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Transcript
Artificial Intelligence, Expert
Systems, and Virtual
Reality
Chapter 7
1
Artificial Intelligence
People, procedures, hardware,
software, data, and knowledge
needed to develop computer systems
and machines that demonstrate
characteristics of intelligence
 Test for AI


2
Unable to tell whether you are
interacting with a computer or human
The Nature of Intelligence









3
Learn from experience & apply the knowledge
Handle complex situations
Solve problems when important information is
missing
Determine what is important
React quickly and correctly to new situations
Understand visual images
Process and manipulate symbols
Be creative and imaginative
Use heuristics (rules of thumb)
Natural and Artificial
Intelligence
4
Conceptual Model of AI
www.robocup.org
Handwriting recognition:
5
http://members.aol.com/Trane64/java/JRec.html
Expert System Characteristics
Can explain their reasoning or
suggested decisions
 Can display “intelligent” behavior
 Can draw conclusions from complex
relationships
 Can provide portable knowledge
 Can deal with uncertainty

6
Expert System Limitations









7
Not widely used or tested
Difficult to use
Limited to relatively narrow problems
Cannot readily deal with “mixed” knowledge
Possibility of error
Cannot refine own knowledge base
Difficult to maintain
May have high development costs
Raise legal and ethical concerns
Components of an Expert
System
Backward chaining
Forward chaining
Comparison of backward
and forward chaining
Assembling human experts
The use of fuzzy logic
The use of rules
The use of cases
8
Rules

Whale Watcher demo


JESS and the Sticks
game


http://herzberg.ca.sandi
a.gov/jess/
Other demos

9
http://www.aiinc.ca/dem
os/whale.html
http://www.cs.wisc.edu/
~mariopi/AIDemos.html
Knowledge Acquisition
Facility
10
Expert System Development
Process
11
Participants in Expert System
Development
Recognize the real problem
Develop a general framework for problem solving
Formulate theories about the situation
Develop and use general rules to solve a problem
Know when to break the rules or general principles
Solve problems quickly and efficiently
12
Expert Systems Development
Alternatives
13
When to Use Expert
Systems
High payoff
 Preserve scarce expertise
 Distribute expertise
 Provide more consistency than
humans
 Faster solutions than humans
 Training expertise

14
Applications of Expert System
and Artificial Intelligence
Credit granting and loan analysis
 Stock Picking
 Catching cheats and terrorists
 Budgeting
 Information management and retrieval
 Games
 Virus detection
 Hospitals and medical facilities

15
Virtual Reality

A system that enables
one or more users to
move and react in a
computer-simulated
environment
Binocular Omni-Orientation Monitor
(BOOM)
Head mounted display
Data glove
CAVE
16
Haptic interface, aka force feedback
Wearable computers /
Augmented Reality
Computers worn as part of clothing,
jewellery, etc.
 Computers are always present
 Context-aware: Senses where the
user is, what is happening
 MIT Media labs


17
http://www.media.mit.edu/wearables/mithril/
VR Applications

Medicine


Education and training



CGI
The Matrix Reloaded, Star Wars, LOTR
Real Estate Marketing and Tourism


18
used by military for aircraft maintenance
Entertainment


used to link stroke patients to physical
therapists
Used to increase real estate sales
Virtual reality tour of the White House
Other Specialized Systems



19
Segway Personal
Transporter
Adaptive brain
interface
technology
Personal
awareness
assistant (PAA)
Coming up

Thursday
Tutorial 8
 Lab 7 due


Tuesday
S&R Chapter 8
 Database design due

20