19.3†
0
2004
2005
2006
2007
* Significantly higher (P<.05) compared to females for same year
2008 2009
Year
2010
2011
2012
2013
Source: Indiana Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System
† Significantly lower (P<.05) compared to first year of data in trend line
Due to a change in BRFSS weighting methodology and the inclusion of cell phone
individuals, results from 2011 and forward and not directly comparable with previous years.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 39
Figure 22. Lung Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates by Race and Sex* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Incidence Rate Mortality Rate
Per 100,000 people
120
120
106.1†‡
100
100
80
80
90.7‡
73.9
89†‡
74‡
60
60
62.1
61.4
57.5
47.4
44.1
40
40
20
20
0
0
All
White Men
African American White Women
Men
* Age-adjusted
African American
Women
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Significantly elevated (P<.05) compared to white males
‡ Rate among males is significantly higher (P<.05) than rate among females of the
same race
What Factors Influence
Lung Cancer Survival?
Lung cancer is often diagnosed at a later stage, which negatively
impacts a person’s odds of survival. The five-year survival rate
is highest (54 percent) if the lung cancer is diagnosed when it is
confined entirely within the lung (i.e., localized)6; however, in
Indiana, during 2008–2012, only 18.7 percent of lung cancers
were diagnosed during this stage [Figure 23].
The one-year relative survival rate for lung cancer increased
from 35 percent during 1975–1979 to 42 percent during 2002–
2005, largely because of improvements in surgical techniques
and combined therapies. However, the five-year survival rate
for all stages combined is currently only 16 percent. The fiveyear survival for small cell lung cancer (6 percent) is lower
than that for non-small cell lung cancer (18 percent).7
Treatment options are determined by the type (small cell or
non-small cell) and stage of cancer, and include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted therapies such as
bevacizumab (Avastin) and erlotinib (Tarceva). For localized
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Lung Cancer
• Persistent cough
• Sputum streaked with blood
• Chest pain
• Voice changes
• Recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis
• Smokers should have an open conversation with their
healthcare providers about the risks and benefits of
lung cancer screening.
40 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
cancers, surgery is usually the treatment of choice. Because the
disease has usually spread by the time it is discovered, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are often used, sometimes in
combination with surgery.
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015.
Atlanta, GA. 2015. Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/
research/cancerfactsstatistics/index on February 4, 2015.
2
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Health
Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General.
Atlanta: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC,
National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health
Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health, 2004. www.cdc.
gov/tobacco/data_statistics/sgr/2004/index.htm. Accessed Dec
18, 2011.
3
2013 Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
4
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Smoking-Attributable
Mortality, Years of Potential Life Lost, and Productivity Losses —
United States, 2000–2004. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report.
2008;57(45):1226–8. www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/
mm5745a3.htm. Accessed Dec 18, 2011.
5
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Behavioral
Risk Factor Surveillance System Survey Data. Atlanta, Georgia:
US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention, 2013. apps.nccd.cdc.gov/
BRFSS/ . Accessed Oct. 6, 2014.
6
National Cancer Institute. Surveillance, Epidemiology and End
Results (SEER) Program. seer.cancer.gov. Accessed Oct 24, 2011.
7
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures
2014. Atlanta, GA. 2014. www.cancer.org/Research/
CancerFactsFigures/index . Accessed September 22, 2014.
1
Figure 23. Percent of Lung Cancer Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
In Situ
0.1%
Unknown
5.8%
Local
18.7%
Distant
51.9%
During 2008–2012, of the 25,859 Indiana
residents who received a diagnosis of in situ
or invasive lung cancer, 4,861 (18.8 percent)
were diagnosed in the in situ or local stage,
19,498 (75.4 percent) were diagnosed in
the regional or distant stage, and 1,500 (5.8
percent) had unknown staging.
Regional
23.5%
* Includes invasive and in situ cases
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Health
Consequences of Involuntary Exposure to Tobacco Smoke:
A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: US Department
of Health and Human Services, CDC, National Center for
Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on
Smoking and Health, 2006. www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/
secondhandsmoke/. Accessed Dec 21, 2011.
9
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Lung Cancer:
What are the risk factors? http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/
basic_info/risk_factors.htm. Accessed Mar 4, 2014.
10
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2014 Surgeon
General’s Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking-50
Years of Progress. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/
reports/50-years-of-progress/full-report.pdf. Accessed Mar
14, 2014.
11
8
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Lung Cancer
• Be tobacco-free. Quitting tobacco smoking substantially decreases your risk of developing lung cancer
along with ten other types of cancer, exacerbation of
asthma in adults, cardiovascular disease, and chronic
obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) among many
other diseases.10 Smokers who quit, regardless of
age, live longer than people who continue to smoke.4
Visit QuitNowIndiana.com for free, evidence-based
smoking cessation assistance.
• Avoid all secondhand smoke exposure.
State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE)
System. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; [Accessed
April 1, 2011]. http://www2.cdc.gov/nccdphp/osh/state,
Smoking cessation: the economic benefits. Potential costs and
benefits of smoking cessation for Indiana. American Lung
Association; [Accessed July 7, 2011]. http://www.lungusa.org/
stop-smoking/tobacco-control-advocacy/reports-resources/
cessation-economic-benefits/states/indiana.html.
Take Charge!
What the Community Can Do to Help Prevent
Lung Cancer
• Implement comprehensive smoke-free air policies and
higher taxes on tobacco products.
• Sustain tobacco control program funding to help
reduce smoking rates and lessen the burden of
tobacco use in Indiana. Annually, tobacco use costs
the state over $2 billion in health care costs, including approximately $487 million in Medicaid payments
alone.11
• Support the continued adoption of smoke-free workplaces. The United States Surgeon General has concluded that smoke-free workplace policies are the
only effective way to eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace and lead to less smoking among workers.8
• Support health care provider outreach efforts that help
decrease tobacco use initiation, consumption and
increase quit attempts.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 41
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 10. Burden of Melanoma — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
1,191
17.4
1,091
15.8
Indiana Mortality
214
3.1
192
2.7
* Age-adjusted
Note: The number of basal cell and squamous cell skin cancers (i.e., nonmelanoma
skin cancers, or NMSC) is difficult to estimate because these cases are not required
to be reported to the Indiana State Cancer Registry. According to one report, in 2006
an estimated 3.5 million cases of NMSC occurred among US residents.2 Because of
the limitations of the NMSC data, most of the data reported in this section are only
for melanoma.
42 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Melanoma /Skin Cancer
Bottom Line
Skin cancer (i.e., melanoma and non-melanoma skin cancer)
is an uncontrolled growth and spread of cells or lesions in
the epidermis (the outer layer of skin). Excessive exposure to
ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or other sources, like
tanning beds, is the greatest risk factor for developing skin
cancer. Overall, skin cancers affect more people than lung,
breast, colon, and prostate cancers combined. The two most
common forms of non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) are
basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. Melanoma accounts
for less than two percent of skin cancer cases, but causes the
most skin cancer deaths.1 Overall, the lifetime risk of getting
melanoma is about one in 50 for whites, one in 1,000 for
African Americans, and one in 200 for Hispanics.2
The number of non-melanoma skin cancer (i.e., basal cell
and squamous cell carcinoma) is difficult to estimate because
these cases are not required to be reported to the Indiana State
Cancer Registry. According to one report, in 2006, an estimated 3.5 million cases of NMSC occurred among US residents. Because of the limitations of the NMSC data, most of
the data reported in this section are only for melanoma.
Who gets Melanoma/Skin Cancer?
People of all ages, races, and ethnicities are subject to developing skin cancer. Some risk factors include:
• Age. During 2008-2012, more than 74 percent of melanoma
cases occurred among Indiana residents ages 50 and older
[Figure 24]. However, nationally, melanoma is on the rise
among younger people.3
• Sex. Overall, during 2008-2012, the incidence rate for melanoma among Indiana males was 30 percent higher than
among females. However, before the age of 50, the incidence rate among females was 64 percent higher than
among males. Then, among people ages 55 and older, males
had more than twice the risk that females did.3
• Race. During 2008-2012, the risk of melanoma was 15 times
higher for Indiana whites than for African Americans;
however, anyone can develop the disease.3
• Fair to light skinned complexion. Freckles are an indicator of sun sensitivity and sun damage.
• Hair and eye color. People with natural blonde or red hair
or blue or green eyes are more susceptible to a higher risk of
developing melanoma.
• Multiple or atypical nevi (moles). People who have a large
number of moles (more than 50) often have a higher risk of
developing melanoma.
• Family history. The risk for developing melanoma is
greater for someone who has had one or more close relatives diagnosed with the disease.
• Excessive exposure to UV radiation from the sun and
tanning beds. The US Department of Health and Human
Services and the International Agency of Research on
Cancer panel has found that exposure to sunlamps or
sunbeds is known to be a human carcino­gen based on sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity from studies in humans.4
• History of sunburn. Sunburn at an early age can
increase a person’s risk for developing melanoma and
other skin cancers.
Figure 24. Incidence of Melanoma Skin Cancer by Age Group and Sex, Indiana 2008-2012
140
140
Per 100,000 people
120
120
100
100
Males Females
80
80
60
60
40
40
20
20
00
25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 65–69 70–74 75–79 80–84 85+
Age Group (years)
= Significantly elevated (P<.05) among females compared to males
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
= Significantly elevated (P<.05) among males compared to females
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 43
Figure 25. Percent of Melanoma Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Distant
3.5%
Unknown
3.9%
Regional
6.8%
In Situ
37.4%
During 2008–2012, of the 9,506 Indiana
residents who received a diagnosis of in
situ or invasive melanoma, 8,166 (85.9%)
were diagnosed in the in situ or local
stage, 972 (10.2%) were diagnosed in the
regional or distant stage, and 3.9% in the
unknown stage.
Local
48.5%
* Includes invasive and in situ cases
• Diseases that suppress the immune system. People who
have a weakened immune system, or who are being treated
with immune-suppressing medicines, have an increased
risk for melanoma.2
• Past history of basal cell or squamous cell skin cancers.
• Occupational exposure to coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic
compounds, radium, or some pesticides.
Can Skin Cancer be Detected Early? — see
the “Be Aware” box for additional information
The best way to detect skin cancer early is to recognize changes
in skin growths or the appearance of new growths. Adults
should thoroughly examine their skin regularly, preferably
once a month. New or unusual lesions or a progressive change
in a lesion’s appearance (size, shape, or color, for example)
should be evaluated promptly by a health care provider.
Melanomas often start as small, mole-like growths that
increase in size and might change color. Basal cell carcinoma
might appear as growths that are flat or as small raised pink or
red, translucent, shiny areas that might bleed following minor
injury. Squamous cell carcinoma might appear as growing
lumps, often with a rough surface, or as flat, reddish patches
that grow slowly.
44 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Melanoma
A simple ABCDE rule outlines some warning signs of
melanoma:
A = Asymmetry: One half of the mole (or lesion) does not
match the other half.
B = Border: Border irregularity; the edges are ragged,
notched or blurred.
C = Color: The pigmentation is not uniform, with variable
degrees of tan, brown, or black.
D = Diameter: The diameter of a mole or skin lesion is
greater than 6 millimeters (or the size of a pencil eraser).
E = Evolution: When existing moles change in shape,
size or color. Any sudden increase in size of an existing
mole should be checked.
Melanoma might appear differently than what is
described in the ABCDE rule, so discuss any changes
to existing moles or new growths on the skin with your
health care provider.
What Factors Influence Survival?
Most basal and squamous cell carcinomas can be cured,
especially if the cancer is detected and treated early. Early stage
basal and squamous cell carcinomas can be removed in most
cases by one of several methods including surgical excision,
electrodesiccation, and curettage (tissue destruction by electric
current and removed by scraping with a curette), or cryosurgery (tissue destruction by freezing). Radiation therapy and
certain topical medications may be used in some cases.
Melanoma is also highly curable if detected in its earliest stages and treated properly. Treatment involves removing the primary growth and surrounding normal tissue.
Sometimes, a sentinel lymph node is biopsied to determine stage.1 Additional, extensive lymph node surgery may
be needed if lymph node metastases are present. Treatment
for advanced cases of melanoma includes palliative surgery,
newer targeted or immunotherapy drugs, and sometimes
chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy. The treatment of
advanced melanoma has changed with the US Food and
Drug Administration approval of targeted drugs such as
vemurafenib (Zelboraf), dabrafenib (Tafinlar), trametinib
(Mekinist), and the immunotherapy drugs ipilimumab
(Yervoy) and pembrolizumab (Keytruda).1
Melanoma is more likely than other skin cancers to spread
to other parts of the body (i.e. legs, pelvis, spine, bones, liver,
and brain). The five-year survival rate for people with melanoma is 91 percent. For localized melanoma (48.5 percent of
cases diagnosed in Indiana), the five-year survival rate is 98
percent. When melanoma is spread regionally (6.8 percent of
cases diagnosed in Indiana), the five-year survival rate is 62
percent. In Indiana, during 2008-2012, 3.5 percent of cases
were diagnosed in the distant stage. For those diagnosed
during this stage, the five-year survival rate declines to just
16 percent.
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2015.
Atlanta: American Cancer Society; 2015. Accessed
at www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsstatistics/
cancerfactsfigures2015/index on February 5, 2015.
2
American Cancer Society. Melanoma Skin Cancer Overview.
2013. Accessed at www.cancer.org/cancer/skincancermelanoma/detailedguide/index on December 3, 2014.
3
Indiana State Cancer Registry Statistics Report Generator.
Accessed online at http://www.in.gov/isdh/24360.htm on
December 3, 2014.
4
US Department of Health and Human Services, Public
Health Services, National Toxicology Program. 13th Report
on Carcinogens 2014. Accessed at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/
pubhealth/roc/roc13/index.html on December 3, 2014.
1
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Skin Cancer
• Limit or avoid exposure to the sun during peak hours
(10 a.m. to 4 p.m.).
• Wear sunscreen with a Sun Protection Factor (SPF) of
30 or higher that protects you from both UVA and UVB
rays. These are called “broad spectrum” sunscreens.
• Wear clothing that has built-in SPF in the fabric or
wear protective clothing such as long sleeves and
long pants (tightly woven dark fabrics protect your skin
better than lightly colored, loosely woven fabrics).
• Wear a hat that protects your scalp and shades your
face, neck, and ears.
• Avoid use of tanning beds and sun lamps.
• Wear sunglasses to protect your eyes from ocular
melanoma (melanoma of the eye).
• ALWAYS protect your skin. Your skin is still exposed to
UV rays on cloudy days and during the winter months.
Use extra caution around water, snow, and sand as
they reflect the sun’s ultraviolet rays.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 45
What is the Impact on Indiana Residents?
Table 11. Burden of Invasive Prostate Cancer — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
3,529
106.9
2,844
82.6
Indiana Mortality
584
21.9
606
21.9
* Age-adjusted
46 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Prostate Cancer
Bottom Line
The prostate is an exocrine gland in the male reproductive
system. Excluding all types of skin cancer, prostate cancer is
the most commonly diagnosed cancer, and the second leading
cause of cancer death among males in the US and Indiana.1
Approximately one in six males in the US will be diagnosed
with prostate cancer and one in 36 will die from it during
their lifetime.
Who Gets Prostate Cancer Most Often?
• Older males. The chance of developing prostate cancer
rises rapidly after age 50, with two out of three new diagnoses occurring among males over age 65.7 About 60 percent
of all prostate cancer cases are diagnosed in males ages 65
and older, and 97 percent occur in males 50 and older.1
• African American Males. African American males are
more likely to develop prostate cancer (one in five lifetime incidence) [Table 12] than whites, and the mortality rate for African American males is twice as high as
white males.7 However, in Indiana, this disparity between
African American and white males appears to be decreasing [Figure 26].
• Males with a family history of prostate cancer. Males with
one first-degree relative (a father, brother, or son) with a
history of prostate cancer are two to three times more likely
to develop the disease. 2 This risk increases if more family
members are diagnosed with prostate cancer.
Can Prostate Cancer Be Detected Early?
— see the “Be Aware” box for additional
information
Not all medical experts agree that screening for prostate cancer
will save lives. The controversy focuses on cost of screening,
the age groups to be screened, and the potential for serious
side effects associated with treatment after diagnosis. Not all
forms of prostate cancer need treatment.
The American Cancer Society recommends that beginning at the age of 50, males who are at average risk of prostate cancer and have a life expectancy of at least 10 years have
a conversation with their health care provider about the benefits and limitations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing.
Males should have an opportunity to make an informed decision about whether or not to be tested based on their personal
values and preferences. Males at high risk of developing prostate cancer, (African Americans or males with a close relative
diagnosed with prostate cancer before the age of 65), should
have this discussion with their health care provider beginning
at 45. Males at even higher risk (because they have several
close relatives diagnosed with prostate cancer at an early age)
should have this discussion with their provider at 40.1
• Potential benefits of prostate cancer screening include:
•• Early detection
•• Increased treatment effectiveness
• Potential risks of prostate cancer screening include:
•• False-positive test results (indicating that you have prostate cancer when you do not) — potentially leading to
unneeded testing and can cause anxiety.
•• Over-diagnosis — since prostate cancer may not grow
or cause symptoms. Typical growth is slow and may not
cause health problems.
•• Over-treatment of some prostate cancers that might not
affect a man’s health if left untreated. Also, treatment
might lead to serious side effects such as impotence
(inability to keep an erection) and incontinence (inability to control the flow of urine, resulting in leakage). 8
• Given the potential risks linked to prostate cancer screening, it is vital for males to talk with their health care provider
to become informed decision makers. Each man should:
•• Understand his risk of prostate cancer.
•• Understand the risks, benefits, and alternatives to screening.
•• Participate in the decision to be screened or not at a level
he desires.
•• Makes a decision consistent with his preferences and values.
• Tests commonly used to screen for prostate cancer include:
•• Digital rectal exam (DRE). A doctor or nurse inserts a
gloved, lubricated finger into the rectum to feel the prostate. This allows the examiner to estimate the size of the
prostate and feel for any lumps or other abnormalities.
•• PSA test. This is a blood test that measures levels of PSA,
a substance made by the prostate. While high PSA levels
may indicate the presence of prostate cancer, it may also
indicate other noncancerous conditions.
•• If PSA or DRE tests are abnormal, doctors may perform
additional tests, including use of transrectal ultrasounds
and biopsies.
Table 12. Probability of Developing Prostate Cancer
Over Selected Age Intervals by Race — US, 2009–
2011*
Age
White
African American
30 to 39
0.01
(1 in 12,288)
0.03
(1 in 4,000)
40 to 49
0.29
(1 in 390)
0.73
(1 in 138)
50 to 59
2.11
(1 in 47)
3.92
(1 in 25)
60 to 69
5.96
(1 in 16)
9.51
(1 in 10)
70 to 79
7.04
(1 in 14)
10.30
(1 in 9)
Lifetime risk
14.16
(1 in 7)
19.08
(1 in 5)
* For people free of cancer at beginning
of age interval. Percentages and “1
in” numbers might not be equivalent
because of rounding.
Source: DevCan: Probability of
Developing or Dying of Cancer
Software, Version 6.8.0. Statistical
Research and Applications Branch,
National Cancer Institute, August
2014. http://surveillance.cancer.gov/
devcan/).
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 47
Figure 26. Prostate Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates by Race* — Indiana, 2003–2012
Incidence Rate White
Mortality (Death) Rate White
Incidence Rate African American
Mortality (Death) Rate African American
250
232.5†
per 100,000 males
200
150
138.5
112.7†‡
100
78.8‡
60.7†
50
41.1†‡
25.9
20.8
0
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007 2008
Year
* Age-adjusted
2009
2010
2011
2012
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Significantly elevated (P<.05) compared to white males
‡ Significantly lower (P<.05) compared to 2003
What Factors Influence
Prostate Cancer Survival?
• Stage of diagnosis. After prostate cancer has been diagnosed, tests are performed to determine whether the
cancer cells remain within the prostate or have spread to
other parts of the body [Figure 27]. The grade assigned to
the tumor, typically called the Gleason score, indicates the
likely aggressiveness of the cancer.
• Treatment options vary depending on age, stage, and grade
of cancer. The most common treatments for localized prostate cancer (confined to the prostate) include:
•• Active surveillance (watchful waiting). The patient’s
prostate cancer is closely monitored by performing the
PSA and DRE tests regularly. Treatment occurs only if
and when the prostate cancer causes symptoms or shows
signs of growing. This can be more appropriate for males
with less aggressive tumors and older males.
•• Surgery (radical prostatectomy). Prostatectomy is
surgery to remove the prostate completely. Radical prostatectomy removes the prostate as well as the surrounding tissue.
•• Radiation therapy. Radiation destroys cancer cells, or
prevents them from growing, by directing high-energy
X-rays (radiation) at the prostate. There are two types of
radiation therapy:
■■ External radiation therapy. A machine outside the
body directs radiation at the cancer cells.
■■ Internal radiation therapy (brachytherapy).
Radioactive seeds or pellets are surgically placed into
or near the cancer to destroy the cancer cells.
48 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
•• Hormone therapy. This treatment, called androgen
deprivation therapy (ADT), alters the effects of male
hormones on the prostate through medical or surgical
castration (elimination of testicular function) or administration of antiandrogen medications.
•• Cyrotherapy. This treatment involves the controlled freezing of the prostate gland in order to destroy cancerous cells.5
Be Aware!
Common Signs and Symptoms of Prostate Cancer
• In early stages, prostate cancer may not cause symptoms. It is important to know that some males have no
symptoms at all. 1,5
• Symptoms* of prostate cancer can include:
Difficulty starting urination
Weak or interrupted flow of urine
Frequent urination, especially at night
Inability to empty the bladder completely
Pain or burning during urination
Blood in the urine or semen
Painful ejaculation
Trouble having an erection
Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis that doesn’t go
away**
*These symptoms also occur frequently as a result of
non-cancerous conditions, such as prostate enlarge­ment
or infection and none are specific for prostate cancer
**This symptom is most associated with advanced prostate cancer since it commonly spreads to the bones.
Figure 27. Percent of Prostate Cases Diagnosed During Each Stage* — Indiana, 2008–2012
Unknown
4.6%
Distant
5.3%
During 2008–2012, of the 17,643 Indiana residents who received an invasive prostate cancer
diagnosis, 13,819 (78.3%) were diagnosed in
the local stage, 2,090 (11.8%) were diagnosed
in the regional stage, 928 were diagnosed in
the distant stage (5.3%), and 806 (4.6%) had
unknown staging.
Regional
11.8%
Local
78.3%
* Only includes invasive cases; in situ cases
are not reportable
• Overall survival. The majority (93 percent) of prostate
cancers are discovered in the local or regional stages.1
In the US, the five-year relative survival rate for prostate
cancer among African Americans is 96 percent and nearly
100 percent among whites.2 Obesity and smoking are associated with an increased risk of dying from prostate cancer.1
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Prostate Cancer.
Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/
prostate/basic_info/risk_factors.htm on April 25, 2014.
8
US Preventive Services Taskforce. Talking With Your Patients
About Screening for Prostate Cancer. Rockville, MD. 2012.
Accessed at http://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/
prostatecancerscreening/prostatecancerscript.pdf on April 28, 2014.
7
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014.
Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/
research/cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2014/index on
April 21, 2014.
2
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures for African
Americans 2013–2014. Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at
www.cancer.org/Research/CancerFactsFigures/index on April
28, 2014.
3
American Cancer Society. Prostate Cancer. Atlanta, GA. 2014.
Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/cancer/prostatecancer/
detailedguide/index on April 21, 2014.
4
American Society of Clinical Oncology. Alexandria, VA. 2014.
Accessed at http://www.cancer.net/cancer-types/prostatecancer/risk-factors-and-prevention on April 25, 2014.
5
American Urological Association, Urology Care
Foundation, Inc. Prostate Cancer. Linthicum, MD. 2014.
Accessed at http://www.urologyhealth.org/urology/index.
cfm?article=146&display=1 on April 25, 2014.
6
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical Activity.
Atlanta, GA. 2014. Accessed at http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/
everyone/guidelines/index.html on April 28, 2014.
1
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Prostate Cancer
• Stay active, eat well, and maintain a healthy body
weight. In particular:
Eat at least five servings of fruits and vegetables
each day.
Limit intake of red meats (especially processed
meats such as hot dogs, bologna, and lunch meat).
Avoid excessive consumption of dairy products (>3
servings/day) and calcium (>1,500 mg/day).
Include recommended levels of lycopene (antioxidants that help prevent damage to DNA which
are found in tomatoes, pink grapefruit, and watermelon) and vitamin E in your diet.
Meet recommended levels of physical activity.
(http://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/everyone/
guidelines/index.html)6
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 49
What is the Impact of Cancer on African Americans in Indiana?
Table 13. Burden of Cancer among African Americans — Indiana, 2008–2012
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2008–2012)
(2008–2012)
(2012)
(2012)
Indiana Incidence
2,338
479.6
2,181
430.8
Indiana Mortality
995
221.2
1,063
228.6
* Age-adjusted
50 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Cancer Facts & Figures for African Americans
Bottom Line
African Americans have the highest mortality rate and shortest sur­v ival of any racial and ethnic group in the US for most
cancers.1 The causes of these inequalities are complex and
are thought to reflect social and economic disparities more
than biologic dif­ferences associated with race. These include
inequities in work, wealth, income, education, housing, and
overall standard of liv­ing, as well as barriers to high-quality
cancer prevention, early detection, and treatment services.1 In
Indiana, while the overall racial disparities in cancer incidence
and mortality rates have been gradually decreasing, during
2008–2012 African Americans still had almost a four percent
greater incidence of cancer than whites, and over a 21 percent
higher mortality rate.
What Types of Cancer Impact the African
American Community the Most?
Table 14 provides an overview of the leading types of cancer
that impacted African Americans in Indiana during 2012.
Prostate cancer was the most common cancer diagnosed in
African American males. Breast cancer was the most common
cancer diagnosed in African American females. The leading
cause of cancer death among males and females was lung
cancer. Colorectal cancer was the third leading cause of cancer
deaths among males and third leading cause of cancer death
for females. Breast cancer was the second leading cause of
cancer death for females.
Table 14. Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths among African Americans by Sex — Indiana, 2012
Number (%) of New Cases
Male
Prostate
Count
257
%
26.1%
Female
Breast
Count
359
%
30.0%
Lung and Bronchus
171
17.3%
Lung and Bronchus
148
12.4%
Colon and Rectum
94
9.5%
Colon and Rectum
117
9.8%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
59
6.0%
Pancreas
42
3.5%
Urinary Bladder
34
3.4%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
41
3.4%
Pancreas
30
3.0%
Thyroid
29
2.4%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
29
2.9%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
28
2.3%
Oral Cavity and Pharynx
27
2.7%
Cervix Uteri
23
1.9%
Leukemia
20
2.0%
Ovary
20
1.7%
2
0.2%
Melanoma of the Skin
4
0.3%
Melanoma of the Skin
All Sites
986
All Sites
1,195
Number (%) of Deaths
Male
Lung and Bronchus
Prostate
Colon and Rectum
Pancreas
Liver
Leukemia
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Urinary Bladder
Oral Cavity and Pharynx
All Sites
Count
158
65
53
34
30
18
12
9
7
7
529
%
29.9%
12.3%
10.0%
6.4%
5.7%
3.4%
2.3%
1.7%
1.3%
1.3%
Female
Lung and Bronchus
Breast
Colon and Rectum
Pancreas
Ovary
Leukemia
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
Cervix Uteri
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
Urinary Bladder
All Sites
Count
148
98
56
36
21
16
13
11
7
6
534
%
27.7%
18.4%
10.5%
6.7%
3.9%
3.0%
2.4%
2.1%
1.3%
1.1%
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 51
Figure 28. Comparison of Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates among African American to those
among Whites — Indiana,* 2008-2012
All Cancers
3.6%
Colon and
Rectum
Lung and
Bronchus
Female
Breast
20.7%
17.8%
36.6%
African Americans’ Mortality Rate
Compared to Whites
8.3%
13.2%
3.4%
37.6%
45.7%
Prostate
0%
0%
African Americans’ Incidence Rate
Compared to Whites
20%
20%
40%
40%
60%
60%
110.2%
80%
80%
100%
100%
120%
120%
Percent Above or Below Indiana Rate Among Whites
* Age-adjusted incidence and mortality rates are significantly elevated (P<.05) among
African Americans compared to whites for all cancer types except for female breast
cancer incidence
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
What are the Cancer Disparities in Indiana
Relating to Race?
mortality rate (64.3 versus 56.8 deaths per 100,000 persons,
respectively). Additionally, the age-adjusted mortality rate
for lung cancer was nearly two times greater for African
American males compared to African American females
(89.0 versus 47.4 deaths per 100,000 females, respectively).
• Prostate Cancer. The age-adjusted incidence rate for prostate cancer was 46 percent higher among African American
males compared to white males (146.3 versus 100.4 cases
per 100,000 males, respectively). Moreover, the death rate
for prostate cancer was more than two times greater (43.1
versus 20.5 deaths per 100,000 males, respectively).
• Breast Cancer. African American females had similar incidence rates to white females for breast cancer (122.0 versus
118.0 cases per 100,000 females, respectively). However, the
mortality rate for African American females was 38 percent
high than the rate for white females (30.0 versus 21.8 deaths
per 100,000 females, respectively). Breast cancers diagnosed in African American females are more likely to have
factors associated with poor prognosis (i.e., higher grade,
advanced stage, and negative hormone estrogen[ER] and
progesterone [PR]) receptor status) than those diagnosed
in white females. Studies have shown that certain reproductive patterns that are more common among African
American females (i.e., giving birth to more than one child,
younger age at menarche, early age at first pregnancy), may
be associated with increased risk for aggressive subtypes of
breast cancer.1
While African Americans, compared to whites, continue
to be unequally burdened by cancer in Indiana [Figure 28],
the disparities between the two groups have been gradually
decreasing [Figure 29]. Despite these gains, continued work
needs to be done to address the differences among the races,
especially the difference in cancer mortality rates. Some additional information about the impact of specific cancer types
among African Americans during 2008-2012 is provided
below.
• Colon and Rectum Cancer. In comparison to whites,
African Americans had an 18 percent higher incidence
rate (51.5 versus 43.7 cases per 100,000 people, respectively) and a 37 percent higher mortality rate for colon and
rectum cancer (22.0 versus 16.1 deaths per 100,000 people,
respectively). African American males, in particular, were
at greater risk, as their age-adjusted incidence rate was 16
percent greater than white males (57.6 versus 49.6 cases per
100,000 males, respectively) and their mortality rate was 36
percent higher (26.7 versus 19.7 deaths per 100,000 males,
respectively). African American females had similar rates
to white males, but, compared to white females, they had
a 22 percent greater incidence rate (47.2 versus 38.8 cases
per 100,000 females, respectively) and a 43 percent greater
mortality rate (19.0 versus 13.3 deaths per 100,000 females,
respectively).
• Lung Cancer. In comparison to whites, African Americans
had an eight percent higher incidence rate (80.0 versus 73.9
cases per 100,000 people, respectively) and a 13 percent higher
52 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Figure 29. Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates by Race* — Indiana, 2003-2012
600
526.7‡
Rate per 100,000 people
500
430.8†
485.5
400
300
425.9†
268.5‡
228.6†‡
200
202.8
100
0
2003
2004
White Incidence
African American Incidence
White Mortality (Death)
African American Mortality (Death)
2005
2006
2007
* Age-adjusted
2008
2009
2010
2011
184.0†
2012
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
† Rate is significantly lower than in 2003
‡ African American rate is significantly higher (P<.05) than the white rate
Can Cancer Be Prevented? — see the “Take
Charge” box for additional information
Figure 30 describes the burden of some lifestyle and external
factors among African American adults in Indiana. Additional
information about the impact of cancer risk factors on African
Americans in Indiana is provided below.
• Body Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity. Scientific evidence suggests that nationally about one-third of cancer
deaths are related to overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition, and thus could be prevented.2 In
particular, being obese has been linked with increased risk
for developing cancers of the breast (in postmenopausal
females), colon, endometrial, kidney, and esophagus. In
2013, in Indiana, African American adults were 36 percent
more likely than white adults to be considered obese based
on body mass index (BMI) (41.7 percent versus 30.6 percent,
respectively).3 Additionally, 58 percent of African American
adults did not get their recommended 150 minutes of exercise per week, and almost 80 percent failed to eat the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables (i.e., 2 cups of
fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables per day).3
• Tobacco. Smoking is the most preventable cause of premature death in the US and is responsible for about 30 percent
of all cancer deaths.4 In 2013, 24.8 percent of African
American adults were current smokers, with 26.4 percent
of males and 23.4 percent of females reporting current
smoking.3
• Health Care Coverage. Uninsured and underinsured
patients are substantially more likely to be diagnosed
with cancer at a later stage, when treatment can be more
extensive and more costly.1 In 2013, in Indiana, African
American adults were 70 percent more likely than white
adults to not see a doctor during the year because of cost
(22.8 percent versus 13.4 percent, respectively) and African
Americans, ages 18–64, were 66 percent more likely than
white adults to not have any form of health care coverage
(28.8 percent versus 17.3 percent, respectively).3
Can Cancer Be Detected Early?
Early detection tests can lead to the prevention of cancer
through the identification and removal of precancerous
lesions, particularly for cancers of the cervix and colon and
rectum. Screening can detect cancer at an earlier stage, which
can reduce the extent of treatment, improve the chances of
cure, extend life, and thereby improve the quality of life for
cancer survivors. In general, race did not play a role in cancer
screening rates among Indiana adults during 2012 [Figure 31].
What Factors Influence Cancer Survival?
Despite having similar screening rates, African Americans
are less likely than whites to survive five years at each stage
of diagnosis [Figure 32] for most cancer types.2 Based on
data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results
(SEER) Program’s nine population-based cancer registries
the five-year survival rate for all cancer sites for whites was
69.7 percent compared to 60.7 percent for African Americans
during 1973-2011.5 Much of the difference in survival is
believed to be because of barriers that prevent timely and
high-quality medical care, including delayed diagnoses after
screenings, greater frequency of having later stage diagnoses,
and disparities in treatment.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 53
Figure 30. Preventative Cancer Behaviors and Access to Medical Care among African American Adults* —
Indiana, 2013
Adults Who Have Consumed Fruits and Vegetables
Five or More Times Per Day†
Did Not Participate in Enough Aerobic and Muscle
Strengthening Exercises to Meet Guidelines
Did Not Participate in Muscle Strengthening
Exercises More Than Twice Per Week
Did Not Participate in 150 Minutes or More of
Aerobic Physical Activity Per Week
21.6%
20.6%
83.1%
84.2%
72.3%
74.4%
58.4%
56.3%
41.6%
31.8%
Considered Obese (BMI ≥30.0)
Current Smoker
Have No Health Care Coverage‡
Could Not See Doctor Because of Cost During the
Past Year
24.8%
21.9%
African Americans
28.8%
20.9%
All Races
22.8%
15.5%
0%
0%
* Adults are people ages 18 and older
20%
20%
40%
40%
60%
60%
80% 100%
100%
80%
Source: Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
† Data from 2009
‡ Adults ages 18–64
Figure 31. Cancer Screening Rates Among African Americans — Indiana, 2012
Women Ages 18 and Older Who Have Had a Pap
Screening During the Past 3 Years
76.6%
73.2%
Women Ages 40 and Older Who Have Had a
Mammography Screening During the Past 2 Years
68.0%
67.7%
68.5%
Men Ages 40 and Older Who Have Had a Prostatespecific Antigen (PSA) Test During the Past 2 Years
64.4%
African Americans
All Races
63.7%
Persons Ages 50 and Older Who Have Ever Had a
Colorectal Screening Test*
0%
0%
* Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy
62.8%
20%
20%
40%
40%
60%
60%
80%
80%
100%
100%
Source: Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor
Surveillance System
References
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures for African
Americans 2013-2014. Atlanta, GA. 2011. Accessed at www.
cancer.org/Research/CancerFactsFigures/index on April 10, 2014
2
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2014.
Atlanta, GA. 2011. Accessed at http://www.cancer.org/research/
cancerfactsstatistics/cancerfactsfigures2014/index on. April 10, 2014
3
2013 Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
1
54 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Harvard University. Harvard Report on Cancer Prevention,
Vol 1: Causes of Human Cancer. [Online] April 2009. Accessed
at www.health.harvard.edu/newsletters/Harvard_Mens_
Health_Watch/2009/April/The-10-commandments-of-cancerprevention on Nov 15, 2011.
5
National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute,
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program.
Accessed at www.seer.cancer.gov on October 1, 2014.
4
Figure 32. Percent of Cancer Cases Diagnosed among African Americans During Each Stage* — Indiana,
2008-2012
Unknown In Situ
6.1%
6.5%
Distant
27.5%
Local
38.1%
During 2008–2012, of the 11,808 AfricanAmerican Indiana residents who received a
diagnosis of in situ or invasive cancer, 5,218
(44.2 percent) were diagnosed in the in situ or
local stage, 5,822 (49.3 percent) were diagnosed in the regional or distant stage, and 768
(6.5 percent) had unknown staging.
Regional
21.8%
* Includes all in situ and invasive cancers except for basal and squamous cell skin
cancers and in situ bladder, cervical, and prostate cancers, which are not reportable
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Cancer and Improve
Care Among African Americans:
• Maintain a healthy body weight.
• Increase physical activity levels.
• Eat the recommended daily servings of fruits
and vegetables.
• Be smoke-free — Visit www.in.gov/quitline for free smoking cessation assistance.
• Identify a primary health care provider and regularly talk
about your cancer screening options.
• Talk to your primary health care provider regularly about
your cancer screening options.
• Seek treatment early and avoid delaying follow-up care if
you are diagnosed with cancer.
• Support the development of culturally relevant resources
and support programs for African Americans that focus
on early detection and treatment of cancer, as well as,
improved access to services.
• Encourage health care providers to be culturally competent (i.e., respectful and responsive to cultural beliefs
that influence the health practices of racial and ethnic
minority patients).
• Work to decrease the disparities in socioeconomic factors such as employment, income, and insurance status,
which influence health behaviors and outcomes.
• Health care providers are encouraged to ask African
American patients about their life, encourage them to ask
questions, take seriously the responsibility and respect
conferred on the provider, and involve family members.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 55
What is the Impact of Cancer on Hispanics in Indiana?
Table 15. Burden of Cancer among Hispanics — Indiana, 2007-2011
Average number
of cases per year
Rate per 100,000
people*
Number of cases
Rate per 100,000
people*
(2007-2011)
(2007-2011)
(2011)
(2011)
Indiana Incidence
554
342.3
578
315.1
Indiana Mortality
127
99.7
139
91.9
* Age-adjusted
56 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Source: US Cancer Statistics Working Group. US Cancer Statistics: 1999–2011
Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta: US Department of Health
and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National
Cancer Institute; 2011. Accessed at wonder.cdc.gov on February 5, 2014.
Cancer Facts & Figures for Hispanics
Bottom Line
Hispanics are the largest, fastest-growing, and youngest
minority group in the US and the second largest minority
group in Indiana. In 2013, 420,577 Indiana residents (6.4
percent) identified themselves as Hispanic or Latino; up from
3.5 percent in 2000.1 Hispanics’ median age was 24.1 years
in 2013 compared to 37.3 years among all Indiana residents.
Nationally, about one in two Hispanic males and one in three
Hispanic females will be diagnosed with cancer during their
lifetime.2 Additionally, cancer is the leading cause of death
among Hispanics in the US, accounting for 21 percent of
deaths overall and 15 percent of deaths among children.2
Cancer Data for Hispanics in Indiana
The Indiana State Cancer Registry (ISCR) collects data
on all cancer cases in Indiana to study trends of the disease
and assist in the prevention of cancer and the care of patients
impacted by it. There are some unique characteristics of the
Hispanic population, and limitations in data collection that
impact the ability to describe the burden of cancer for this
group. First, while the ISCR does collect data on the ethnicity (Hispanic versus non-Hispanic) of patients, there is potential underreporting of this variable. Additionally, the rapidly
changing and increasing Hispanic population tends to be
younger and more mobile, thus making them less at risk for
developing cancer (age-related) and more difficult to assign
to a specific geographic area (mobility-related). Finally, most
cancer data in Indiana and the US are reported for Hispanics
as an aggregate group, which masks important differences that
exist among Hispanic subpopulations according to country of
origin. According to the 2013 American Community Survey,
75 percent of the Hispanic population in Indiana was born
in Mexico. Because of these factors, the rates and numbers
reported for Hispanics in Indiana can vary considerably yearto-year, and the burden of cancer might be slightly higher
than is reported.
Table 16. Leading Sites of New Cancer Cases and Deaths among Hispanics by Sex — Indiana, 2007–2011
Number (%) of New Cases
Male
Count
%
Female
Count
Prostate
292
23.0%
Breast
391
27.9%
Lung and Bronchus
123
9.7%
Colon and Rectum
133
9.5%
Colon and Rectum
122
9.6%
Thyroid
107
7.6%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
80
6.3%
Lung and Bronchus
98
7.0%
Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma
63
5.0%
Corpus Uteri
83
5.9%
Urinary Bladder
61
4.8%
Kidney and Renal Pelvis
57
4.1%
Leukemias
55
4.3%
Leukemias
55
3.9%
Liver
46
3.6%
Cervix Uteri
54
3.8%
Stomach
44
3.5%
Ovary
46
3.3%
All Sites
1,270
All Sites
%
1,402
Number (%) of Deaths
Male
Count
%
Female
Count
%
Lung and Bronchus
56
18.5%
Breast
42
14.5%
Prostate
36
10.6%
Lung and Bronchus
37
12.8%
Colon and Rectum
33
8.8%
Colon and Rectum
30
10.3%
Pancreas
31
7.3%
Pancreas
26
9.0%
Liver
25
7.3%
Leukemias
22
7.6%
All Sites
346
All Sites
290
Source: US Cancer Statistics Working Group. US Cancer Statistics: 1999–2011
Incidence and Mortality Web-based Report. Atlanta: US Department of Health
and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and National
Cancer Institute; 2011. Accessed at wonder.cdc.gov on November 21, 2014.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 57
Figure 33. Cancer Incidence and Mortality (Death) Rates for Hispanics* — Indiana and US, 2002–2011
450
406.0
Indiana Incidence
US Incidence
Indiana Mortality
US Mortality
400
362.1†‡
350
Rare per 100,000 people
300
340.4
315.1‡
250
200
150
100
133.1
117.9‡
115.6
91.9
50
0
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
* Age-adjusted
2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
Year
† US rate is significantly higher (P<.05) than the Indiana rate.
‡ Rate is significantly lower than in 2002.
This section uses national and Indiana-specific results
reported by the National Program of Cancer Registries, who
develops them based on data supplied annually by the ISCR
and other state cancer registries.
What Types of Cancer Impact the Hispanic
Community the Most?
The cancer burden among Hispanics living in the US is similar
to that seen in their countries of origin.2 Compared to rates
in the US, incidence of breast, colorectal, lung, and prostate
cancers are lower in Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Central and South
America, whereas incidence rates of cervical, liver, and stomach
cancers are higher.3 There is some evidence that descendants of Hispanic migrants have cancer rates that approach
those of non-Hispanic whites because of acculturation.4-6
“Acculturation” refers to the process by which immigrants
adopt the attitudes, values, customs, beliefs, and behaviors of
their new culture. The effects of acculturation are complex and
can be associated with both positive and negative influences on
health.2 Among Hispanic immigrants to the US, these changes
might include increases in smoking, obesity, and alcohol intake
and decreases in dietary quality and physical activity.7 One
study found that overall cancer death rates among Hispanics
58 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
were 22 percent higher among those who were US-born
compared to those who were foreign-born.8 Table 16 provides
an overview of the leading types of cancer that have impacted
Hispanics in Indiana. Overall, cancer was the leading cause of
death among Indiana Hispanics from 2008-2012.9,10 Lung and
bronchus cancer was the most common cause of cancer-related
death among Hispanic males and breast cancer was the most
common among Hispanic females.10
What are the Cancer Disparities Relating
to Ethnicity?
In Indiana and the US, for all cancers combined, and for the
most common cancers (prostate, female breast, colorectal, and
lung), incidence and death rates are lower among Hispanics
than among non-Hispanic whites.11 Cancers for which
national rates are higher among Hispanics include stomach,
cervix, liver, acute lymphocytic leukemia, and gallbladder.2
For 2007-2011, the overall cancer incidence rate for Indiana
Hispanics was significantly lower than the national rate for
Hispanics (342.3 versus 377.7 per 100,000, respectively).11
The cancer mortality rate among all Indiana residents was
190.1 deaths per 100,000 people, while it was 91 percent lower
among Hispanic Indiana residents at 99.7 deaths per 100,000
people.10 Additional information about the impact of specific
cancer types among Hispanics in the US and Indiana is provided below.
• Prostate Cancer. During 2007-2011, the prostate cancer
incidence rate among Hispanics in the US was about 20
percent lower than the rate among non-Hispanic whites.2
In Indiana, during 2007–2011, the incidence rate among
Hispanics was significantly lower than the national rate
(95.1 versus 120.5 cases per 100,000 males, respectively). 11
During that same time period, the mortality rate in Indiana
was similar the national rate (17.0 versus 18.5 deaths per
100,000 males, respectively).10
• Breast Cancer. The US breast cancer incidence rate
among Hispanic females was 37 percent lower than that
among non-Hispanic white females.2 It has been estimated that about seven percent of this difference might be
explained by more protective reproductive patterns (lower
age at first birth and larger number of children) among
Hispanic females.12, 13 It might also reflect less use of menopause hormone replacement therapy and under-diagnosis
because of lower utilization of mammography.14, 15 Recent
studies suggest that ethnic variation in genetic factors that
influence breast cancer development might also contribute
to some of the difference.16-18 However, Hispanic females
are about 20 percent more likely to die of breast cancer than
non-Hispanic white females diagnosed at a similar age and
stage.2 Differences in access to care and treatment likely contribute to this disparity.20 In Indiana, during 2007–2011, the
incidence rate for Hispanics was similar to the national rate
for Hispanics (84.2 versus 91.8 cases per 100,000 females,
respectively). Additionally, during 2007–2011, the mortality rates were statistically similar (10.9 versus 14.5 deaths
per 100,000 females, respectively).
• Colon and Rectum Cancer. In the US, colorectal cancer
incidence rates for Hispanic males and females are ten
percent and 21 percent lower, respectively, than those for
non-Hispanic whites.2 However, the rates for Hispanics in
the US are higher than those for residents of Puerto Rico
and Spanish-speaking countries in South and Central
America.3,19 Colorectal cancer is rare in developing countries but common in affluent countries, where diets tend to
be higher in fat, refined carbohydrates, and animal protein,
and levels of physical activity are low. In Indiana, during
2007–2011, the incidence rate for Hispanics was similar to
the national rate for Hispanics (37.0 versus 37.9 cases per
100,000 people, respectively). Additionally, during 2007–
2011, the mortality rates for Indiana were statistically
similar to the national rate (10.7 versus 12.4 deaths per
100,000 people, respectively).
• Lung Cancer. In the US, the lung cancer rates for Hispanics
are about half those for non-Hispanic whites, because of
traditionally lower rates of cigarette smoking and because
Hispanics who do smoke are less likely to be daily smokers.2
In Indiana, during 2007–2011, the incidence rate for
Hispanics was similar to the national rate for Hispanics
(34.1 versus 34.3 cases per 100,000 people, respectively).
During 2007–2011, the mortality rate in Indiana was also
similar to the national rate (10.7 versus 12.4 deaths per
100,000 people).
What are the Indiana and US Trends in
Cancer Rates for Hispanics?
Figure 33 shows how cancer incidence and mortality rates for
Hispanics in Indiana and the US have gradually decreased
over time. From 2002 to 2011, the incidence rate decreased 33
percent in Indiana and 12.5 percent in the US.10,11 From 2002
to 2011, the mortality rate decreased 12.3 percent in Indiana
and 12.9 percent in the US. There is no clear explanation for
why these rates have decreased, although it is important to
note that the demographic characteristics of this population
changed considerably during those periods.
Can Cancer Be Prevented? — see the “Take
Charge” box for additional information
Figure 34 describes the burden of some lifestyle and external
factors for Hispanic adults in Indiana. Additional information
about the impact of cancer risk factors on Hispanics in Indiana
include:
• Body Weight, Diet, and Physical Activity. Scientific evidence suggests that nationally about one-third of cancer
deaths are related to overweight or obesity, physical inactivity, and poor nutrition and thus could be prevented.20
During 2013, in Indiana, 34.9 percent of Hispanic adults
were considered to be obese based on body mass index
(BMI).21 Additionally, in 2013, 68.9 percent of Hispanic
adults did not get their recommended 30+ minutes of moderate physical activity five or more days per week (or vigorous physical activity for 20+ minutes three or more days per
week). In 2009, about 75 percent of Hispanic adults did not
eat the recommended daily servings of fruits and vegetables
(i.e., 2 cups of fruit and 2½ cups of vegetables per day).21
• Tobacco. Cigarette smoking is the major risk factor for
lung cancer, accounting for about 87 percent and 70
percent of the cases among males and females, respectively. 22 Hispanics traditionally have a lower smoking rate
than other groups. In 2013, 15.2 percent of adult Hispanics
reported being current smokers, significantly lower than
the rate of 21.9 percent for all Indiana adults.21 While there
was no difference in smoking prevalence between Hispanic
males and white, non-Hispanic males (21.5 percent versus
23.5 percent, respectively), Hispanic females were less likely
to be current smokers than white, non-Hispanic females
(9.1 percent versus 20.7 percent, respectively).
• Health Care Coverage. Hispanics are less likely to have
health insurance than any other racial or ethnic group,
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 59
Figure 34. Preventive Cancer Behaviors and Access to Medical Care for Hispanic Adults* — Indiana, 2013
20.6%
24.6%
Adults Who Have Consumed Fruits and Vegetables
Five or More Times Per Day†
84.2%
87.1%
Did not Participate in Enough Aerobic and Muscle
Strengthening Exercises to Meet Guidelines
74.4%
74.8%
Did not Participate in Muscle Strengthening
Exercises More Than Twice Per Week
56.0%
Did not Participate in 150 Minutes or More of
Aerobic Physical Activity Per Week
31.8%
34.9%
Considered Obese (BMI ≥30.0)
Hispanics
21.9%
15.2%
Current Smoker
20.9%
Have No Health Care Coverage‡
Could Not See Doctor Because of Cost During the
Past Year
69.8%
15.5%
All Races
47.7%
30.3%
0% 10%
10% 20%
20% 30%
30% 40%
40% 50%
50% 60%
60% 70%
70% 80%
80% 90%100%
90%100%
0%
* Data from 2013
Source: Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System
† Data from 2009
‡ Adults ages 18–64
Note: Adults are ages 18 years and older
partially because they are much more likely than whites
to work in agriculture, construction, domestic and food
services, and other low-wage occupations, which are less
likely to offer employer-based health insurance benefits.23
If health coverage is available, it might not be widely affordable. In 2013, in Indiana, Hispanic adults were twice as
likely as the total adult prevalence to not see a doctor during
the year because of cost (30.3 percent versus 15.5 percent,
respectively).21 In 2013, Indiana Hispanics ages 18–64, were
over two times more likely than adults ages 18-64 overall to
not have health insurance (47.7 percent versus 20.9 percent,
respectively).21
Can Cancer Be Detected Early?
Early detection tests can lead to the prevention of cancer
through the identification and removal of precancerous
lesions. Screening can detect cancer at an earlier stage, which
can reduce the extent of treatment, improve the chances of
cure, extend life, and thereby improve the quality of life for
cancer survivors. The percentage of Hispanic females having a
cervical cancer screening (Pap test) within the past three years
was similar to the overall female prevalence (71.0 percent
versus 73.2 percent, respectively). 21
60 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
What Factors Influence Cancer Survival?
In general, the further a cancer has spread, the less likely that
treatment will be effective. Although Hispanics have lower
incidence and death rates than non-Hispanic whites for the
most common cancers, they are more likely to be diagnosed
with a more advanced stage of disease. Overall, the lifetime
probability of dying from cancer among Hispanics is 1 in 5 for
males and about 1 in 6 for females.2
References
US Census Bureau.2013 American Community Survey 1-Year
Estimates Accessed at www.census.gov on February 5, 2015.
2
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures for
Hispanics 2012-2014. Atlanta, GA. 2009. Accessed on
February 13, 2014. http://www.cancer.org/research/
cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfiguresforhispanicslatinos/
index, Feb 13, 2014
3
Cancer Incidence in Five Continents. Vol VIII. Lyon, France:
International Agency for Research on Cancer; 2002.
4
Chao A, Gilliland FD, Hunt WC, Bulterys M, Becker TM, Key
CR. Increasing incidence of colon and rectal cancer among
Hispanics and American Indians in New Mexico (US), 1969–
94. Cancer Causes Control. Mar 1998; 9(2):137–144.
1
Thomas DB, Karagas MR. Cancer in first and second
generation Americans. Cancer Res. Nov 1 1987;
47(21):5771–5776.
6
Wilkinson JD, Wohler-Torres B, Trapido E, et al. Cancer
trends among Hispanic men in South Florida, 1981–1998.
Cancer. Feb 15 2002; 94(4):1183–1190.
7
Lara M, Gamboa C, Kahramanian MI, Morales LS, Bautista
DE. Acculturation and Latino health in the US: a review of
the literature and its sociopolitical context. Annu Rev Public
Health. 2005; 26:367–397.
8
Singh GK, Hiatt RA. Trends and disparities in socioeconomic
and behavioural characteristics, life expectancy, and
cause specific mortality of native-born and foreign-born
populations in the US, 1979–2003. Int J Epidemiol. Aug 2006;
35(4):903–919.
9
Indiana State Department of Health. Indiana Mortality
Reports — 2008-2012. Accessed at http://www.in.gov/
isdh/reports/mortality/2011/table03/tbl03a_1_00.htm on
February 5, 2015.
5
US Cancer Statistics: 1999–2011 Mortality, WONDER On-line
Database. US Department of Health and Human Services,
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; 2014. Accessed at
wonder.cdc.gov/CancerMort-v2006.html on Nov 21, 2014
11
National Program of Cancer Registries: 1999–2011 Incidence,
WONDER On-line Database. US Department of Health and
Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
and National Cancer Institute; 2014. Accessed at wonder.cdc.
gov/cancernpcr-v2008.html on Feb 5, 2015.
12
Sweeney C, Baumgartner KB, Byers T, et al. Reproductive
history in relation to breast cancer risk among Hispanic and
non-Hispanic white women. Cancer Causes Control. May
2008; 19(4):391–401.
13
Martin JA, Hamilton BE, Sutton PD, et al. Births: final data
for 2006. In: Statistics NCHS, ed57. US Dept of Health and
HumanServices; 2009:1–104.
14
Hausauer AK, Keegan TH, Chang ET, Clarke CA. Recent
breast cancer trends among Asian/Pacific Islander, Hispanic,
and African-American women in the US: changes by tumor
subtype. Breast Cancer Res. 2007; 9(6):R90.
15
National Center for Health Statistics. Health, US,2007
With Chartbook on Trends in the Health of Americans.
Hyattsville, MD2007.
16
Fejerman L, John EM, Huntsman S, et al. Genetic ancestry
and risk of breast cancer among US Latinas. Cancer Res. Dec 1
2008; 68(23):9723–9728.
17
Hines LM, Risendal B, Slattery ML, Baumgartner KB,
Giuliano AR, Byers T. Differences in estrogen receptor subtype
according to family history of breast cancer among Hispanic,
but not non-Hispanic White women. Cancer Epidemiol
Biomarkers Prev. Oct 2008; 17(10):2700–2706.
18
Risendal B, Hines LM, Sweeney C, et al. Family history
and age at onset of breast cancer in Hispanic and nonHispanic white women. Cancer Causes Control. Dec 2008;
19(10):1349–1355.
Soto-Salgado M, Suarez E, Calo W, Cruz-Correa M, FigueroaValles NR, Ortiz AP. Incidence and mortality rates for
colorectal cancer in Puerto Rico and among Hispanics, nonHispanic whites, and non-Hispanic African Americans in the
US, 1998–2002. Cancer. Apr 28, 2009.
20
American Cancer Society. Cancer Facts & Figures 2011.
Atlanta, GA. 2011. Accessed at www.cancer.org/Research/
CancerFactsFigures/index on Nov 23, 2011.
21
Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Accessed
at www.in.gov/isdh/25194.htm on Nov 21, 2014.
22
Smoking-attributable mortality, years of potential life lost, and
productivity losses — US, 2000–2004. MMWR Morb Mortal
Wkly Rep. Nov 14, 2008; 57(45):1226–1228.
23
Escarce J, Kapur K. Access to and Quality of Health Care. In
Hispanics and the Future of America. Eds. Marta Tienda and
Faith Mitchell. pp.410–415. Committee on Transforming
Our Common Destiny, National Research Council National
Academy Press, Washington, DC. 2006.
19
10
Take Charge!
What You Can Do to Help Prevent Cancer and Improve
Care for Hispanics
• Maintain a healthy body weight.
• Increase physical activity levels.
• Eat the recommended daily servings of fruits
and vegetables.
• Be smoke-free — Visit www.in.gov/quitline for free
smoking cessation assistance.
• Identify a primary health care provider and regularly
talk about your cancer screening options.
• Seek treatment early and avoid delaying follow-up
care if you are diagnosed with cancer.
• Encourage health care providers to identify ways to
be able to clearly communicate health information for
people with limited English proficiency in their primary
language and to be culturally competent (i.e., respectful and responsive to cultural beliefs that influence the
health practices of racial and ethnic minority patients).
• Work to decrease the disparities in socioeconomic factors such as employment, income, and
insurance status, which influence health behaviors and outcomes.
• Health care providers are encouraged to ask
Hispanic patients about their life, encourage them
to ask questions, take seriously the responsibility
and respect conferred on the provider, and involve
family members.2
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 61
62 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
What is a Survivor?
Due to advances in treatment and earlier screenings, more and
more people are living after a cancer diagnosis. The American
Cancer Society (ACS) defines a cancer survivor as any person
who has been diagnosed with cancer, from the time of diagnosis through the balance of life. Survivorship, like cancer itself,
is complex and can be difficult to navigate.
There are three phases of cancer survival — the time from
diagnosis to the end of initial treatment, the transition from
treatment to extended survival, and long term survival.1 More
often than not, the terms “survivor” and “survivorship” are
associated with the transitional period after treatment ends.
However, survivorship includes a wide range of cancer experiences and paths2, including:
• Living cancer-free for the remainder of life;
• Living cancer-free for many years, but experiencing one or
more serious, late complications of treatment;
• Living cancer-free for many years, but dying after a late
recurrence;
• Living cancer-free after the first cancer is treated, but developing a second cancer;
• Living with intermittent periods of active disease requiring treatment; and
• Living with cancer continuously without a disease-free
period.
The preferred path for most cancer patients is to receive
treatment and be “cured”. This is the primary goal of all cancer
treatment when possible. For many cancer patients, the initial
course of treatment is successful and the cancer does not return.
Many of survivors must still cope with the mid- and longterm effects of treatment, as well as any psychological effects —
such as fear of returning disease.2 It is important that cancer
patients, caregivers, and survivors have the information and
support needed to help minimize these effects and improve
quality of life and treatment.
Survivorship by the Numbers
An estimated 13.7 million Americans with a history of cancer
were alive on January 1, 2012, according to the ACS. This estimate does not include carcinoma in situ (non-invasive cancer)
of any site, except urinary bladder, and does not include basal
and squamous cell carcinomas. If current estimates continue,
by January 1, 2022, the population of cancer survivors will
increase to almost 18 million nationwide.
According to the Indiana State Cancer Registry, as of
December 31, 2012, there were an estimated 286,973 cancer
survivors for all cancers combined [Table 17]. The four highest-burden cancers for the state (lung, breast, colorectal and
prostate) account for approximately 56 percent of these survivors [Table 18].
Table 17. Indiana Cancer Survivor Counts*
Cancer Type
Counts
Female Breast
63,051
Cervical
4,190
Colorectal
30,491
Lung
16,812
Melanoma
14,950
Prostate
47,482
All Types
286,973
* Survivors (anyone treated for an invasive cancer, and still living) as of
December 31, 2012
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Table 18. Percent of Survivors from Four HighestBurden Cancers*
Cancer Type
Survivorship
(Counts)
Survivorship
(Percentage)
Female Breast
63,051
22%
Colorectal
30,491
11%
Lung
16,812
6%
Prostate
47,482
17%
* Survivors (anyone treated for an invasive cancer, and still living) as of
December 31, 2012.
Source: Indiana State Cancer Registry
Female Breast
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death,
and, excluding skin cancers, the most frequently diagnosed
cancer among Indiana females, with about 4,400 cases diagnosed each year. Sex and age are the two greatest risk factors
for developing breast cancer. Females have a much greater
risk of developing breast cancer than do males, and that risk
increases with age. [See the breast cancer section of this report
for more information.]
The overall five-year relative survival rate for female breast
cancer patients has improved from 75 percent between 1975
and 1977 to 91 percent during 2004 through 2010.2 For the
most part, this is attributed to improvements in treatment and
increased use of mammography screening.3
According to the ACS, the five-year relative survival rate
varies depending on the cancer stage. When breast cancer is
detected early, in the local stage, the five-year survival rate is
99 percent. If the cancer has spread regionally (e.g., to a nearby
lymph node), that rate decreases to 84 percent. In instances
where the breast cancer has spread to distant lymph nodes or
organs (the distant stage), the five-year survival rate decreases
to 23 percent. Other factors, such as tumor grade, hormone
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 63
receptor status, and increased human epidermal growth factor
receptor 2 (HER2) protein made by the cancer cells, can influence survival rates.
A common side effect of breast cancer surgery and radiation therapy is lymphedema of the arm. Lymphedema is a
buildup of lymph fluid in the tissue under the skin caused
by the removal or damage of the lymph nodes under the arm
(called the axillary lymph nodes). It can develop soon after
treatment, or even several years later. Lymphedema risk can
be reduced when only the first lymph nodes to which cancer is
likely spread are removed, rather than removing many lymph
nodes to determine whether or not the cancer has spread.
For patients with lymphedema, there are a number of effective therapies that can be used. Some evidence also suggests
that upper-body exercise and physical therapy may reduce the
severity and risk of developing this condition.4
Other long-term local effects of surgery or radiation treatment include numbness or tightness and pulling or stretching
in the chest wall, arms or shoulders. In addition, women diagnosed and treated for breast cancer at a younger age may experience impaired fertility and premature menopause, and are at
increased risk of osteoporosis. Aromatase inhibitor treatment
can cause muscle pain, joint stiffness and/or pain, and sometimes osteoporosis.
Colorectal Cancer
Colorectal cancer is the third most commonly diagnosed
cancer and cause of cancer-related death among both males
and females in Indiana. In 2014, the ACS estimated that 3,020
Indiana adults would be diagnosed with colorectal cancer,
and 1,090 would die because of the disease. The lifetime risk
of developing colorectal cancer is about five percent for both
males and females in the United States. Sex and age are the two
greatest risk factors. In addition, the The Health Consequences
of Smoking — 50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon
General indicates that smoking causes colorectal cancer
and increases the failure rate of treatment for all cancers. In
Indiana, African Americans have higher colorectal cancer
incidence and mortality rates than whites, and males have
higher rates than females. [See the colorectal cancer section of
this report for more information.]
The ACS reports that the one- and five-year survival rates
for colorectal cancer are 83 percent and 65 percent, respectively. The ten-year survival rate decreases to 58 percent. When
colorectal cancer is detected early (in the local stage), the fiveyear survival rate is 90 percent.2 When the cancer has spread
regionally, the five-year survival rate decreases to 70 percent.
The five-year survival rate decreases to only 13 percent when
colorectal cancer spreads distantly.
While most long-term survivors report a high quality
of life, some are troubled by bowel dysfunction and other
64 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
health-related issues. For those with a permanent colostomy
(a surgical procedure that brings one end of the large intestine
out through the abdominal wall), some issues such as problems around intimacy and sexuality, embarrassment, social
inhibition, and body-image disturbances may occur.
According to the ACS, as many as 40 percent of patients
treated for localized colorectal cancer, and colorectal cancer
that has spread to nearby organs, are also at increased risk of
second primary cancers of the colon and rectum.
Lung Cancer
Lung cancer is not a single disease; rather, it is a group of
cancers that originate in the lung and associated tissues. Lung
cancer is the leading cause of preventable and premature
cancer deaths in Indiana, killing an estimated 4,000 Indiana
residents every year. Smoking accounts for 87 percent of lung
cancer deaths and at least 30 percent of all cancer deaths.
However, in Indiana, about 22 percent of adults continue to
smoke tobacco, placing them at great risk for developing lung
and other types of cancer.5 [See the lung cancer section of this
report for more information.]
The ACS reports that the one-year relative survival rate for
all lung cancers combined increased from 37 percent during
1975-1979 to 45 percent during 2006-2009, largely due to
improvements in surgical techniques and combined therapies.
The five-year survival rate is highest (54 percent) if the lung
cancer is diagnosed when it is confined entirely within the
lung (localized). The overall five-year survival rate for small
cell lung cancer is six percent, which is lower than that for
non-small cell lung cancer (18 percent).
Lung cancer survivors often have impaired lung function,
especially if surgery is part of treatment. Respiratory therapy
and medications can improve the ability to resume to normal
daily activities and improve fitness. Lung cancer survivors who
continue to smoke should be encouraged to quit. Survivors of
smoking-related cancers are at an increased risk for additional
smoking-related cancers, especially in the head, neck and
urinary tract. Some survivors may feel stigmatized because of
the connection between smoking and lung cancer. This is especially difficult for lung cancer survivors who never smoked.
Prostate Cancer
Prostate cancer is an uncontrolled growth and spread of cells
in the prostate, an exocrine gland in the male reproductive
system. Excluding all types of skin cancer, prostate cancer is
the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading
cause of cancer death among Indiana males. There were
approximately 2,844 new cases of prostate cancer diagnosed
in Indiana during 2012, and there were 606 deaths due to
prostate cancer during that same year. The ACS estimates that
there were nearly three million males with a history of prostate
cancer living in the US as of January 1, 2014. Older males,
African American males, and males with a family history of
prostate cancer have a higher risk of being diagnosed. [See the
prostate cancer section of this report for more information.]
The five-year survival rate of prostate cancer is almost
100 percent when discovered in the local or regional stages.
The ACS reports that the five-year survival rate for all stages
combined has increased over the past 25 years from 68
percent to almost 100 percent. According to the most recent
data, the 10- and 15-year survival rates are 99 percent and 94
percent, respectively.
Many prostate cancer survivors who have been treated with
surgery or radiation therapy experience side effects from treatment. These include incontinence, erectile dysfunction and
bowel complications. Patients who received hormonal treatment may experience symptoms similar to menopause in
women such as loss of libido, hot flashes, night sweats, irritability, and osteoporosis. In the long term, hormone therapy also
increases risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity.6
References
Mullan F. Seasons of survival: reflections of a physician with
cancer. New England Journal of Medicine 1985; 313(4):270-3.
2
American Cancer Society. Cancer Treatment and Survivorship
Facts and Figures 2014-2015. Atlanta: American Cancer
Society; 2014.
3
Berry DA, Cronin KA, Plevritis SK, et al. Effect of screening
and adjuvant therapy on mortality from breast cancer. New
England Journal of Medicine 2005; 353(17): 1784-92.
4
Schmitz KH, Ahmed RL, Troxel AB, et al. Weight lifting
for women at risk for breast cancer-related lymphedema:
a randomized trial. Journal of the American Medical
Association 2010; 304(24): 2699-705.
5
2013 Indiana Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
6
Kintzel PE, Chase SL, Schultz LM, O’Rourke TJ. Increased risk
of metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular
disease in men receiving androgen deprivation therapy for
prostate cancer. Pharmacotherapy 2008; 28(12): 1511-22.
1
Resources
The National Cancer Survivorship Resource Center is a collaboration between the ACS and the George Washington Cancer
Institute, funded by the CDC. Its goal is to shape the future of
post-treatment cancer survivorship care, and to improve the
quality of life for cancer survivors. Staff and more than 100
volunteer survivorship experts nationwide developed tools for
cancer survivors, caregivers, health care professionals, and
policy and advocacy efforts. For more information, visit www.
cancer.org/survivorshipcenter.
The National Coalition for Cancer Survivorship offers free publications and resources that empower people to become strong
advocates for their own care or the care of others. The coalition’s
Cancer Survival Toolbox is a self-learning audio series developed by leading cancer organizations to help people develop
crucial skills to understand and meet the challenges of their
illness. For more information, visit www.canceradvocacy.org.
The Patient Advocate Foundation is a national nonprofit
organization that seeks to safeguard patients through effective
mediation assuring access to care, maintenance of employment, and preservation of financial stability. The foundation
serves as an active liaison between patients and their insurer,
employer and/or creditors to resolve insurance, job retention
and debt crisis matters relative to their diagnosis through professional cancer managers, doctors and health care attorneys.
For more information, visit www.patientadvocate.org.
Visit the Indiana Cancer Consortium website at IndianaCancer.org
to learn more about local resources in your area.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 65
Recommended Cancer Screening Guidelines
Cancer Type
Risk Factors
Early Detection
Signs and Symptoms
Breast
Sex and age are the two greatest risk
factors for developing breast cancer.
Females have a much greater risk of
developing breast cancer, and that risk
increases with age. Factors associated
with increased breast cancer risk
include weight gain after the age of
18, being overweight or obese, use of
menopausal hormone therapy, physical
inactivity, and alcohol consumption.
Research also indicates that longterm, heavy smoking increases breast
cancer risk, particularly among
females who start smoking before
their first pregnancy. Additional risk
factors may include: having one or
more first degree relatives who have
been diagnosed with breast cancer;
having a family member who carries
the breast cancer susceptibility
genes (BRCA) 1 or 2; being AfricanAmerican; having a long menstrual
history (menstrual periods that start
early and/or end later in life); have
recently used oral contraceptives
or Depo-Provera; have never had
children, or had the first child after
the age of 30; and certain medical
findings such as high breast tissue
density, high bone mineral density,
Type 2 diabetes, certain benign breast
conditions, and lobular carcinoma in
situ. In addition, high dose radiation
to the chest for cancer treatment
increases risk. Factors associated with a
decreased risk of breast cancer include
breastfeeding, regular moderate
or vigorous physical activity, and
maintaining a healthy body weight.
Women should have frequent
conversations with their health
care provider about risks for breast
cancer and how often they should be
screened. In general, women should
follow these recommendations:
breast self-awareness (women in
their 20s should be aware of the look
and feel of their breasts); clinical
breast exams (women in their 20s and
30s should have regular exams by a
physician); screening mammograms.
The most common symptom of breast
cancer is a new lump or mass. It’s
important to have anything new or
unusual checked by a doctor. Other
symptoms of breast cancer may
include: hard knots, or thickening;
swelling, warmth, redness, or
darkening; change in size or shape;
dimpling or puckering of the skin;
itchy, scaly sore, or rash on the
nipple; pulling in of the nipple or
other parts of the breast; nipple
discharge that starts suddenly; or
new pain in one spot that doesn’t
go away. Although these symptoms
can be caused by things other than
breast cancer, it is important to have
them checked out by your doctor.
Cervical
Infection with HPV is the single greatest
risk factor for cervical cancer.
Average-risk women, ages 21 to 65
years, should receive a routine Pap
test every three years. For women
ages 30 and over, who want to extend
the time periods between tests, a Pap
smear combined with HPV co-testing
can be done every five years.
Early stage cervical cancer often has
no symptoms. The most common
symptom is irregular vaginal bleeding
(bleeding that starts and stops between
periods, or after intercourse). Bleeding
after menopause or increased vaginal
discharge may also be symptoms
Colon and Rectum
(Colorectal)
Indiana residents may have an
increased risk if they are age 50 or
over; male; African-American; have a
personal history of cigarette smoking;
have a personal or family history
of colorectal cancer, inflammatory
bowel disease, or certain inherited
genetic conditions; have diabetes;
are obese; are physically inactive;
eat a diet high in red or processed
meat and/or low in whole-grain
fiber, fruits and vegetables; and
have heavy alcohol consumption.
Beginning at age 50, both men and
women with average risk for colorectal
cancer should follow one of these
schedules: 1) Tests that find polyps and
cancer, such as a colonoscopy every
ten years or a flexible sigmoidoscopy,
double-contrast barium enema, or
computed tomography colonography
every five years. Or, 2) Tests that
primarily find cancer such as yearly
fecal occult blood test (FOBT) or
fecal immunochemical test (FIT).
Early stage colorectal cancer
typically has no symptoms. Later
stage colorectal cancer symptoms
include rectal bleeding, blood
in stool, change in bowel habits,
cramping pain in lower abdomen,
decreased appetite or weight loss,
weakness, and extreme fatigue.
66 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Prevention
United States Preventive
Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Screening Guidelines
American Cancer Society
Screening Guidelines
Individuals can take charge of
their health by knowing their risk
and talking to their doctor about
personal and family history; getting
screened regularly; avoiding
tobacco use; maintaining a healthy
weight; getting the recommended
levels of moderate or vigorous
physical activity; limiting alcohol
consumption; limiting postmenopausal
hormone use; and breastfeeding.
The USPSTF recommends biennial
mammography for women ages
50-74. In addition, women should talk
to their doctors about whether or
not earlier screenings are needed.
The ACS recommends breast selfexamination for women beginning in
their 20s (women should be informed
of the benefits and limitations of
self-exams); clinical breast exams for
women in their 20s and 30s, preferably
every three years; and begin screening
mammograms yearly at age 40.
Individuals can help prevent cervical
cancer by getting the HPV vaccination,
practicing safe sex, avoiding tobacco,
getting routine screenings, getting HPV
and Pap co-testing (women over the
age of 30); and watch for abnormal
vaginal discharge or bleeding.
The USPSTF recommends screening
for cervical cancer in women age 21
to 65 years with cytology (Pap smear)
every 3 years or, for women age 30
to 65 years who want to lengthen
the screening interval, screening
with a combination of cytology and
HPV testing every five years.
The ACS recommends Pap test
screening for women ages 21-29. For
women ages 30-65, screening should
be done every five years with both the
HPV test and the Pap test, or every
three years with the Pap test alone.
Individuals can take charge of their
health by getting regular, routine
screenings, maintaining a healthy
weight, adopting a physically active
lifestyle, avoiding tobacco products,
limiting alcohol consumption, and
consuming a healthy diet that
emphasizes plant sources, supports
a healthy weight, includes at least
two and a half cups of a variety
of vegetables and fruits each day,
includes whole grains and limits
processed and red meats.
The USPSTF recommends colorectal
cancer screening for adults aged 50-75
using high-sensitivity FOBT once a
year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every
five years (when done in combination
with a high-sensitivity FOBT, the
FOBT should be done every three
years), or colonoscopy every 10 years.
Colonoscopy is also used as a follow-up
test if anything unusual is found during
one of the other screening tests.
The ACS recommends screening for
men and women beginning at age 50
using a FOBT or FIT every year, a stool
DNA test every three years, a doublecontrast barium enema every five
years, a colonoscopy every ten years,
or a CT colonography every five years.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 67
Recommended Cancer Screening Guidelines
Cancer Type
Risk Factors
Early Detection
Signs and Symptoms
Lung
Smoking is the greatest risk factor for
lung cancer. In addition, individuals at
increased risk include those exposed
to second-hand smoke; those exposed
to other cancer-causing agents (such
as asbestos, radon, arsenic, talc, vinyl
chloride, coal products, and radioactive
ores); males; and African-Americans.
Findings from the National Cancer
Institute’s National Lung Screening
Trial established screening with
the use of low-dose computed
tomography in specific highrisk groups has been shown to be
effective in reducing mortality.
Lung cancer symptoms do not usually
occur until the cancer is advanced.
Common signs and symptoms of
lung cancer include a persistent
cough, sputum streaked with blood,
chest pain, voice changes, and
recurrent pneumonia or bronchitis.
Melanoma/Skin Cancer
People of all ages, races and
ethnicities are subject to developing
skin cancer. Indiana residents may
have increased risk if they are ages
50 or older; male; white; have fair
to light skinned complexions; have
natural blond or red hair; have blue
or green eyes; have a large number of
moles (more than 50); have a family
history of melanoma; have excessive
exposure to UV radiation from the
sun or tanning beds; have a history
of sunburn at an early age; have a
weakened immune system or are being
treated with immune-suppressing
medicines; have a past history of basal
or squamous cell skin cancers; and have
an occupational exposure to coal tar,
pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds,
radium or some pesticides.
Indiana residents should be aware
of any changes in skin growths or
the appearance of new growths.
Adult should thoroughly examine
their skin regularly, preferably once
a month. New or unusual lesions or
a progressive change in a lesion’s
appearance (size, shape, or color
for example) should be evaluated
promptly by a health care provider.
A simple ABCDE rule outlines some
warning signs of melanoma: A for
Asymmetry (one half of the mole or
lesion does not match the other half);
B for Border (border irregularity, edges
that are ragged, notched or blurred);
C for Color (the pigmentation is not
uniform, with variable degrees of
tan, brown or black); D for Diameter
(if the diameter is greater than 6
millimeters - or the size of a pencil
eraser); and E for Evolution (moles
that change in shape, size or color).
Prostate
Indiana residents may have an
increased risk for prostate cancer if
they are; over the age of 50; African
American; or if they have a firstdegree relative (a father, brother or
son) with a history of prostate cancer.
Not all experts agree that screening
for prostate cancer will save lives.
The controversy focuses on the
cost of screening, the age groups to
be screened, and the potential for
serious side effects associated with
treatment after diagnosis. Not all forms
of prostate cancer need treatment.
In the early stage, prostate cancer may
not cause symptoms. It is important
to know that some men have no
symptoms at all. Other symptoms can
include difficulty starting urination;
weak or interrupted flow of urine;
frequent urination (especially at
night); inability to empty the bladder
completely; pain or burning during
urination; blood in the urine or semen;
painful ejaculation; trouble having
an erection; pain in the back, hips,
or pelvis that doesn’t go away.
68 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
Prevention
United States Preventive
Services Task Force (USPSTF)
Screening Guidelines
Individuals can help prevent
lung cancer by being tobacco
free and avoiding exposure
to second-hand smoke.
The USPSTF recommends annual
screening for lung cancer with lowdose computed tomography (LDCT)
in adults aged 55 to 80 years who
have a 30 pack-year smoking history
and currently smoke or have quit
within the past 15 years. Screening
should be discontinued once a
person has not smoked for 15 years
or develops a health problem that
substantially limits life expectancy
or the ability or willingness to
have curative lung surgery.
Individuals can take charge of their
health by limiting or avoiding exposure
to the sun during peak hours (10 a.m. to
4 p.m.); wearing sunscreen with a SPF
of 30 or higher that protects from both
UVA and UVB rays; wearing clothing
that has built-in SPF in the fabric, or
wearing protective clothing such as
long sleeves and long pants; wearing a
hat that protects your scalp and shades
your face, neck and ears; avoiding use
of tanning beds and sun lamps; wearing
sunglasses to protect your eyes; and
always protecting skin. In addition, any
new or unusual lesions or a progressive
change in a lesion’s appearance
should be evaluated by a physician.
The USPSTF recommends counseling
children, adolescents, and young
adults aged 10 to 24 years who have
fair skin about minimizing their
exposure to ultraviolet radiation
to reduce risk for skin cancer.
Individuals can help prevent
prostate cancer by eating a healthy
diet with at least five servings of
fruits and vegetables each day;
limiting their intake of red and
processed meats; avoiding excessive
consumption of dairy products;
include lycopene and vitamin E in
the diet; and meet recommended
levels of physical activity.
The USPSTF recommends against
prostate-specific antigen (PSA)based screening for prostate cancer.
American Cancer Society
Screening Guidelines
The ACS recommends LDCT for
current smokers, or former smokers
(who have quit within the past 15
years), ages 55-74 with at least
a 30 pack-per-year history.
Beginning at age 50, men who have
at least a 10-year life expectancy
should have an opportunity to make
an informed decision with their
health care provider about whether
to be screened for prostate cancer,
after receiving information about
the potential benefits, limitations,
and uncertainties associated
with prostate cancer screening.
Men at high risk should have this
discussion with their health care
provider beginning at age 45.
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 69
70 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
The Impact of Cancer in Indiana
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Average Cases Per Year
(2008-2012)
Colorectal & Other
Digestive System
About 2 in 5 people now living in Indiana will
eventually develop cancer. Nationally, men have
almost a 1 in 2 chance of developing cancer
during their lifetime; women’s lifetime risk of
developing cancer is slightly more than 1 in 3.
Lung & Other
Respiratory System
Breast
The Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
provides the most up-to-date cancer information
available and identifies current cancer trends and
their potential impact on Indiana residents.
Download a free copy at IndianaCancer.org.
More than
99% women
Prostate & Other
Male Genital
Bladder & Other
Urinary System
32,620
Hoosiers were diagnosed
with cancer each year
Uterine, Cervical &
Other Female Genital
16,203 of those Hoosiers were male
16,417 of those Hoosiers were female
Lymphoma
Melanoma & Other
Skin Cancers
Meaning approximately...
89 Hoosiers were diagnosed with cancer every day
Estimated economic impact* ...
Excludes Basal
and Squamous
Brain & Other
Nervous System
$1.92 billion is estimated to be
Miscellaneous
spent in 2015 on direct costs of treating
cancer in Indiana
Endocrine
$2.76 billion is the estimated amount
of money Hoosiers will spend on direct costs for
cancer care in 2023 if current trends continue
Leukemia
Oral Cavity
& Pharynx
Myeloma
= 100 Hoosiers
Data from: 2008-2012 Indiana State Cancer Registry (accessed April 6, 2015) and *The Milken Institute
Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015 71
72 Indiana Cancer Facts and Figures 2015
IndianaCancer.org
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