Download Statistical Training and Research: The University of North Carolina

yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Statistical Training and Research: The University of North Carolina System
Author(s): E. Shepley Nourse, Bernard G. Greenberg, Gertrude M. Cox, David D. Mason, James
E. Grizzle, Norman L. Johnson, Lyle V. Jones, John Monroe, Gordon D. Simons, Jr.
Source: International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique, Vol. 46, No. 2
(Aug., 1978), pp. 171-207
Published by: International Statistical Institute (ISI)
Stable URL:
Accessed: 01/06/2010 14:44
Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless
you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you
may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use.
Please contact the publisher regarding any further use of this work. Publisher contact information may be obtained at
Each copy of any part of a JSTOR transmission must contain the same copyright notice that appears on the screen or printed
page of such transmission.
JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of
content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms
of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected]
International Statistical Institute (ISI) is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to
International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique.
InternationalStatistical Review, 46 (1978) 171-207 Longman Group Limited/Printedin Great Britain
Statistical Trainingand Research:The University
of North CarolinaSystem
HealthSciences,Universityof North
Thispaperwascollatedby E. ShepleyNourse,Publications
KenanProfessorof Biostatisticsand Dean, Schoolof
Carolinaat ChapelHill, for BernardG. Greenberg,
of NorthCarolinaat ChapelHill,whochairedthegroupwhichprovidedinformation
includedUniversityof NorthCarolinapeople(a) fromNorthCarolinaState
for this history.Participants
Universityat Raleigh:GertrudeM. Cox,ProfessorEmeritusof Statistics;andDavidD. Mason,Professorof
Head;and (b) fromChapelHill: JamesE. Grizzle,Professorof Biostatistics
of StatisticsandformerDepartment
NormanL. Johnson,Professor
Jones, Alumni DistinguishedProfessorof Psychology,Vice Chancellor,Dean of the GraduateSchool; John
Unit; and GordonD. Simons,Jr., Professorof Statisticsand
Tableof Contents
Early Developments at Raleigh
Establishment of North Carolina's First Academic Department of Statistics
Establishment of the Institute of Statistics
Expansion of the Institute of Statistics
Department of (Experimental) Statistics
Developments of the 1950s
Developments since 1960
Summary Highlights of Consulting and Research
Department of (Mathematical) Statistics
Developments up to the Mid-Sixties
Developments since the Mid-Sixties
Students in the Department of Statistics
Department of Biostatistics
Early Developments
Developments after 1960
Other Ventures
Notes and References
The development of statistics as an academic discipline in the University of North Carolina
System had its origins before Pearl Harbor. Initial growth, in some ways curtailed and in
other ways stimulated during the World War II years, did result in a sound base for the
acceleration that occurred postwar and the maintenance of high quality and responsiveness
to the needs of the state, region, and nation that has characterizeddevelopments to the present
What is now the Department of Statistics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences,
North Carolina State University, Raleigh, was established in late 1940. This pioneer department experienced a rapidly increasing demand for training, research collaboration, and
consulting assistance locally and nationally. To help meet this need, two other statistics
departments were established at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: in 1946, what
is now the Department of Statistics in the School of Arts and Sciences, and in 1949, the
Table 1
Highlightsof thefirst fifteen years in the developmentof statisticsin the Universityof North CarolinaSystem
Universityof North Carolinaat
North Carolina ChapelHill, Departmentsof:
State College at
Raleigh, Department of Experi- Mathematical
(School of Public Other
mental Statistics1 Statistics
PresidentFrank P.
Cox, head) in
School of
World War II
North Carolina
State, Gertrude
M. Cox, director);
from General
Expansionto All- Expansionand
Universitystatus; rapid growth;
regionalrespon- additionof
sibility in South William G.
Journalof the
other outstanding
summersessions, faculty.
Furtherprogress; JacksonA. RigneyGraduate
GertrudeM. Cox, becamehead;
full time to
graduateprogram expanded.
Institutecited by Quantitative
new Southern
as exampleof
George E.
Expansion;first At ChapelHill,
Nicholson, Jr.,
degreesawarded. SurveyOperations
statisticalservice chairman;name
Unit and
to Universityand changeto
1 In 1965 there was a name change to North CarolinaState Universityat Raleigh.In 1970, the Department
of ExperimentalStatistics became the Departmentof Statistics;a comparablename change occurredearlier
with the Departmentof MathematicalStatistics,as shown above.
Department of Biostatistics in the School of Public Health. All the early developments in
statistics had the strong support of Frank Porter Graham, President of the University of
North Carolina System, which then included three constituent institutions at Chapel Hill,
Raleigh, and Greensboro.
The entity known as the Institute of Statistics, was established at Raleigh in 1944 and was
given University of North Carolina System status in 1946. The Institute of Statistics had an
emerging leadership role in the field of statistics, especially in North Carolina and in the
Southeast. The unique story of the Institute, as told by Frank Porter Graham, featured 'the
cooperation of many persons and agencies, and the adventurous spirit of the preeminent
leaders in this field'. It was 'an adventure in creative cooperation at one center for training ...
urgently needed specialists and leaders' (Graham, 1948), a reputation that has facilitated a
focus that continues to be a distinctive feature of international interest.
The following pages include brief historical overviews and comments on distinctive
characteristics, educational offerings, research emphasis, and consulting activities of the
Institute of Statistics and of each department. Table 1 summarizes the historical context of
the first 15 years. Other exhibit materials include lists of Ph.D. recipients through the 1975-76
academic year and present and former faculty.
Outstanding students and faculty, broad balance of theory and application, and the cooperative focus referred to above are recurrent themes throughout this story.
at Raleigh
Establishmentof North Carolina'sFirst Academic Department of Statistics
On a train trip early in 1940, President Frank Porter Graham quite by chance met W.F.
Callander, United States Department of Agriculture, who expressed a desire to help establish
another center similar to the existing one at Ames, Iowa, where the training of statisticians
and cooperative research with federal agencies could be done. President Graham told him,
'We will do it at North Carolina State College,' and shortly thereafter the initial developments
were under way.
W.F. Callander and C.F. Sarle, United States Bureau of Agricultural Economics, A.E.
Brandt of the United States Soil Conservation Service, and others were contacted regarding
the type of program and its leadership. Professor George W. Snedecor was asked to suggest
names, and in a letter dated 7 September 1940, he recommended five young men, half-heartedly
adding, 'If you would consider a woman, I know of no one better qualified than Gertrude M.
Cox'. An offer dated 24 September 1940, was received by Miss Cox and she reported for work
1 November 1940, the first woman professor on the faculty of North Carolina State College.
The Department of Experimental Statistics, in the School of Agriculture, was formally
approved 22 January 1941, by the All-University Board of Trustees and Professor Cox was
confirmed as head of the department.
The major objectives of the Department of ExperimentalStatistics were to provide statistical
consulting, computing assistance, and service courses for the research staff of the North
Carolina AgriculturalExperiment Station and the School of Agriculture. A series of elementary
courses in statistics was developed immediately.
During the first summer, in 1941, basic applied and theory courses were given in statistics
and related fields. The teachers were George W. Snedecor, Harold Hotelling, and Gertrude M.
Cox, assisted by Robert J. Monroe and Carl F. Kossack. England's Scotland Yard would
not permit R.A. Fisher to come to teach, probably because of his active training of foreign
students. There were 83 regular students, who now represent a 'who's who' list of statisticians
who have developed many of the statistical programs in the United States.
During this same period, in addition to the regularcredit courses, three one-week conferences
were held for invited research investigators, especially from the Southern states. These
conferences (agriculturaleconomics and rural sociology, biology and nutrition, and agronomy
and horticulture) were held for the purpose of aiding research workers with some of their
more pressing experimental problems; 243 persons registered. These were the first three of a
series of conferences to be held in the South.
Robert J. Monroe joined the faculty in 1941, as did Jackson A. Rigney, initially part time
with Experimental Statistics and Agronomy. Richard L. Anderson joined the Department of
Mathematics at North Carolina State College in June 1941, then became a member of the
Statistics group 1 January 1942. Jay Wakeley arrived 13 September 1941.
A joint arrangement by the Department of Experimental Statistics with the United States
Department of Agriculture Division of Agricultural Statistics provided resident collaborators
Alva L. Finkner and Walter A. Hendricks. The first formal research project between these
two groups, including the Department of Agronomy, was entitled, 'Meteorological-SoilPlant Relationships'; David D. Mason was employed as a half-time graduate research
assistant to work on this project.
World War II military service affected many of the people who were associated with the
new Department of Experimental Statistics, and developments during this period were
necessarily slower than desired. Soon Robert J. Monroe was stationed at Camp Davis, Dave
Mason and Alva L. Finkner were in Australia, Harold 'Cotton' Robinson was in Africa, and
Jay Wakeley was in the Navy. Marvin Clay saluted the department on his way overseas
by circling his Air Force plane low over 1911 Building, where Statistics was then located. In
later war years, Richard L. Anderson was on leave at Princeton University, Office of Scientific
Research and Development.
The staff members remaining with the department were partially involved with the war
effort. Any professor who had had advanced mathematics courses was drafted to help teach
mathematics to soldiers sent to North Carolina State College for training. In the fall of 1943
Miss Cox, with the help of Richard L. Anderson, taught two preflight classes in spherical
trigonometry. For awhile beginning 1 July 1944, J.M. Clarkson from the Department of
Mathematics helped with teaching courses in mathematical statistics. Ralph E. Comstock
joined the Statistics staff on 15 August 1943, and at first was half time with the Department of
Animal Science. His main research interest was quantitative genetics.
During these years there was a steady increase in the demands for teaching and consulting
work. Although the staff devoted most of their energies to collaborating on research investigations, they also did fundamental research in statistical methodology and introduced into the
curriculum courses in applied and mathematical statistics.
Establishmentof the Institute of Statistics
Requests for assistance increased rapidly, and early in 1944 it became clear that substantial
expansion of the Statistics program was needed. Requests for permission to organize an
Institute and to secure substantial funds to enable further development of the program and
to handle contract projects were made to the Director, Agricultural Experiment Station, and
directly to University President Frank Porter Graham. He phoned former North Carolina
Governor O. Max Gardner, who was serving in Washington, D.C., and insisted that he had
to be present at the meeting of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees. Mr Gardner
rearranged a meeting of the War Mobilization and Reconversion Board, of which he was
chairman, and came by train overnight to Raleigh to the meeting on 18 September 1944, when
the committee approved establishment of the Institute of Statistics at North Carolina State
College and appointed Miss Cox as director.
A proposal was prepared for submission to the General Education Board (Rockefeller
Foundation), which President Graham discussed with A.R. Mann of the General Education
Board. Frank Porter Grahamwrote later: 'The idea that such a fully integratedprogram
requiringthe servicesof the best mindsin this field was to be undertakenin the South, was
consideredin some parts of Americaand the worldto be recklessand even fantastic.It was
consideredby some to be wiserfor a greatFoundationto back such an unprecedentedenterprise at one of the highlyendoweduniversitiesalreadyassuredof its own financialstability'
The GeneralEducationBoarddecidedthat its supportwould go to the Universitywhich
hadmadethe proposalandwaswillingto venturemostfor its fulfillment.On 7 December1944,
$87,000was awardedto the Instituteof Statisticsto providefor expansionof its program.
Earlyin the plans for the Instituteof Statistics,three purposeswere establishedas goals
towardwhicheffortswereto be directed:(a) to providea teaching,research,consulting,and
servicecenterfor statisticalwork; (b) to promotethe use of efficientstatisticaltechniquesin
diverse fields of application;and (c) to advance statisticsthrough the discoveryof new
techniquesby theoreticalinvestigations.
It was recognizedthat, in orderto carryon this program,the Instituteof Statisticsfaculty
shouldconsistof both theoreticaland appliedstatisticians:the theoreticalstatisticianto have
a high degree of mathematicalingenuityand skill, along with the ability to develop new
concepts, and the applied statisticianto have advancedtrainingin two researchfields, in
statisticsand in a special field of application.Skill for planningsurveysand experiments
appropriatefor manyspecialsituations,a consultingabilityachievedonly throughexperience
knowledgeof the subjectmatterto whichthe statisticaltechniquesare applied,and abilityand
willingnessto cooperatewereconsideredimportant.
The work of the Instituteof Statisticsstaff was broadenedto includeresearchin mathematical,physical,and industrialstatistics;beforethis time, consultantassistancehad been
providedprimarilyin the biologicaland social sciences.The establishmentof the Institute
with additionalfunds made possible the developmentof a more extensiveprogramof cooperativeworkwithotherAgriculturalExperimentStationsin the Southandwithgovernment,
industry,and privateresearchagencies.
DuringWorldWarII statisticswasrapidlybecomingrecognizedas a vitalbranchof science.
This recognitioncame not only becauseof the developmentsbeing made in the theory and
techniquesof statistics,but also becauseresearchworkersin manyareaswererecognizingthe
scope,usefulness,andefficiencyof statisticalmethodsfor scientificresearch.In NorthCarolina
both the Departmentof ExperimentalStatisticsand the Instituteof Statisticswere part of
these developments.
As the war drew to a close, there were increasedstate, ExperimentStation, and General
EducationBoardfunds.Facultyand supportpersonnelat North CarolinaStateCollegewere
and graduatework, as
addedto the point that they could sustaincoursesfor undergraduate
well as expand researchand consultingprograms.Around this time Robert J. Monroe,
Alva L. Finkner,David Mason, Harold F. Robinson,and Jay Wakeleyreturnedfrom war
service.Also Henry'Curly'Lucas,WilliamG. Cochran,FrancisE. McVay,and Paul Peach
were added to the staff, and JacksonA. Rigney became a full-time staff memberof the
Departmentof ExperimentalStatistics.Researchsupport, secretarialservices,and bookkeeping activities were strengthened, and the Statistical Computing Service Laboratory was
expanded to include 12 statistical clerks. Approximately 20 graduate students, most of them
World War II veterans, were enrolled either as M.S. or Ph.D. candidates.
Expansion of the Institute of Statistics
Gertrude M. Cox made several trips to New York in 1944 and 1945 to negotiate with the
General Education Board staff, and she traveled to other places to interview prospective staff
and to locate potential funds. Included were visits to Columbia University and to Mountain
Lake,New Jersey,to talk with HaroldHotelling.As a resultof discussionswith Miss Cox he
agreedto meetwithherand UniversityPresidentFrankPorterGrahamto talkaboutdeveloping a Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat the ChapelHill campusof the Universityof
North Carolinaas partof the Instituteof Statistics.HaroldHotellingwroteon a sheetof hotel
stationery what staff he would want, with proposed salaries,to start a Departmentof
Miss Cox broughtback that sheetof hotel stationeryand wrotea proposalwhichwas submittedby way of Universitychannelsto the GeneralEducationBoard.On 7 December1945,
they awardeda second grant, this one for $125,000,to supplementexisting funds, thus
enablingfurtherexpansionof the Instituteof Statistics.Miss Cox had secureda promise
from ProfessorCochranthat he wouldjoin the Institutestaffif Dr Hotellingdid. The latter
had agreedthat he wouldjoin the programif moneywas obtainedto coversalariesproposed
for five yearsfor five professors.Hotellingand Cochranacceptedappointmentsby phone on
8 December1945.
On 17 February1946,therewas a publicannouncementthat the Instituteof Statisticshad
been approvedon an All-Universitybasisby the ConsolidatedUniversityofficials.The Board
of Trusteesapprovedformationof the Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat ChapelHill
to begin 1 July 1946.
Miss Cox continuedas the directorof the Instituteof Statistics,responsibleto the officeof
the President;the associatedirectorswereWilliamG. Cochran(Raleigh)andHaroldHotelling
(Chapel Hill). The graduateprogramand offeringsof the two academicdepartmentswere
closely coordinated.The Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat Chapel Hill provided
strong offeringsin probabilitytheory and mathematicalstatisticswhile the Departmentof
ExperimentalStatisticsat Raleighprovidedstrengthin intermediateand advancedmethods.
Throughoutthe period1945to 1960,Ph.D. majorsin statisticson bothcampuseswererequired
to take courseworkin both departmentsin orderto fulfilldegreerequirements.
To facilitate
this interchangeof students,classes were scheduledon Tuesdaysand Thursdaysin Chapel
Hill and on the remainingdays in Raleigh.Both departmentshave continuedto expandtheir
staffs and course offerings,and today there is still voluntaryinterchangeof students.(See
furtherdescriptionsof each departmentlaterin this article.)
Another developmentof the postwar period in North Carolinawas that the Biometric
Section of the AmericanStatisticalAssociationstartedthe BiometricsBulletin(in 1945),with
six issuesper yearand with GertrudeM. Cox as editorfor the first11 years.In 1947the name
was changed to Biometrics,with four issues a year. The BiometricSociety was founded
6 September1947, as an internationalsociety devoted to the mathematicaland statistical
aspects of biology; it began at once using this journalas its officialpublicationchannel.In
September 1950, Biometrics became Biometrics,Journal of the Biometric Society.
Regionalleadershiphas been an interestingpart of the Instituteof Statisticsstory.One of
the stipulationsof the GeneralEducationBoardgrantswas that the Instituteacceptresponsibilities for stimulatingactivitiesin statisticsin the South. To fulfill this assignment,the
Instituteprovidedthe followingregionalservices:(a) workconferences,15of whichwereheld,
both in Raleighand in otherlocations,from 1941to 1948;(b) summersessions,five of which
were held with regional, national, and international participants, 1941 to 1951; and (c)
professional assistance. In fulfilling this third area of responsibility, the staff members of the
Institute provided help and advice whenever and wherever they could, making visits to other
universities to consult on local and regional projects. George W. Snedecor was employed to
spend a quarter (or, sometimes, a semester) at each of four colleges in the South besides one
year at North Carolina State College. These statisticians did teaching and consulting work and
often were asked to make recommendations regarding the organization and coordination of
statistics at these colleges.
As the postwarperiod progressed,the Instituteof Statisticscontinuedits leadershiprole
and continuedto foster cooperativeventures.Some of the earliercooperativeresearchwas
conductedwith the United StatesBureauof AgriculturalEconomics,WeatherBureau,Office
of Naval Research,Soil ConservationService,Bureauof Plant Industry,Bureauof Animal
Industry,Bureauof Mines,TennesseeValleyAuthority,andAgriculturalExperimentStations
in the South,in the United States,and internationally.
Researchin statisticaltheory was the majorfunctionof a numberof the staff members.
Otherswere more heavily engagedin developingand testing samplingtechniques,experimentaldesigns,and methodsof analysisto leadto moreefficientproceduresfor obtainingand
interpretingquantitativeinformation,e.g., studyof breedingand selectionproceduresto yield
most rapidprogressin the geneticimprovementof animalsand plants.All staffmembersof
the Institutewere encouragedto maintainclose contactwith other leadersin the statistical
profession,not only by attendingand givingpapersat scientificmeetingsbut also by visiting
other research centers and universitiesand by correspondenceand publications.There
was extensive participationin the work of national and internationalorganizationsby
servingas officersand editorsof journalsand by performingreferee,council,and committee
As early as 1943, the Department of ExperimentalStatistics and the Agricultural
ExperimentStation providedfor research,teaching,and graduateassistantsin the area of
quantitativegenetics.This was made possiblewhen Ralph E. Comstockjoined the faculty.
In April 1947the RockefellerFoundationmadea grantof $59,500to the Instituteto develop
furtherthe QuantitativeGeneticsProgram,of whichDr Comstockand HaroldF. Robinson
werethe co-leaders.Theprogramwas expandedin the early1950sby the additionof C. Clark
Cockerham,Ken-ichiKojima, Dale F. Matzinger,and Robert H. Moll, as well as several
postdoctoralfellows.Anothergrant,$170,000fromthe RockefellerFoundation,was received
Two key eventsin the historyof statisticsin North Carolinabecameofficialin 1949.One
was that on 1 April JacksonA. Rigney became head of the Departmentof Experimental
Statistics,therebyallowingGertrudeM. Cox to devotefull time to the work of directingthe
Instituteof Statistics.On 1 July 1949, a third departmentwas added to the Institute,the
Departmentof Biostatisticsin the School of PublicHealth on the ChapelHill campus,with
BernardG. Greenberg,one of the firstPh.D. recipientsin statisticsfromNorth CarolinaState
College, as chairman.The mission of this departmenthas been to provide trainingand
consultingassistanceto health-relatedprogramsin the Universityandto fulfillresearchneeds
in this area. (See the departmentalsectionslaterin this article.)
It was at the AuburnConference(7-9 September1948),the fifteenthand last of the series
of workconferencessponsoredby the Instituteof Statisticsand the GeneralEducationBoard,
that GertrudeM. Cox presenteda 'ProposedStatisticalPlan for the South-easternStates'.In
the proposal she emphasizedthat the growing appreciationof the value of statisticshad
created a demand for adequatelytrainedpersonnel.Suggestionswere made concerninga
multistateregionalprogramfor coordinationof conferences,trainingstatisticiansin summer
schools, visitinglecturers,and expansionof statisticsat each universityin the South.
The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), dedicated to the improvement of graduate
and professional education in the region, was established by interstate compact in June 1949.
At an SREB-organized Graduate Work Conference which met at Daytona Beach, 4-7
September 1950, one conferee group was instructed to consider 'unique services' in the region.
It was this group that first discussed the potentials of a coordinated, cooperative regional
program in the then 'unique' field of statistics; a report of the rapidly developing program of
the Institute of Statistics was presented as an example of regional cooperation, a role it has
continued to serve.
Department of (Experimental)Statistics
The earlyhistoryof the Departmentof Experimental
Statisticsat NorthCarolinaStateCollege
was closelyinterwovenwith the developmentof the Instituteof Statistics,as describedabove.
In the postwarperiodthe departmentburgeoned.By July 1949the facultyhad increasedto
14 members.H. FairfieldSmith was added to help strengthenthe theory offerings.John
Wishart,WilliamJ. Youden, and GeorgeW. Snedecorwere visitingprofessors.Therewere
supportivepositionsfor residentcollaboratorsand assistantstatisticians.Most of the time up
until 1960,the visitingprofessorshelpedwith teaching,research,and consulting.Theyhelped
broadenthe scope of the permanentstaff's knowledgeabout the extensiveuse of statistical
methodsand introducednew techniques,especiallysome of the ones they werefindinguseful
in their own consulting.
Individualconsultingwork of the staffmembershad been heavyfromthe day the program
started,especiallyin biologyand economics,andindustrialconsultingworkbeganduringand
rightafterthe war. Someexamplesare: (a) studyof the behaviorunderstressof textileyarns
containingboth cotton and rayon;(b) seekingthe relationbetweenhydrocarbonmeltingpoint
and size, weight,and conformationof the molecules;and (c) studyof sourcesof errorin the
determinationof aminoacidconcentratesin biologicalassay.Therewerecontinuallyincreasing
numbersof contributionsto the statisticsand other sciencesubjectareajournals.
The Departmentof ExperimentalStatistics,Raleigh,with the help of the Departmentof
MathematicalStatistics,ChapelHill, offeredcourse work towardM.S. and Ph.D. degrees.
It also offeredthe baccalaureatedegree,but veryfew studentsthen choseto majorin statistics
at the undergraduate
level. Coursesweredesignedfor those preparingto teach statisticsand
theoryand for researchscholarsin other scienceswho wanteda practical
workingknowledgeof statisticaltheory and models. Much of this developmentwas made
possibleby the GeneralEducationBoard'sratherlargegrantsin 1944and 1945whichenabled
staff to be secured.Many studentscame to take graduatework in statisticswith the help of
and otherfederalsources.
graduateassistantshipsandfundsfromthe VeteransAdministration
Developments of the 1950s
The departmentshowedsteadydevelopmentduringthe 1950sin terms of faculty,graduate
students,and financialsupport.By 1959,the facultyhad grownto nine full professors,three
associate professors,and seven assistantprofessors(not includingvisiting professorsand
postdoctoralfellows). During the ten-yearperiod, 1950 through 1959, a total of 46 Ph.D.
degreesand 41 M.S. degreeswereawarded.
Also duringthis period,substantialfunds werebeing securedfrom governmentalagencies
in additionto those alreadymentioned,includingsuch defenseagenciesas Officeof Naval
Research,Air Force,and ArmyOrdnance(industrialdesign).In additionto federaland state
funds in supportof statisticalprograms,there were industrialcontractsundertakenby the
Instituteof Statistics.On 12 January1953, UniversityPresidentGordon Gray announced
that financial grants made to the Institute of Statisticsjust during the last part of 1952 amounted
to $606,000.
A basic tenet in the strategy of developing the Department of Experimental Statistics was
that it must provide statistical service to all fields in the University and in the region. This was
the cornerstone for continued support and growth, and several activities emerged during the
1950s as a direct result, as noted below.
One development was the formation of the North Carolina State College Computing
Center. On 1 April 1956, the Department of Experimental Statistics, with support from the
North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station and the Institute of Statistics, acquired the
first electronic digital computer in an educational institution in North Carolina (an IBM-650
computer). Arnold H.E. Grandage was named director of the newly formed Computing
Center, which was administered by the department. All University faculty were encouraged
to make use of the facilities. (Administration of the Computing Center was transferredto the
Dean, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences on 1 July 1962, and from there to the
Provost's Office on 1 July 1967.)
On 26 November 1956, Jackson A. Rigney began what turned out to be a two-and-one-halfyear leave of absence as department head to serve as chief of mission of the Agency for
International Development North Carolina State College program in Peru. His selection for
this assignment was the direct result of having become broadly acquainted with agricultural
research in his role as plant science statistician. Robert J. Monroe served as acting head of
the department during this period.
On 1 July 1958, Alva L. Finkner developed the Southeastern Fish and Game Statistics
Project, a cooperative arrangement among the 14 Southeastern states, to provide statistical
consulting and applied research to their fish and wildlife program. Guided by the Southeastern Wildlife Commissioners Association through a five-man steering committee, this
project is continuing and is growing in breadth. It has been directed by Don W. Hayne since
1962. It supports two-and-one-half full-time faculty members and several graduate research
The research in quantitative genetics jointly headed by Ralph Comstock and Harold F.
Robinson attracted international attention during the 1950s and resulted in an organizational
change. On 1 July 1958, the major contingent of the Quantitative Genetics Program was
separated from the Department of Experimental Statistics to form the nucleus of the new
Department of Genetics, in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Harold F. Robinson,
Professor of Statistics, became the head of the new department, and Professor of Genetics.
C. Clark Cockerham, Professor of Statistics and Genetics, remained in the Department of
Experimental Statistics to continue his research and to provide consultative assistance in
statistical genetics and plant and animal breeding to the other departments.
Developmentssince 1960
Developments proceeded at the same fast pace in the 1960s. In the post-Sputnik era, there was
considerable agitation to give the basic sciences more visibility and autonomy on the North
Carolina State College campus. One such move was the formation 1 July 1960, of a School
of Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics consisting initially of four departments:
Chemistry, Applied Mathematics, Physics, and Experimental Statistics. The departments of
Chemistry and Experimental Statistics were taken from the School of Agriculture, and the
departments of Applied Mathematics and Physics were moved from the School of Engineering.
Although administration of statistics teaching and associated academic activities was shifted
to the new school, a Department of Experimental Statistics remained in the North Carolina
Agricultural Experiment Station because of research projects directly associated with that area
and to provide the service functions of statistical advising, consulting, and computing services.
With the transfer of academic activities to the new school, the undergraduatecurriculumin
statistics was revised to be more attractive to the student oriented to mathematical and physical
sciences. Since the early 1960s, 20 to 35 undergraduatesper year have majored in statistics.
Throughout these changes, the Institute of Statistics continued to support the major portion
of the theoretical and applied statistical and biomathematical research work with state, grant,
and contract funds.
Some reorientation and development in the 1960s culminated in 1965 with a change in the
name of the institution to North Carolina State University at Raleigh. In 1970 the name of
the school became School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and concurrently, the name
of the Department of Experimental Statistics was changed to the Department of Statistics.
This change in name was in recognition of the department'sincrease in theory-orientedfaculty,
thereby providing a full program in statistics.
The use of statistical concepts and designs in a variety of biological research programs led
inevitably to a strong interest in quantitative modeling of biological phenomena. The
Biomathematics Program, with H.L. Lucas as director, was formally recognized with the
awarding of a National Institutes of Health Training Grant in Biomathematics on 1 January
1961; actually Dr Lucas and several of his colleagues had been involved in the mathematical
modeling of biological systems for several years. H.R. van der Vaart was employed in 1961.
In the summer of that year the Biomathematics Program sponsored a two-week international
conference in biomathematics at Cullowhee, North Carolina. This highly successful conference
not only stimulated more interest in biomathematics in North Carolina, but throughout the
nation and the world.
On 1 May 1966, the Biomathematics Program received further stimulus with the award of
a $1.125 million National Science Foundation Science Development Grant over a three-year
period. Emphasis in the Biomathematics Program continues to be on graduate training and
research, and support has been provided for several faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and an
average of 12 to 15 predoctoral fellows per year.
On 1 March 1962, Jackson A. Rigney accepted a temporaryforeign assignment and David D.
Mason was named acting head of the Department of Experimental Statistics and acting
director of the Raleigh section of the Institute of Statistics. Later in the year Professor Rigney
elected to continue in international activities. Professor Mason, effective 1 July 1963, formally
assumed both posts.
Another event of the 1960s was formation of the Joint Econometrics Program. There had
long been informal cooperation between the departments of (Agricultural) Economics and
(Experimental) Statistics. This was facilitated by the fact that they were housed in the same
building. T. Dudley Wallace was jointly employed by the two departments on 1 September
1959. The Joint Econometrics Program, which grew from Dr Wallace's activities, was formally
initiated in 1964.
The program continues to be active in 1976, with two joint faculty appointments and several
other members from both the Department of Economics and Business and the Department of
Statistics heavily involved. Professor Wallace resigned in 1974 and was replaced by Thomas
Johnson. A.R. Gallant, appointed in 1971, replaced Charles H. Little.
The Quantitative Genetics Program, cooperative between the Departments of Statistics and
Genetics, was given a big stimulus in 1963 with the award of a National Institutes of Health
Program Project Grant in the amount of $2.2 million for seven years. The already well-known
program has since achieved worldwide recognition. The grant is currentlyin its thirteenth year
and supports work in both the Department of Genetics and the Department of Statistics.
Leadership in statistical computing developed during the 1960s. Since the formation of the
department in 1941, emphasis has been placed on providing service computing for the research
staff, especially the Agricultural Experiment Station. First, the major portion of the computing
was done on desk calculators, with as many as 12 clerks employed at one time. As mentioned
earlier, the Department of Experimental Statistics acquired an electronic digital computer (an
IBM-650) in April 1956, the first in an education institution in North Carolina and one of
the first in the nation.
The acquisition required pioneering in writing and documenting computer programs for
summarizing and analyzing research data. Considerable assistance was afforded this effort by a
National Institutes of Health computer grant initiated in June 1962 and carrieduntil 1 October
1973, at an annual amount ranging from $120,000 to $140,000. Through assistance from this
grant, the IBM-650 computer was replaced by the larger, more versatile IBM-1410 in 1963.
The most radical change in computer equipment that affected statistical computing came in
1965, with the introduction of the IBM-360 series. This series required the rewriting of all
programs, especially those that utilized assembly language. This put many universities in a
difficult situation. In the Southern region, through the organization of the University
Statisticians of the Southern Experiment Stations, a committee was formed with Francis J.
Verlinden of North Carolina State University as chairman to coordinate efforts in the
development of statistical software for data analysis. Since the Department of Experimental
Statistics had more programming personnel, and the support of the computer grant, it
accepted the major portion of the task of re-programming.
The concept of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was initiated in 1966 with the reemployment of A.J. Barr; he had just spent two years working in Washington, D.C., for IBM
Federal Systems. Shortly after Mr Barr started the SAS development, J.H. Goodnight began
working part time as a student, and later full time, on the statistical routines. Mr Barr and
Dr Goodnight have consequently emerged as co-leaders of the SAS Project.
Upon termination of the computer grant support, the SAS project was accepted (effective
1 July 1973) as a regional project by the Southern Experiment Stations. This support plus that
from other users has enabled the Department of Statistics at Raleigh to maintain a strong
position in the area of statistical computing. On 1 July 1976, the core personnel of the highly
successful SAS Project left the University to form a private software corporation, the SAS
Institute, Incorporated.
SummaryHighlights of Consultingand Research
The Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University has been heavily involved in
statistical consulting and advisory activities since its formation in 1941. The first consulting
was with research personnel of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, and this
continues to be the heaviest consulting responsibility of the department, involving plant and
animal sciences, economics, sociology, biological and agricultural engineering, the biological
sciences, and food science. Complete service is provided, from planning and design of experiments and surveys, to collection and analysis of data, to review of manuscripts.
As the faculty and interests of the department grew, so did the range of statistical consulting services provided to the University and state agencies. In addition to the Experiment
Station services, statistical consulting is provided for the engineering and physical sciences,
education, behavioral sciences, and various other disciplines. An example of one large
responsibility is the previously mentioned 18-year-old Southeastern Cooperative Fish and
Game Statistics Project, through which statistical consulting, computing, and applied research
services are provided to the Southeastern states in estimating game kills, fish caught, fish and
game population estimates, and other services necessary for the management and regulation
of wildlife resources.
Faculty members heavily involved in the department's consulting services often become
involved in the research activities as well - e.g., developing and improving methodology and
adapting existing methods of data analysis to particular situations. They also share in the
publication of results. The department's lively research activity is reflected in the publication
of 25 to 35 refereed journal articles per year plus numerous reports, presentations at
professional meetings, and special conferences.
The research can be grouped in the more or less traditional categories. In the area of
estimation, testing, and decision procedures, there has been considerable activity in estimation
of variance components, regression analysis including use of prior information, minimum bias
estimation of polynomial response relationships, multivariate theory and analysis, nonparametricmethods (including nonparametricdiscrimination), maximum likelihood estimation
for true-type scales, and studies in goodness-of-fit using transformation methods.
In the area of experimental design, there has been a continuing interest in response surface
design since George E.P. Box visited the department in 1952-53, and generally in the
development and improvement of designs and accompanying methodologies for use in agricultural, biological, and industrial experimentations. Recently there has been investigation of
response surface fitting (or trend analysis) to account for variation in experimental material
in addition to or in lieu of blocking. Investigation of the choice of mathematical models for
soil fertility data and consequent optimal experimental design has been an active area.
Sampling theory has been of continuing interest throughout the entire period. The various
aspects of multistage sampling, including sampling on successive occasions and replicated
samples of unequal size, have been studied. The basic problem of model construction in
measurement and sampling of social networks is still under investigation. On the more applied
side, there has been continuous activity for at least 20 years in development and refinement of
theory and methodology in the design and analysis of sample survey and sampling methods
in the agricultural, biological, and industrial areas.
Research and training programs in biomathematics and in quantitative genetics have already
been mentioned. In both areas the basic thrust has been toward mathematical modeling of
biological systems. The Quantitative Genetics Program has been and is joint with the Department of Genetics, which has been primarilyconcerned with experimentalresearchwhereas the
Department of Statistics has been oriented toward theory development. An exception to this
has been in the area of numerical taxonomy, which has involved both theory and experimentation.
All in all, the faculty of the Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University
has covered a wide range in research interests, including rather theoretical contributions and
highly applied methodology.
Department of (Mathematical) Statistics
As described earlier, the formation of the Department of Mathematical Statistics at the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill followed the expansion of the Institute of
Statistics to All-University status in 1946. With the development of this second department,
training and research in statistics in North Carolina proceeded at a more rapid pace.
Developments up to the Mid-Sixties
In 1945-46 while negotiations with Harold Hotelling and the securing of additional financial
support was progressing, the Institute of Statistics hired Jacob Wolfowitz to give basic
graduate probability and statistical inference lecture courses, with considerable attention to
philosophical implications. After one year of pioneer teaching, on both the Chapel Hill and
Raleigh campuses, Wolfowitz decided to return to Columbia University in order to work
with Abraham Wald.
On 1 July 1946, the Department of Mathematical Statistics in the Graduate School was
officially started under the chairmanship of Harold Hotelling, who assembled a faculty consisting of William G. Madow, P.L. Hsu, and Herbert E. Robbins. Maurice S. Bartlett was a
visiting professor and Edward Paulson an instructor.
Dr Hsu, Dr Madow, and Dr Paulson left in the next two years, but the faculty was
strengthened in the fields of experimental design and multivariate analysis by the addition of
two outstanding Indian statisticians, R.C. Bose and S.N. Roy, and in probability theory and
statistical inference by Wassily Hoeffding, a young worker of great promise, which has since
been abundantly fulfilled, and who is still with the department. Walter L. Smith, to whom the
same description fully applies, came from England to join the department in 1954, following
the departure of Dr Robbins.
The department benefited greatly during the formative years from the able guidance of
Harold Hotelling. It was from his mature judgment that the main lines of development were
laid down. One of his many capabilities was in the area of multivariate analysis. In cooperation with Gertrude M. Cox, Harold Hotelling wrote a proposal for a large research
project in the areas of multivariate analysis, probability, and other mathematical statistics
areas. A large grant was received from the Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research,
as early as 1947, and substantial funds were received from this source during the rest of
Hotelling's active research years. These funds provided supplementary help in securing other
key staff members, such as Wassily Hoeffding and S.N. Roy. Also, funds were provided for
visiting professors and numerous graduate students. During the period 1948-55 there were at
least 40 reports published in the Institute of Statistics series and in statisticaljournals, especially
the Annals of Mathematical Statistics.
Very soon after securing basic research funds from the Office of Naval Research, a contract
was secured in 1951 from the Air Force, which substantially helped develop work in sequential
design with R.C. Bose as project director. This contract helped secure new staff members,
visiting professors, and graduate assistants. From this Air Force contract, the Institute of
Statistics received over $168,000 between 1 November 1951, and 30 June 1957.
Wassily Hoeffding was director of an Air Force project on nonparametric statistics which
produced 11 articles submitted for publication to Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Journal
of the Royal Statistical Society, Biometrika, and Biometrics in one year, October 1953 to
October 1954.
These are only three of the many contracts the Institute of Statistics had with the Office of
Naval Research, Air Force, and Army Ordnance Corps. The capable staff secured by Harold
Hotelling for these projects, the reports, publications, and graduates made Chapel Hill a
world center in these fields.
Harold Hotelling was succeeded as chairman in 1952 by George E. Nicholson, Jr., who
continued existing policies and developed new ones. His interest in applications of statistics
in public policy and operations research type of inquiries was reflected in his multifarious consulting activities; it introduced a component into the work of the department
that survives to the present day. Also in 1952, the official name became the Department of
The research output of the department in the 1950s was quite remarkable, including in
1958-59 the well-known work of R.C. Bose with S.S. Shrikhande, a visiting professor, on the
resolution of Euler's conjecture on the existence of Graeco-Latin squares, a problem of nearly
200 years' standing. The department's tenured staff remained small in this period, but there
were several visitors to the department, which fact attests to the importance of the research
work then in progress.
Under the leadership of Walter L. Smith, rapid progress was being made at that time in
queueing theory; eventually, in 1964, there was a successful conference on congestion theory
sponsored by the department in cooperation with the Office of Naval Research.
Beyond its main endeavor, research, the department had considerable influence on the
development of statistical work on the Chapel Hill campus. Writing in the annual report of
the department in 1968, Dr Nicholson, who was an active agent in much of this, remarked:
'The philosophy of the department was to cooperate and not compete with the development
of statistics in all its aspects and to strengthen existing programs and to aid in establishing new
ones. Consequently the department acted as the executive agent for the Institute of Statistics
in its efforts to assist in establishing the Department of Biostatistics in 1949; cooperated with
the Institute for Research in Social Science to establish the Social Science Statistical Laboratory
in 1956; with the Graduate School to establish the Department of Information Science in
1964; with the Medical School to establish a biomathematics program in the School of
Medicine in 1965; and with the University to organize and participate in the Triangle
Universities Computation Center also in 1965.'
By 1965 some staff changes had occurred. A very sad one was the untimely death, in 1964,
of S.N. Roy. This was a blow to the multivariatework of the department,which was further
weakened by the retirement in 1966 of Professor Hotelling. However, advances were being
made by newly recruited faculty. Thus, William J. Hall joined the permanent faculty in 1959,
Norman L. Johnson in 1962, I.M. Chakravartiin 1964, and Malcolm R. Leadbetter in 1965.
Dr Hall further strengthened the department in probability theory and Dr Chakravarti
contributed to the further development of the new fields of coding theory and information
theory to which R.C. Bose had turned his attention in the late 1950s. Bose and Chakravarti
also continued the work of the department in experimental design, in particular with respect
to the use of combinatorial mathematics and finite geometries in constructing such designs.
Dr Leadbetter's initiatives in the field of stochastic processes and statistical inference were
notable. His book co-authored with Harald Cramer should be mentioned here (Cramer and
Leadbetter, 1967).
Developmentssince the Mid-Sixties
In 1966 the Department of Statistics became a regular department of the College of Arts and
Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
The distinguished work in teaching and research continued. A summer conference on
combinatorial mathematics and applications, organized by the department in cooperation
with the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris and sponsored by the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization (NATO), was held at Royan, France, in 1965, and a symposium with the
same title, sponsored by the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research, was
held at Chapel Hill in 1967. Work in this field culminated in a Combinatorial Mathematics
Year (actually 16 months, from 1 February 1969, to 31 May 1970) sponsored by the National
Science Foundation (NSF) and the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. There
was a symposium in June 1969 and a second conference on combinatorial mathematics and
applications in May 1970 in Chapel Hill. During the Combinatorial Year there were about
20 special visitors in the department.
A feature of the later 1960s was the development of a strong stochastic processes program,
led by Walter L. Smith and Malcolm R. Leadbetter. They succeeded in arousing continuing
interest in this program among their colleagues, and it is now an important facet of the work
of the department. An NSF regional symposium on multiple time series in January 1973
(principal speaker E. Parzen) was one outcome of this activity.
A considerable expansion in the work of the department, and a rapid increase in number of
faculty occurred in the period 1968-70. This was stimulated by an NSF Science Development
(Center of Excellence) grant which operated from 1968-73, with extension to 1975. The
Department of Statistics at Chapel Hill, one of six in the United States, benefited considerably
from the grant, although some of the benefits proved unexpectedly transitory because the
University was unable to honor its commitment to continue the funding of some of the new
positions created by the grant.
In 1968, with the appointment of Charles R. Baker, courses in statistical communication
theory were introduced. This program was strengthened by the appointment of Stamatis
Cambanis in 1969 and has developed steadily. Floyd J. Gould joined the faculty in 1968; he
had special interests in operations research, a field in which, as already noted, George E.
Nicholson was also strongly interested. There has been a separate Curriculumin Operations
Research and Systems Analysis since 1973, but the Department of Statistics continues to offer
an operations research option to its own graduate students.
Other faculty recruited at this time include Gordon D. Simons, the present chairman;
Douglas G. Kelly,joint with the Departmentof Mathematics;K.J.C. Smith;and EdwardJ.
Wegman;all arestillin the departmentin 1976.WilliamS. Cleveland,ThomasAllanDowling,
and WoolcottW. Smithalso joined the facultybut left withina few years.
In 1968-71, in cooperationwith the Departmentof Biostatisticsand the Psychometric
Laboratory,the departmentparticipatedin a programsponsoredby the National Science
Foundation to study the effectivenessof using computers in undergraduatestatistics
instruction.At aboutthis time, 1969-70,coursesintendedspecificallyfor undergraduates
introduced.Beforethen the departmenthad offeredno undergraduate
courses,thougha few
undergraduatesdid attend some coursesin the department,and it was possible to take a
statisticsmajorin the bachelorof sciencedegreeprogram.
The developmentof undergraduate
coursesin the departmenthas been striking.In 1969-70
therewere about 15 undergraduatestudentsenrolledfor coursesin the fall semesterand 40
in the spring.The correspondingfiguresfor 1975-76were518 and 540. Thisveryconsiderable
expansionhas resulted,since 1972,in increasingopportunitiesfor the graduatestudentsto
obtainteachingexperience.Initiationandcontinuationof this expansionowesmuchto K.J.C.
Smith,who devotedconsiderableeffortto formulatingandpublicizingthe courses.Thefurther
utilization of computer resources in undergraduateinstruction has received continued
attention,especiallyby EdwardJ. Wegman.
In 1971,GeorgeE. Nicholson,Jr.,was succeededas chairmanof the departmentby Norman
L. Johnson, who in turn was succeededby Gordon D. Simons in 1976. The department
suffereda majorloss with the retirementof R.C. Bosein 1971.His outstandingcontributions
to experimentaldesign,codingtheory,and informationtheoryprovidedinspirationfor much
researchactivity in the department.Unfortunately,the departmenthas not been able to
replacehim. I.M. Chakravartiand DouglasG. Kellyhavecontinuedthis workin a most able
manner,but a full-timeco-workerin this field is needed.
The departmenthas sufferedalso fromthe lack of an experiencedmultivariateanalystsince
the death of S.N. Roy in 1964. It is only due to the generosityof PranabK. Sen and the
Departmentof Biostatisticsin making his time availableboth for lecturingand student
guidance during the last ten years that a viable multivariateanalysis programhas been
continuedto the present.
The latestadditionto the facultyis R.J. Carroll,who joined the departmentin 1974. His
field of specializationis selection procedures,and he has contributedeffectivelyto the
teachingand consultingactivitiesof the department.
Since the earliestdays, the facultymembersof the departmenthave playedactiveroles in
the affairsof nationaland internationalstatisticalsocietiesby way of beingofficeholders,and
they have servedon committeesand on editorialstaffs of journals.These activitiesare so
numerousand widelyrecognizedthat no attemptis madehereto set them out in detail.Four
presentor previousfacultymembershave been electedto the NationalAcademyof Sciences.
Students in the Departmentof Statistics
Thevariedinterestsof the facultymakeit possibleto offerquitea widechoiceof specializations
to graduatestudentsin the Departmentof Statisticsat ChapelHill. At presentthey have a
choice of six major fields: inference, design, multivariate analysis, probability, communication
theory, and operations research. Whichever field is chosen, students are required to take
several broadening courses in other fields and in other departments.
Since its inception, the courses offered by the department have had a strong mathematical
and theoretical flavor. Still, the department has always operated on the principle that application and theory can not be separated and, indeed, that each stimulates the other. This was
partially recognized as early as 1952 when the name was changed from Department of
Mathematical Statistics to Department of Statistics. Indeed, members of the faculty have
worked on appliedstatisticalproblemsthroughoutthe lifetimeof the department,but this
was not reflectedin courses availableto studentsuntil recently.In the last two years an
experimentalcoursein problemsof appliedstatisticshas been offered.It is not plannedthat
this shouldbe a majoractivityof the department;it is intendedto assistin the generalstatistical
educationof graduatestudentsin the department.
The departmenthas beenveryfortunatein the qualityof its graduatestudents.Not onlyhas
each year'sentryclassbeen amongthe highestin the Universityin termsof conventionaltest
scores and grade-pointaverages,but this promise has on the whole been borne out by
Number of graduatestudentshave remainedfairly stable over the last ten years. In fall
1976, there were 40 graduatestudentsenrolled,a figuresomewhathigher(by 3-5 students)
than those over the previousfive years.
The first Ph.D.s were awardedin 1948. Up till 1 September1976, 62 M.S. degreesand
125 Ph.D.s had been obtained in the department.After the initial period of growth,the
numberof Ph.D.s awardedhas remainedmore or less stable at about four to six per year
since 1954.
Departmentof Biostatistics
Still anothervital elementin the distinguishedhistoryof statisticsin North Carolinais the
contributionof the Departmentof Biostatisticswhichdevelopedat the Universityof North
Carolinaat ChapelHill (UNC-CH).It has beensaid: 'It is generallyrecognized... thattoday
the biostatisticsdepartmentat the Universityof North Carolinahas one of the most advanced
programsin the nation'(Sheps, 1976).
Early Developments
The Departmentof Biostatisticswas establishedin the School of Public Health on 1 July
1949, with the active collaborationand financialsupportof the Instituteof Statistics.Early
for the key
on, EdwardG. McGavran,deanof the schoolagreedthatone of the requirements
appointmentof chairmanof the new departmentwas a person thoroughlyfamiliarwith
mathematicalstatisticswho could developjoint programsboth with HaroldHotellingin the
Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsand GertrudeM. Cox in the Departmentof ExperimentalStatisticsin Raleigh.Sucha leaderwas found in the personof BernardG. Greenberg
who himselfnow servesas dean of the school.
The primarymissionof the new departmentwas to teachone or two servicecoursesand to
provideconsultationin statisticsto meetthe needsof studentsandfacultyin publichealthand
the otherhealthdisciplinesin the UNC-CHDivisionof HealthAffairs.It soon becameclear
that, without researchand withouttrainingbiostatisticians,the servicerole in teachingand
consultationwould becomesterileand obsolete.Accordingly,a trainingprogramleadingto
the M.P.H. degreewas introducedin 1950and the first studentgraduatedin 1951.
Froman initialcorecoursein elementarypublichealthstatistics,the mainteachingfunction
expandedto includespecializedcoursesin biologicalassay,statisticalmethodsin epidemiology,
and the history and uses of vital statistics and demography in the administration of health
In 1951, responsibility was assumed for teaching statistical methods to medical and dental
students. This increased load brought a transfer of funds from those two units, which enabled
the department to employ C. Clark Cockerham the following year. Cockerham, a new Ph.D.
from Iowa State in genetics and statistics, remained for one year and concentrated upon
teaching and consulting with medical students and faculty. He transferred in 1953 to the
statistics and genetics program in Raleigh and has continued to be a bulwark of strength for
that effort. He was replacedby Harry Smith who was a graduatestudentin the Raleigh
programat the time.
WhenSmithbecamean instructorin 1953,the yearwas markedby two key developments
in the Departmentof Biostatistics.The firstwas the formalintroductionof a joint educational
effortbetweenBiostatisticsand the othertwo statisticaldepartmentsin the Institute.Instead
of grantingits own Ph.D. degree,the planwasto enrollthe doctoralstudentsfromBiostatistics
in one of the other two statisticsdepartmentsfor fulfillingthe formaldegreerequirements.
Coursesin publichealthand/orbasicpreclinicalmedicalsubjectswereindividuallyprescribed
for each student,and directionof the doctoraldissertationcould be undertakenby a faculty
memberfrom any one of the threedepartments.Thus, Dr Greenbergservedas chairmanof
the doctoral committeefor Harry Smith who receivedthe first such degreein 1954 from
This arrangementhas continuedto the presenttime, althoughit was considerablyreduced
in 1965when Biostatisticsappliedfor and receivedpermissionto enroll studentsfor its own
Ph.D. degreethroughthe GraduateSchool.By thattime,the numberof facultyin Biostatistics
had grown to a size where the departmentcould be independentin supervisingdoctoral
The secondkey developmentin 1953was the receiptof a traininggrantfrom the National
Heart Instituteof the National Institutesof Health, United StatesPublicHealth Service,to
train biostatisticiansto serve as consultantsin health research.This grant was one of the
originalfour made to departmentsof biostatistics;this markedthe firsttimethatthe National
Institutesof Healthprovidedfunds for any kind of trainingprogram.The funds came from
the researchallocation to the National Heart Institute, and the necessaryCongressional
committeesauthorizedthe use of researchfunds for trainingbecausebiostatisticianswould
enhancethe quality of researchin the cardiovascularfield. After the Russian Sputnikon
4 October1957,trainingprogramsbecamecommonin manybiomedicaldisciplines,and the
National Instituteof GeneralMedicalScienceswas establishedto administerthese training
grants.The grantin biostatisticsto the Universityof North CarolinaSchoolof PublicHealth
is still activeaftermorethan 20 years.
This traininggrantprovidedfunds for studentstipends,postdoctoralfellowships,faculty,
and one visitingfacultymembereach year. As a result,the Departmentof Biostatisticswas
able to attractas visitingprofessorsfor one or more years such outstandingstatisticiansas
David R. Cox, J.O. Irwin,David B. Duncan,DavidJ. Newell,AhmedE. Sarhan,HerbertA.
David, RobertC. Elston,ManindraN. Ghosh,K. RubenGabriel,PranabK. Sen,and others,
some of whom remainedas regularfacultymembers.
In additionto the doctoralprogramin conjunctionwith the othertwo departmentsin the
Institute of Statistics,the Departmentof Biostatisticsofferedthe Ph.D. degree in Public
Health, with specializationin Biostatistics,for those who were anxious to emphasizethe
applicationsof statisticalmethodsto solve publichealthproblems.The firstgraduateof this
programwas AhmedE. Sarhanin 1955.Thisparticularprogramwas discontinuedin the late
1960s, and in 1970 the Dr.P.H. degree was substitutedfor it. Sarhan remainedfor an
additionalyear after graduationperformingresearchand working in collaborationwith
Greenberg on the monograph, Contributionsto Order Statistics, which was published a few
years later by John Wiley and Sons (Sarhan and Greenberg, 1962).
Two major contributions to the field of statistics made by the Department of Biostatistics
prior to the 1960s should be mentioned here. First was the concept of field training, a kind of
practicum lasting approximately ten weeks in which the master's degree student is assigned to
a field counselor in an operating health agency. The purpose was, and still is, to familiarize
students with real problems and to provide individual opportunities to learn more about
public health and to apply academic knowledge of statistical methods in solving a health
problem.The field trainingwas conceivedas an integralpart of the curriculum,involving
academiccreditand supervisedby regularfacultyas well as the fieldcounselor.
The initialcollaborativearrangementwas developedwith the TennesseeStateDepartment
of Healthin Nashvilleunderthe field directionof Ruth Pufferand Ann Dillon. Later,it was
expandedto includelocal andfederalhealthunitsas wellas otherstatedepartmentsof health,
organizationsfor prepaidmedicalcare,and healthresearchagencies.The role of fieldtraining
is explainedin moredetailin a publicationby Greenberg(1964)in TheAmericanStatistician
in February1964.
The secondcontributionof the departmentin this periodinvolvedthe pioneeringeffortsof
the facultyin developingthe principlesand practicesunderlyingthe cooperative,multicenter,
clinicaltrial. In 1955,the Departmentof Biostatisticsundertooka contractwith the Cancer
ChemotherapyProgramof the National Cancer Institute to serve as the statisticalcoordinatingcenterfor the SoutheasternCooperativeCancerChemotherapyStudy Group, a
consortiumof approximatelyten medical schools conductingjoint researchwith chemotherapeuticagents believedto be of value in treatingleukemiaand lymphoma.James E.
Grizzle,now chairmanof the department,joined it a year lateras a researchassistantunder
this programand helpedBernardG. Greenbergto establishthe philosophicalprinciplesfor
organizingand statisticallyservicingcollaborativeclinical trials. Later, the programwas
extendedthrougha contractwith the VeteransAdministrationto providestatisticalservices
to VeteransAdministrationhospitalsstudyingthe relativevalue of four operationsin the
treatment of gastric ulcer. In 1959, Greenberg (1959) published in The American Statistician
the first availablearticledescribingthe designand conductof cooperativefield and clinical
In 1958, there were two importantdevelopmentsthat influencedthe subsequentdevelopmentof the department.Roy R. Kuebler,a newPh.D. recipientin mathematicalstatisticsand
biostatistics,who workedunderthe supervisionof R.C. Bose, remainedwith the department
on a permanentbasis.He addeda new dimensionto the teachingeffortsof the Departmentof
Biostatisticsand was a sourceof strengthin buildingthe foundationfor the expandeddegree
programsdescribedin the followingsection.
The otherkey milestoneof 1958startedin 1955with the returnof H. BradleyWells for a
doctoralprogramin public health. In 1958,he combinedthis period of study with a work
effort involvingthe North CarolinaState Board of Health. Under a contractbetweenthe
departmentand the statehealthdepartment,Wellsspentone day a weekin Raleighconsulting
with programdirectorson statisticalproblems.Thatcontractwiththe statehealthdepartment
for statisticalservicesfroma facultymemberhas continuedunabated;Wellswas followedby
James R. Abernathy,CraigD. Turnbull,and Roger Grimson,who is currentlyperforming
this function.
Developmentsafter 1960
The period after 1960 was markedby a rapid expansionin trainingand researchefforts
Nothing was moreimpressive,however,than the successfulexecutionof two specialsummer
sessionsin 1963and 1964. Under a joint arrangementwith the BiometryTrainingProgram
directors and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, the Department of Biostatistics sponsored each summer a special session with outstanding visiting professors teaching
10 to 12 courses in biostatistics, ranging from elementary courses to the most advanced
possible. Well over 100 students enrolled during each summer session to take advantage of
this unique opportunity. The faculty who were assembled to teach at these sessions are listed
in Exhibit XIII.
Research grants and contracts continued to grow, providing the necessary funds for
expansion of the department. Some grants were for training purposes; others were for basic
statistical research, such as order statistics with the Army Research Office; others were for
statistical consulting services in cooperative clinical trials. The number of graduate students
specializing in biostatistics grew exponentially and the doctoral program was as heavily
subscribed as the master's degree programs. Some key dates in inaugurating new educational
programs, with accompanying training grants, were as follows:
1965 - Ph.D. in biostatistics authorized by the Graduate School.
1965 - M.S.P.H. and Ph.D. programs in statistical aspects of demography and population
1965 - Ph.D. program in statistical genetics.
1967 - M.S.P.H. program in biostatistics with special emphasis on problems of mental
health, stressing data analysis and evaluation of programs.
1970 - Ph.D. program, in conjunction with Department of Environmental Sciences and
Engineering, on statistical problems in environmental health.
1970 - Master's, Ph.D., and Dr.P.H. programs to study the problems of health services
research and evaluation of service programs.
1973 - Master's and doctoral programs with concentration in public health data management and computers.
1976 - Undergraduatedegree in public health (B.S.P.H.) with specialization in biostatistics
as one of the options.
In all of the above areas, the Department of Biostatistics has active researchwork in progress
and is heavily engaged in consultation with health research workers in diverse disciplines. The
department has a long record of providing statistical and data-management services to healthrelated investigations dating back to studies of growth and nutrition and the early cancer
chemotherapy clinical trials. Development of new statistical methods has been an integral part
of the departmental research program. Major problems have included the design of cooperative clinical studies, fetal and neonatal mortality studies, blood-bank inventory policy,
human genetics, order statistics, population and fertility models, multivariate analysis, nonparametric methods, survivorshipanalysis, and use of randomized response in survey research.
It would be too lengthy a compilation to attempt to identify the above contributions with
the individual faculty members who joined the department in the 1960s and thereafter. Nevertheless, some of the outstanding faculty who made significant contributions were Dana E.A.
Quade, Robert C. Elston, Herbert A. David, Forrest E. Linder, Mindel C. Sheps, Regina
E landt-Johnson, Peter A. Lachenbruch, Gary G. Koch, and many others.
Major current efforts in the mid-1970s are:
1. The Central Patient Registry and Coordinating Centerfor the Lipid Research Clinics
Program. This program, which includes two major studies, is designed to measure blood lipids
in selected population groups and to test the validity of the theory that lowering cholesterol
levels may have a significant effect on heart disease. The data are being gathered in 16
participating clinics in the United States, Canada, Israel, and the Soviet Union.
2. The Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. This research is designed to
extract information on hospital-acquired infections from 500,000 patient charts selected
randomly from 350 hospitals.
3. The Study of the Health of Workersin the Rubber Industry. The purpose of this study
is to identify work-related illnesses and environmental hazards and ultimately to develop a
system of surveillance of the health status of workers and the environment in the rubber
industry. This collaborative effort also involves the Department of Epidemiology and the
Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering in the School of Public Health. Both
the Lipid Research Program and the Occupational Health Studies Program have associated
areas of graduate and postgraduate training.
The Improvementof Statistical Methods to Measure Population Change. Research in
demographicmethodshas been centeredarounda cooperativeinternationalprogramcalled
POPLAB(Laboratoriesfor PopulationStatistics),whichis designedto increaseinstitutional
capacityin variousareasof the worldfor the collectionand analysisof demographicdata.
The currentdepartmentbudgetis in excessof $3 million,and thereare about75 students,
equally dividedin master'sand doctoralprograms.The numberof regularfull-timefaculty
is in excess of 30 and has reacheda plateauduringthe last few years.All of this growthto
become the largest health statisticsand biostatisticaltrainingunit would not have been
possible withoutthe earlyactive supportand collaborationof the Instituteof Statisticsand
the encouragementof GertrudeM. Cox and School of Public Health Dean EdwardG.
At one periodin the late 1960s,the departmentwas simultaneouslythe host for the editors
of Technometricsand Biometrics and associate editors for International Statistical Review,
Journal of American Statistical Association, and Journal of Chronic Diseases. Graduates and
facultyfromthe departmenthavebeenjournaleditorsandcontributors;theyhaveestablished
independentreputationsfor themselvesas academicians,
and researchscientists.
Suchachievementshave helpedto establisha Departmentof Biostatisticsat the University
of North Carolinawhichwill continueto undertakea vital role in developingnew statistical
methodology,as well as in trainingand helpingto applygood statisticalmethodsby meansof
consultationwithresearchworkersand serviceagencies.The departmenthas takenits rightful
national and internationalplace with the two other major departmentsin the Instituteof
Other Ventures
Throughout the history of the development of statistics in North Carolina, there has been a
prevalentspiritof cooperation.Much of this traditionhas its roots in the facilitatingrole of
the Instituteof Statistics.A few more developmentsin the state shouldbe mentioned.
One is the highly respected L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory which originated in
1952 in affiliation with the Department of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at
Chapel Hill. The laboratory was started by L.L. Thurstone, who was influenced in his decision
to come to North Carolina by the existence of the Institute of Statistics.
There was a cooperative relationship with the Institute of Statistics from the beginning. The
Institute provided all the salary of T.E. Jeffrey as an assistant for L.L. Thurstone for at least
three years and secured a grant from the United States Army Ordnance for cooperative
psychological research. This grant provided for statistical staff consulting time, a graduate
assistant, and computer machine time for analytical help.
In reminiscing about a later period, Lyle V. Jones, who became director of the Laboratory
in 1957 (and who is now Dean of the GraduateSchool), commentson 'a numberof joint
activities' involving the Institute and one or more of the academic units.
One of these was the pooling of funds in 1957-58 from the Psychometric Laboratory and
the departments of Biostatistics and Statistics to purchase a small computer, the Royal-McBee
LGP-30, that was shared by all three units. This was the first high-speed electronic computer
on the campus in Chapel Hill. Also a joint effort was a five-year research project on multivariate analysis, with the principal investigator located in Biostatistics and faculty salaries of
selected members in all three academic units coming from funds in the grant.
Another development began when the staff of the sampling section, headed by Alva L.
Finkner, Department of Experimental Statistics, Raleigh, began cooperating with Daniel O.
Price of the Institute of Research in Social Science, Chapel Hill. The Institute of Statistics
secured an Air Force grant for human resource research, and this grant provided part of the
salary of Daniel O. Price and the salaries for two graduate assistants. It was decided in 1954
that a Survey Operations Unit was needed to augment the survey research capabilities on both
campuses. It was located in Venable Hall, Chapel Hill. John Monroe came from a similar
facility at Iowa State University to head the unit. Daniel O. Price and J. Stacy Adams, a
doctoral candidate in social psychology (now Reynolds Professor, School of Business
Administration) held part-time positions in the first years of operation of the unit. The unit
became the Social Science Statistical Laboratory in 1956.
Close relations with all interested departments were assured by a steering committee consisting of representatives from the Institute of Research in Social Science and from political
science, journalism, business administration, biostatistics, and both departments of statistics.
This committee provided guidance in the formulation of policy and practices as well as sources
for sampling and survey projects.
In cooperation with the sampling section of the Department of Experimental Statistics, the
unit aggregated and developed master sample materials for the state of North Carolina. Most
of this work involved counting culture (houses) on county highway maps and creating 'count
units' (road-bound areas) to make a frame for area probability sampling of the state, counties,
or groups of counties.
Early projects of the unit were trade area studies of Winston-Salem and Norfolk, two data
collection projects for TVA studies, a sociological study in Appalachia, and a national sample
of veterinarians. Three major undertakings were a study of smoking habits of all American
Tobacco Company employees, a highly concentrated health survey in Nashville, Tennessee,
and the beginning of an evaluation of the Census of Agriculture in 1959.
During the period 1954-59, two books InterviewingTechniquesby J. Stacy Adams (1958)
and Handbook of Area Sampling by John Monroe and Alva L. Finkner, and a number of
research reports in the Institute of Statistics (1976) series were published. John Monroe
organized and taught for several years a course in survey methodology which was designed
primarily for a special MPH curriculum in biostatistics.
In March 1959, the Social Science Statistical Laboratory was transferred to the emerging
Research Triangle Institute to provide a nucleus of operations personnel for the Social and
Statistical Sciences groups. With a combined interdisciplinary staff of more than 250, they
have a capability that is distinctive among national survey research organizations.
The Research Triangle Institute is a significant example of the close working ties among
the academic centers in North Carolina - North Carolina State University at Raleigh, the
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Duke University at Durham. Under the
leadership of the Honorable Luther H. Hodges (North Carolina's industry-mindedgovernor),
a Research Triangle Commission was appointed in 1955.
In January 1957, this Commission appointed an Executive Committee to study the problems
involved in establishing a Research Institute. This committee invited Gertrude M. Cox to
submit to them a proposal regarding the possibilities of establishing a statistical unit in a
Research Institute. A committee of seven senior statisticians, with Gertrude M. Cox as chairman and Alva L. Finkner as secretary, submitted their report 16 June 1958, to the Executive
Committee of the Governor's Research Triangle Commission. On 1 July 1959, Gertrude M.
Cox (on one-half time) began to organize and staff a Statistics Research Division of the
Research Triangle Institute.
The Social and Statistical Sciences groups, with ten centers, have on their staffs a large
number of statisticians and social scientists, and have conducted many cooperative research
projects with the three academic departmentsof statistics. Some senior statisticians at Research
Triangle Institute hold adjunct professorships and direct the training and provide employment
for graduate students.
The traditions that developed in the early days in the history of statistics in North Carolina
continue to be evident as the concentration of statisticians in the state proliferates. The cooperative focus is not the only tradition. Another is the broad balance of theory and
application; another is the distinguished roster of faculty and graduates. Perhaps the healthiest
characteristic has been not to become atrophied by tradition; statistics in North Carolina has
developed with adaptability to changing times.
Notes and References
Adams, J. Stacy (1958). InterviewingTechniques.ChapelHill: Universityof North CarolinaPress.
Cramer,H. and Leadbetter,M.R. (1967). Stationaryand RelatedStochasticProcesses: Sample FunctionProperties and TheirApplications.New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.
of theInstituteof Statistics,page4.
Graham,F.P. (1948).'A UniqueStory',in thefirstRecordof Research
B.G. (1959).Conductof cooperative
13, 13-17,28.
Greenberg,B.G. (1964). Field trainingfor biostatisticians.AmericanStatistician,18, 19-22.
Institute of Statistics(1976). One activity of the Instituteof Statisticsthat has continuedis the publicationof
its seriesof researchreports.Themostrecent,Number1080,waspublishedin July1976.
Monroe, J. and Finkner,A.L. (1959). Handbookof Area Sampling.Philadelphia:Chilton Co.
to OrderStatistics.New York: John Wiley and Sons,
Sarhan,A.E. and Greenberg,B.G. (1962). Contributions
Sheps, Cecil G. (chairman)(1976). HigherEducationfor PublicHealth: Reportof the MilbankMemorialFund
p. 122.NewYork:Prodist.
List of Exhibits for the History of Statistics in North Carolina
Department of Statistics (NCSU)
Current Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State
Exhibit I.
University (NCSU) as of end 1975-76 academic year
Former Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State
University (NCSU) as of end of 1975-76 academic year
Visiting Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State
University (NCSU) prior to end 1975-76 academic year
Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Statistics at North Carolina
Exhibit IV.1
State University (NCSU).
Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Statistics at North Carolina
Exhibit V.'
State University (NCSU).
Department of Statistics (UNC-CH)
Exhibit VI.
Current Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) as of end 1975-76 academic year.
Former Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina
Exhibit VII.
at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year.
Exhibit VIII.
Visiting Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina
at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year.
Exhibit IX.'
Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Statistics at University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH).
Exhibit X.1
Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Statistics at University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH).
1 Enquiriesupon the detail in these Exhibits should be addressedto the ExecutiveEditor.
complete copy may be inspectedfor referenceat the Libraryof the Royal StatisticalSociety in London.
Department of Biostatistics
Exhibit XI.
Current Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) as of end 1975-76 academic year.
Exhibit XII.
Former Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year.
Exhibit XIII.
Visiting Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year.
Exhibit XIV.'
Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Biostatistics at University
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH).
Exhibit XV.'
Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Biostatistics at University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH).
Exhibit I
Date of appointment
Bhattacharyya, B.B.
Cockerham, C.C.
Cox, Gertrude M.
Gold, H.J.
Grandage, A.H.E.
Hader, R.J.
Hafley, W.L.
Hayne, D.W.
Lucas, H.L.
McVay, F.E.
Mason, D.D.
Monroe, R.J.
Nelson, L.A.
Proctor, C.H.
Quesenberry, C.P.
Rawlings, J.O.
Ridgeway, D.L.
Rigney, J.A.
Steel, R.G.D.
van der Vaart, H.R.
Wesler, O.
Gallant, A.R.
Gerig, T.M.
Giesbrecht, F.G.
Goodman, M.M.
Johnson, Thomas
Linnerud, A.C.
Manson, A.R.
Wasik, J.L.
Goodnight, J.H.
Wakeley, J.T.
Bayless, D.L.
Schreuder, H.T.
Professor Emeritus
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Adjunct Professor
Adjunct Associate Professor
Adjunct Assistant Professor
September 1963
September 1953
November 1940
July 1965
September 1952
July 1948
June 1966
September 1962
January 1946
August 1948
September 1953
February 1941
March 1964
September 1960
September 1966
July 1960
July 1967
January 1941
September 1960
February 1962
July 1964
July 1971
September 1969
August 1971
August 1967
August 1974
July 1967
December 1965
September 1967
July 1970
April 1970
January 1969
December 1966
1 Enquiriesupon the detail in these Exhibits should be addressedto the ExecutiveEditor. Alternatively,a
complete copy may be inspectedfor referenceat the Libraryof The Royal StatisticalSocietyin London.
Exhibit II
Terminal rank
Years of employment
Anderson, Richard L.
Bartholomay, Anthony F.
Cochran, William G.
Comstock, Ralph E.
Cox, Gertrude M.
Finkner, Alva L.
Peach, Paul
Robinson, Harold F.
Shreve, Darrell R.
Smith, H. Fairfield
Stacy, Ralph W.
Wallace, T. Dudley
Williams, Evan J.
Hall, William J. (one-half time)
Herbst, Laurence J., Jr.
Horvitz, Daniel G.
Koop, John C.
Little, Charles H.
Peterson, Roger G.
Smart, William W.G., Jr.
Teichman, Robert
Warren, Jerry A.
Burrows, Peter M.
Carter, Melvin W.
Cerimele, Benito J.
Chang, Monica Liu
Fleischer, Jack
Gray, Clifton W. (one-half time)
Greenwald, E.K.
Martin, D.C.
Matzinger, Dale F.
Meade, James H., Jr.
Mendenhall, William, III
Moll, Robert H.
Rohde, Charles H.
Williams, Mary B.
Carroll, Sarah P.
Fleming, Margaret
Foster, Walter D.
Harris, Mary J.
Teichroew, Dan
Swindel, Benee F.
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Adjunct Associate Professor
Exhibit IlI
Box, G.E.P.
Carter, Melvin W.
Chapman, D.G.
Cooke, Dennis
Cress, Charles E.
Dixon, W.J.
Fryer, Holly C.
Gomez, F. Pimentel
Griffiths, John
Kendall, M.G.
Kimura, Motoo
Li, Jerome C.R.
Morton, George
Mott, G.O.
Mukai, Terumi
Nyquist, Wyman E.
Otha, Tomoko
Patterson, H.D.
Pielou, Evelyn
Schultz, E.F., Jr.
Sen, A.R.
Shrikhande, S.S.
Sisson, Donald V.
Snedecor, G.W.
van der Vaart, H.R.
Warren, John
Watson, G.S.
Weir, Bruce S.
Wilkenson, Graham
Williams, E.J.
Wishart, John
Youden, W.J.
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Assistant Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Assistant Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Associate Professor
Visiting Instructor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Research Associate
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
Visiting Professor
1967, 1968, 1969 (summers only)
1975, 1976
1972, 1973, 1974
Special Summer Sessions
Bliss, C.I.
Bose, R.C.
Duncan, D.B.
Fisher, R.A.
Hotelling, Harold
Kossack, Carl F.
Nicholson, G.E.
Robson, D.S.
Roy, S.N.
Smith, W.L.
Snedecor, G.W.
Wolfowitz, J.
Youden, W.J.
Assistant Professor
1956, 1959
1956, 1959
1941, 1946, 1951
Exhibit VI
Date of appointment
Baker, Charles R.
Chakravarti, I.M.
Hoeffding, Wassily
Johnson, Norman L.
Leadbetter, Malcolm R.
Simons, Gordon D.
Smith, Walter L.
Cambanis, Stamatis
Kelly, Douglas G.
Smith, K.J.C.
Wegman, Edward J.
Carroll, Raymond J.
Professor (Chairman 1971-76)
Professor (Chairman 1976-)
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Exhibit VII
Terminal rank
Years of employment
Bose, Raj Chandra
David, Herbert A.
Duncan, David B.
Hall, William J.
Hotelling, Harold
Nicholson, George E., Jr.
Robbins, Herbert E.
Roy, Samarendra Nath
Gould, Floyd J.
Hsu, P.L.
Madow, William G.
Bohrer, Robert E.
Cleveland, William S.
Dowling, Thomas Allan
Shachtman, Richard H.
Smith, Woollcott K.
Paulson, Edward
Kenan Professor Emeritus
Kenan Professor Emeritus
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
1964-died 1973
1947-died 1971
1948-died 1964
1967-December 1971
1970-January 1972
Exhibit VIII
Adams, John William
Aigner, Martin
Baldessari, Bruno A.
Barlotti, Adriano
Bartlett, Maurice Stevenson
Basu, Debabrata
Behboodian, Javad
Bentley, Donald L.
Berlekamp, Elwyn R.
Bertaud, Marcel
September 1965-June 1966
September 1964-June 1966
August 1964-July 1965
August 1970-May 1971
August 1970-August 1971
September 1966-December 1966
Exhibit VIII (continued)
Bhapkar, Vasant P.
Bhattacharyya, Helen
Bhattacharyya, P.K.
Bogdanoff, John L.
Bruck, R.H.
Camion, Paul
Chu, John T.
Clatworthy, W.H.
Cohan, Avery
Corsten, Leo Caspar Antoon
Dall'Aglio, Giorgio
Deshpande, Jayant Vinayak
DeWaal, Daniel J.
Diananda, P.H.
Durbin, James
Eicker, Friedheim
Engler, Jean Ann
Fand, David I.
Foata, Dominique Gyprien
Freeman, Harold
Gabriel, Kuno Ruben
Gere, B.H.
Gupta, Ram Prakash
Guthrie, Donald, Jr.
Hannan, Edward Joseph
Hayakawa, Takesi
Heathcote, Christopher
Hunter, Jefferey Joseph
Ibragimov, Ildar A.
Ikeda, Sadao
Ito, Paul K.
Joshi, V.M.
Kallenberg, Olav
Katz, Leo
Khatri, Chinubhai Ghelabhai
King, Randall M.
Kojima, T.
Kotz, Samuel
Kozelka, Robert M.
Krafft, Olaf
Krier, Nicholas
Kulldorf, Gunnar K.O.
Laskar, Mrs Renu Chakravarti
Lee, Doris Margaret
Linder, Arthur
Lindgren, Sven George Kristian
Marsaglia, George
August 1975-May 1976
September 1965-June 1966
September 1963-May 1964
January 1974-May 1974
1951-52, 1953-55
September 1968-June 1969
February 1958-June 1959
September 1962-June 1963
September 1966-August 1967
August 1974-May 1975
September 1953-July 1954
September 1958-May 1959
February 1959-September 1960
September 1957-August 1958
June 1958-59
August 1974-November 1974
July 1959-June 1961
September 1957-July 1958
September 1970-May 1971
September 1967-July 1968
August 1969-June 1970
October 1958-May 1959
September 1969-August 1970
September 1961-August 1962
October 1968-January 1969; January 1973-June 1973
October 1973-February 1974
June 1966-September 1966
September 1973-May 1974
Summer of 1950
February 1964-January 1965
August 1974-May 1975
September 1962-June 1963
September 1963-June 1964
September 1963-June 1964
September 1970-June 1971
September 1951-May 1952
September 1963-May 1964
September 1970-May 1971
Exhibit VIII (continued)
Masry, Elias
Masuyama, Motosaburo
McGilchrist, Clyde A.
Mesner, Dale Marsh
Miller, Hilton D.
Momoi, Makoto
Morimura, Hidenori
Moustafa, Madany D.
Nakamura, Akira
Naor, Pinhas Paul
Nemenyi, Peter Bjorn
Ogawa, Junjiro
Page, Ewan Stafford
Paulson, Edward
Philipp, Walter
Pitman, Edward James George
Potthoff, Richard F.
Quails, Clifford
Raghavarao, D.
Rajput, Balram S.
Ray-Chaudhuri, Dwijendra K.
Robertson, Tim
Rootzen, Holger
Roy, Jogabrata
Ruist, Erik Harald
Runnenburg, Johannes
Saw, John Grenville
Schutzenberger, Marcel P.
Sethuraman, Jayaram
Shrikhande, S.S.
Siotani, Minoru
Spivey, Walter Allen
Srivastava, Jagdish Narain
Stout, William F.
Sugiyama, Takakazu
Suigiura, Nariaki
Sundrum, Ramaswamy Meenatchi
Tate, Robert F.
Tranquilli, Giovanni B.
Vuagnat, Pierre
Watanabe, Hisao
Watson, G.S.
Zyskind, George
August 1973-May 1974
September 1965-May 1966
January 1974-June 1974
September 1964-May 1965
September 1964-May 1965
August 1968-69
September 1968-May 1969
November 1956-September 1957
September 1966-June 1967
September 1962-June 1964; July 1966-October 1966
September 1965-June 1966
July 1962-April 1963
September 1947-June 1948
August 1972-May 1973
August 1972-May 1973
August 1969-June 1972
September 1974-May 1975
September 1975-June 1976
October 1959-May 1960
September 1964-August 1966
September 1959-August 1960
September 1960-August 1961
September 1962-May 1963
1951-52; 1958-59
August 1968-September 1969
August 1974-May 1975
February 1967-September 1968
September 1967-August 1968
July 1953-June 1954
September 1964-April 1965
September 1971-December 1971
Exhibit XI
Abernathy, James R.
Elandt-Johnson, Regina C.
Elston, Robert C.
Greenberg, Bernard G.
Grizzle, James E.
Koch, Gary G.
Kuebler, Roy R., Jr.
Lachenbruch, Peter A.
Linder, Forrest E.
Quade, Dana E. A.
Sen, Pranab K.
Wells, Henry Bradley
Coulter, Elizabeth J.
Davis, Clarence E.
Gillings, Dennis B.
Helms, Ronald W.
Kleinbaum, David G.
Kupper, Lawrence L.
Lingner, Joan W.
Shachtman, Richard H.
Symons, Michael J.
Williams, 0. Dale
Bilsborrow, Richard E.
Francis, Mildred E.
Hogue, Carol R.
Imrey, Peter B.
Rademaker, Alfred W.
Smith, Wendell C.
Stewart, J. Richard
Suchindran, Chirayath M.
Turnbull, Craig D.
Kaplan, Ellen B.
Sorant, Alexa M.
Grimson, Roger C.
Adlakha, Arjun L.
Ahmed, Susan W.
Samuels, Steven J.
Baker, Raymond H.
Current faculty rank Initial appointment
1 July 1965
1 September 1964
1 July 1960
Dean of the School
1 July 1949
of Public Health
and Kenan Professor
1 January 1960
Chairman and
1 December 1967
1 September 1958-30 June 1976
1 June 1965-30 June 1976
1 September 1966
1 August 1962
1 August 1965
1 February 1958
1 September 1965
Associate Professor 1 June 1972
Associate Professor 1 May 1971
Associate Professor 1 August 1968
Associate Professor 1 July 1970
Associate Professor 1 July 1970
Associate Professor 1 December 1970
Associate Professor 1 June 1973
Associate Professor 1 August 1969
Associate Professor 1 October 1970
15 October 1972
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
1 August 1974
1 September 1974
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
1 July 1972-31 July 1975
15 June 1974
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
1 July 1974
1 September 1970-30 June 1976
Assistant Professor
1 September 1972
Assistant Professor
1 August 1971
Assistant Professor
1 September 1959
1 September 1970-30 November 1976
Research Associate
1 September 1976
Research Assistant
1 July 1975
Research Assistant
1 January 1976
Research Instructor 1 March 1976
Lecturer and
1 November 1973
Director for
Operations at the
Population Lab
Exhibit XI (continued)
Current faculty rank Initial appointment
Blake, Martha Ellan
Chanlett, Eliska
Krusa, Hans
Namboodiri, Kadambari
Research Associate
Research Associate
Research Associate
1 March 1974
1 March 1970
1 January 1974
1 July 1969
Terminal rank
Years of employment
Bartholomay, Anthony F.
David, Herbert A.
Sheps, Mindel C.
Smith, Harry, Jr.
Assistant Professor
Associate Professor
Associate Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Assistant Professor
Instructor and
Visiting Assistant
Research Associate
Research Professor
and Visiting
Research Associate
Research Associate
Research Assistant
Research Assistant
1 September 1967-30 June 1969
1 September 1964-31 August 1972
1 December 1968-15 January 1973
1 July 1953-30 June 1954
1 July 1954-30 June 1955
1 July 1966-30 June 1971
1 September 1956-30 June 1971
1 December 1960-29 February 1964
1 August 1967-31 August 1971
1 July 1952-30 June 1953
1 September 1957-1 July 1959
9 September 1964-31 August 1969
1 July 1962-31 July 1964
1 October 1959-31 January 1961
1 July 1970-June 1973
1 February 1970-30 June 1971
Exhibit XII
Donnelly, Thomas G.
Kosa, John
Brogan, Donna Ruhl
Cockerham, C. Clark
Diamond, Earl L.
Glasser, Jay H.
Hassanein, Khatab M.
Pasternack, Bernard S.
Cranford, Sarah
Fergany, Nader
Gehan, Edmund A.
Johnson, William D.
Leiva, Miriam A.
Ridgway, Linda S.
Stephenson, Ruth E.
Yelverton, Katie C.
Sarhan, Ahmed E.
Back, Kurt W.
Miller, Norman
Phillips, Bernard S.
Strickland, Lloyd H.
Lieberman, Milton D.
1 July 1955-31 January 1958
1 August 1968-30 June 1974
1 July 1966-30 November 1966
1 September 1968-28 February 1970
1 July 1964-31 December 1964
1 December 1966-15 August 1972
1 July 1955-31 August 1956
1 September 1956-15 August 1970
(intermittent employment)
1 September 1956-31 August 1959
15 September 1958-1 September 1961
1 September 1956-31 August 1958
1 September 1959-1 July 1960
1 February 1973-30 June 1974
Exhibit XIII
Rank and home institution
Bilsborrow, Richard E.
15 October 1972Visiting Assistant Professor
15 October 1973
Assistant Professor at New York
University, Department Economics,
New York City, New York
1 January 1973Visiting Assistant Professor
1 June 1974
Lecturer in Statistics at Burdwan
University, Department
West Bengal, India
1 January 1972Visiting Associate Professor
31 December 1972
Associate Professor of Statistics at
Calcutta University, Calcutta, India
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
Associate Professor of Biostatistics at
31 August 1970
the University of California, School (intermittent
of Public Health, Berkeley,
1 November 1969Visiting Professor
Branch, 30 April 1970
Office of International Statistical
1 May 1970for
30 June 1974
Health Statistics, U.S. Public
(Adjunct Professor)
Health Service, Rockville, Maryland
1 July 1962Visiting Associate Professor
30 September 1962
Chief of the Public Health Statistics
Board of Health, Raleigh, North
1 August 1955Visiting Professor
31 July 1956
Professor at Birkbeck College,
University London, Department
of Statistics, London, England
1 July 1969Visiting Associate Professor
30 June 1970
Senior Research Scientist at the
University Melbourne,
of Mathematical Statistics,
Melbourne, Australia
1 January 1971Visiting Associate Professor
30 June 1971
Private Research Consultant,
associated with a large number of
university projects, University of
North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North
15 September 1970Visiting Instructor
31 January 1971
Unit Division of Research in
Epidemiology, World Health
Organization, Geneva, Switzerland
Chakravorti, Sukharanjan
Chatterjee, Shoutir K.
Chiang, Chin Long
Cooke, Dorothy S.
Council, Charles R.
Cox, David R.
Davis, Arthur W.
Donnelly, Thomas G.
Dowd, John E.
Exhibit XIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Duncan, David B.
2 February 1958Visiting Professor
31 August 1958
Professor, University of Florida,
Department of Statistics, Gainesville,
1 July 1972Visiting Assistant Professor
30 June 1974
Graduate of the University of North
Carolina at Chapel Hill in the
Department of Biostatistics
1 September 1964Visiting Associate Professor
Research Assistant Lecturer and Head 1 September 1965
of the Statistics Department at the
Agricultural University, Department
of Agricultural Experimentation,
Poznan, Poland
1 July 1970Visiting Assistant Professor
30 June 1971
Instructor, Cairo University,
Department of Statistics, Cairo,
1 October 1962Visiting Assistant Professor
31 March 1965
Chief, Public Health Statistics
Section, North Carolina State
Board of Health, Raleigh, North
1 August 1971Visiting Associate Professor
Lecturer in Statistics, Exeter University, 30 June 1972
Exeter, Devon, England
1 September 1966Visiting Associate Professor
31 August 1967
Associate Professor of Statistics at
Hebrew University, Jerusalem,
1 August 1975Visiting Assistant Professor
31 December 1975
Graduate in demography at the
Catholic University of Louvain,
1 January 1953Visiting Professor
Lecturer at the University of Calcutta, 1 July 1954
Department of Statistics, Calcutta,
1 July 1972Visiting Professor
Statistical Advisor in various countries 31 August 1973
at the United Nations and affiliated
1 September 1970Visiting Associate Professor
31 August 1971
Experimental Station, Harpenden,
Herts, England
Edelman, David A.
Elandt-Johnson, Regina C.
Fergany, Nader A.
Flinchum, Glenn A.
Fryer, John G.
Gabriel, K. Ruben
Gamrah, Hamed A.
Ghosh, Manindra
Goodman, J. Roe
Gower, John C.
Exhibit XIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Hamilton, C. Horace
1 February 1967Visiting Research Professor
Professor of Rural Sociology at the
30 June 1971
North Carolina State College,
Raleigh, North Carolina
1 July 1972Visiting Assistant Professor
Research Assistant at the University of 1 July 1974
North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Department of Biostatistics
1 July 1958Visiting Professor
30 June 1962
University London, London,
W.C.1., England
employment) 1
January 196530 June 1965
31 January 1969
Senior Lecturer at the Australian
National University, Canberra,
1 October 1969Visiting Assistant Professor
31 August 1970
30 June 1974
Professor of Sociology at the
University of Alberta, Edmonton,
1 May 1967Adjunct Professor
24 July 1967
Research Assistant at the University
of Melbourne, Melbourne,
1 September 1966Visiting Professor
Director of the National Center for
31 January 1967
Health Statistics, Rockville, Maryland
1 September 1972Adjunct Professor
30 June 1974
Mathematical Statistician in the
Office of the Director, Bureau of
Health Professions, Education and
Manpower Training, National
Institutes of Health, Bethesda,
15 October 1968Visiting Professor
30 November 1968
Professional Fellow - acted as the
Australian National University,
Canberra, Australia
1 July 1974Visiting Associate Professor
Associate Professor in Statistics at the 31 December 1974
University of New South Wales,
Sydney, Australia
Imrey, Peter B.
Irwin, J.O.
John, Kallacheril S.
Joshi, Prakash C.
Krotki, Karol J.
Laby, Betty
Linder, Forrest E.
Losee, Garrie J.
McArthur, Norma
McGilchrist, Clyde A.
Exhibit XIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Myers, Robert J.
1 March 1970Visiting Professor
Manpower Advisor to the government 31 December 1973
of Zambia, Lusaka through the
Ford Foundation
1 August 1971Visiting Associate Professor
Senior Teacher at the Tel Aviv
31 July 1972
University, Department
Tel Aviv, Israel
1 July 1959Visiting Professor
Senior Lecturer in Biostatistics
1 August 1960
at the Medical School, Newcastle
upon Tyne, England
1 September 1958Visiting Associate Professor
Research Associate in the Institute of
1 July 1959
Statistics at the University of
North Carolina at Chapel Hill
15 May 1966Visiting Associate Professor
Associate Professor at the New York
15 September 1967
University, Courant Institute of
Mathematical Sciences, New York
City, New York
1 August 1975Visiting Assistant Professor
Lecturer at the University of Exeter,
31 July 1976
Statistics and Operational Research,
Exeter, EX4 4PU, Devon, England
1 February 1972Visiting Professor
Statistical Advisor to Kenya, U.S.
30 June 1974
Bureau of the Census, Washington,
1 September 1969Adjunct Professor
30 June 1975
Chairman, at the University of
California, Department of Sociology,
Los Angeles, California
1 September 1962Visiting Assistant Professor
Research Associate at the University
30 June 1963
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Department of Biostatistics
1 September 1969Visiting Assistant Professor
Lecturer in Statistics at the University 31 August 1970
of London, The London School of
Economics, London, England
1 August 1965Visiting Associate Professor
1 July 1966
Statistics at the University of
California, Berkeley, California
Nathan, Gad
Newell, David J.
Ogawa, Junjiro
Puri, Madan L.
Read, Kenneth L.
Rose, J. Hugh
Sabagh, Georges
Sarndal, Carl-Erik
Scott, Alastair J.
Sen, Pranab K.
ExhibitXIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Siervogel, Roger M.
1 August 1973Visiting Assistant Professor
Research Associate at the University
31 October 1974
of North Carolina at Chapel Hill,
Department of Biostatistics,
Genetic Laboratory
1 September 1972Visiting Assistant Professor
Graduate of the University of North
1 September 1973
Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department
of Biostatistics
1 July 1972Visiting Professor
Professor and Chairman at California 30 June 1973
State College, Department of
Sociology, Los Angeles, California
Suchindran, Chirayath M.
Thomlinson, Ralph
Special Summer Session
Abbey, Helen
Anderson, Paul S.
Bailey, Albert E.
Brown, Byron Wm., Jr.
Chiang, Chin Long
Colton, Theodore
27 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor
7 August 1964
Associate Professor, Department of
Public Health, Johns Hopkins
University, Baltimore, Maryland
17 June 1963Visiting Assistant Professor
26 July 1963
Assistant Professor in Public Health
June 1964(Biometry), Department of
August 1964
Epidemiology, Yale School
Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut
29 June 1964Visiting Professor
7 August 1964
Director, Bureau of Administration
and Management, Pennsylvania
Department of Health, Harrisburg,
29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor
7 August 1964
Associate Professor, Department of
Biostatistics, School of Public Health,
University of Minnesota, Minneapolis,
17 June 1963Visiting Associate Professor
26 July 1963
Associate Professor of Biostatistics,
School of Public Health, University
of California, Berkeley, California
29 June 1964Visiting Professor
7 August 1964
Research Associate, Department
Preventive Medicine,
Harvard University, Boston,
Exhibit XIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Cornell, Richard G.
29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor
7 August 1964
Associate Professor of Statistics and
Director of the Biometry Training
Program, Florida State University,
Tallahassee, Florida
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
Professor of Statistics, Virginia
26 July 1963
Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg,
29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor
7 August 1964
Senior Research Fellow, Department
of Statistics, University of Aberdeen,
Old Aberdeen, Scotland
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
26 July 1963
Statistics, City
Department of Health, New York
City, New York
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
Assistant Chief, Division of Research 26 July 1963
Grants (1963) and Chief, Scientific 29 June 1964and Technical Information Office,
7 August 1964
National Cancer Institute (1964),
National Institutes of Health,
Bethesda, Maryland
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
26 July 1963
Head, Sampling Group, Statistics
Research Division, Research
29 June 19647 August 1964
Triangle Institute, Research
Triangle Park, North Carolina
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
26 July 1963
College, Peter,
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
Professor of Biometry, School of
26 July 1963
Public Health, University of
Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
26 July 1963
Head, Department of Biostatistics,
School of Medicine, Louisiana State
University, New Orleans, Louisiana
17 June 1963Visiting Professor
Senior Lecturer in Biostatistics, The
26 July 1963
Medical School, Newcastle upon
Tyne, England
David, Herbert A.
Elston, Robert C.
Erhardt, Carl L.
Hemphill, Fay M.
Horvitz, Daniel G.
Johnson, Eugene A.
Li, C.C.
McMahan, C.A.
Newell, David J.
ExhibitXIII (continued)
Rank and home institution
Perrin, E.B.
29 June 1964Visiting Assistant Professor
7 August 1964
Assistant Professor, Department of
Preventive Medicine, School of
Medicine, University of Washington,
Seattle, Washington
17 June 1963Visiting Associate Professor
26 July 1963
Associate Professor of Biostatistics,
29 June 1964School of Public Health,
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 7 August 1964
29 June 1964Visiting Assistant Professor
7 August 1964
Lecturer in Mathematical Statistics,
The University of Liverpool,
Liverpool, England
29 June 1964Visiting Professor
7 August 1964
Professor of Biometry, Department
of Epidemiology and Public Health,
Yale School of Medicine, New
Haven, Connecticut
Remington, Richard D.
Tweedie, M.C.K.
White, Colin
L'expansion que la statistique en tant que discipline universitairea prise dans le syst6me universitairede
Caroline du Nord est n6e avant Pearl Harbor. La croissanceinitiale - qui ffit frein6ede certainsc6t6s mais
aussi stimul6epour d'autresdurantles ann6esde la SecondeGuerreMondiale- a constitu6une base de depart
solide pour la croissanceaccl16r6esurvenueapresguerre,tout en pr6servantla haute qualit6des travauxet leur
ad6quationaux besoins de l'6tat, de la region et de la nation, caract6ristiquesde l'expansionde l'6poquepr6sente.
Ce qu'on appellemaintenantle d6partementde statistique(Ecole des sciencesmath6matiqueset physiquesde
l'Universit6d'Etatde Carolinedu Nord) fi1tfond6Alafinde1940.Ce d6partementde pointeconnutune demande
rapidementcroissante(au plan local et national) en matiere de formation, de participationA la rechercheet
faireface Aces besoins,deuxautresd6partementsde statistique
d'aidesous forme de consultations.Pour aider "A
furent cre6s rl'Universit6de Caroline du Nord, a Chapel Hill, lesquels sont maintenantle d6partementde
Statistiquede l'Ecole des Arts et Sciences,(cre6en 1946)et le d6partementde Biostatistiquede l'Ecole de Sant6
Publique(cr66en 1949).Tous les d6veloppementsdu debuten mati"rede statistiquerecurentI'appui6nergique
de Frank Porter Graham, President du systhmeuniversitairede Caroline du Nord qui incluait alors trois
institutions de base, A Chapel Hill, A Raleigh et a Greensboro.L'entit6 connue sous le nom d'Institut de
Statistiquefi1tconstitu6eA Raleigh en 1944 et a requen 1946 son statut (systemeuniversitairede Carolinedu