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Earth’s Resources
• Renewable… can be replaced
naturally at or near the rate of use
– Water
– Grain
– oxygen
• Non-renewable…
– Oil
– Freshwater
Sustainable development
• Sustainable development uses resources that
are renewable to create a smaller ecological
Land Resources
• Space allocation
– Human habitat… housing &
recreation, industrial, waste
– Food… agriculture, livestock
– Ecosystem… natural habitat
• Management
– Ensures soil composition remains
• Humus
Agriculture Strategies
• Crop Rotation
– Replenishes nutrients
• No till farming
– Leaves roots intact… resists
erosion and traps in moisture
• Contour farming & terracing
– Resists erosion and helps
reduce water usage
Forest Resources
• Resources
– Environmental gas exchange
– Wood and pulp based products… paper &
building materials
– Global soil health
– Area of ground water recharge
• Impact of human intervention
– ~1/2 of the natural forests of the world
are now gone… deforestation
– Considered renewable as long as properly
managed… no clear cutting!
Selective harvesting of mature trees
Tree farms
GMO to produce faster growing trees
• Overfishing… threatens the
reproductive cycles of fish…
greatly threatens many
– Since the 1990s the US
National Marine Fisheries
Service has set many
restrictions of size, amount,
and season to help sustain this
valuable resource
– Aquaculture… fish hatcheries
• Raises fish for human
– Causes coastal pollution and
eutrophication is not wisely
Air Resources
• Industrialization brought with it
– A toxic layer of chemicals that
creates a brownish haze in the
• Considered a pollutant by the EPA
(environmental protection agency)
• Clean Air Act 1970… limited the
amount of pollutants that can be
safely released
• Creates acid rain as the chemicals
bind with water in the
atmosphere… greatly affects plants
by harming leaves and the soil
bacteria that they depend on
Freshwater Conservation
• Clean Water Act of 1973