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Statistical Training and Research: The University of North Carolina System Author(s): E. Shepley Nourse, Bernard G. Greenberg, Gertrude M. Cox, David D. Mason, James E. Grizzle, Norman L. Johnson, Lyle V. Jones, John Monroe, Gordon D. Simons, Jr. Source: International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique, Vol. 46, No. 2 (Aug., 1978), pp. 171-207 Published by: International Statistical Institute (ISI) Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1402812 Accessed: 01/06/2010 14:44 Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR's Terms and Conditions of Use provides, in part, that unless you have obtained prior permission, you may not download an entire issue of a journal or multiple copies of articles, and you may use content in the JSTOR archive only for your personal, non-commercial use. 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For more information about JSTOR, please contact [email protected] International Statistical Institute (ISI) is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to International Statistical Review / Revue Internationale de Statistique. http://www.jstor.org InternationalStatistical Review, 46 (1978) 171-207 Longman Group Limited/Printedin Great Britain Statistical Trainingand Research:The University of North CarolinaSystem Authors HealthSciences,Universityof North Thispaperwascollatedby E. ShepleyNourse,Publications Consultant, KenanProfessorof Biostatisticsand Dean, Schoolof Carolinaat ChapelHill, for BernardG. Greenberg, PublicHealth,University of NorthCarolinaat ChapelHill,whochairedthegroupwhichprovidedinformation includedUniversityof NorthCarolinapeople(a) fromNorthCarolinaState for this history.Participants Universityat Raleigh:GertrudeM. Cox,ProfessorEmeritusof Statistics;andDavidD. Mason,Professorof and StatisticsandDepartment Head;and (b) fromChapelHill: JamesE. Grizzle,Professorof Biostatistics of StatisticsandformerDepartment NormanL. Johnson,Professor Chairman; LyleV. Chairman; Department Jones, Alumni DistinguishedProfessorof Psychology,Vice Chancellor,Dean of the GraduateSchool; John Unit; and GordonD. Simons,Jr., Professorof Statisticsand Monroe,formerDirector,SurveyOperations Chairman. Department Tableof Contents Early Developments at Raleigh Establishment of North Carolina's First Academic Department of Statistics Establishment of the Institute of Statistics Expansion of the Institute of Statistics Department of (Experimental) Statistics Developments of the 1950s Developments since 1960 Summary Highlights of Consulting and Research Department of (Mathematical) Statistics Developments up to the Mid-Sixties Developments since the Mid-Sixties Students in the Department of Statistics Department of Biostatistics Early Developments Developments after 1960 Other Ventures Notes and References 173 173 174 175 178 178 179 181 182 182 184 185 186 186 188 190 192 The development of statistics as an academic discipline in the University of North Carolina System had its origins before Pearl Harbor. Initial growth, in some ways curtailed and in other ways stimulated during the World War II years, did result in a sound base for the acceleration that occurred postwar and the maintenance of high quality and responsiveness to the needs of the state, region, and nation that has characterizeddevelopments to the present time. What is now the Department of Statistics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, was established in late 1940. This pioneer department experienced a rapidly increasing demand for training, research collaboration, and consulting assistance locally and nationally. To help meet this need, two other statistics departments were established at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill: in 1946, what is now the Department of Statistics in the School of Arts and Sciences, and in 1949, the 172 Table 1 Highlightsof thefirst fifteen years in the developmentof statisticsin the Universityof North CarolinaSystem Time period 1940-41 1942-44 1945-46 1947-49 1950-54 Instituteof Statistics Universityof North Carolinaat North Carolina ChapelHill, Departmentsof: State College at Biostatistics Raleigh, Department of Experi- Mathematical (School of Public Other mental Statistics1 Statistics Health) developments Explorationby PresidentFrank P. Grahamand establishmentof department (GertrudeM. Cox, head) in School of Agriculture; start-upof courses, conferences, research,and facultygrowth. World War II impact. Establishmentof Institute(at North Carolina State, Gertrude M. Cox, director); grantsupport from General EducationBoard (Rockefeller Foundation). Establishmentof BiometricsBulletin Expansionto All- Expansionand started(later Universitystatus; rapid growth; department became regionalrespon- additionof (HaroldHotelling, chairman). Biometrics, sibility in South William G. Cochranand Journalof the throughwork other outstanding Biometric conferences, summersessions, faculty. Society). professional assistance. Furtherprogress; JacksonA. RigneyGraduate Establishmentof GertrudeM. Cox, becamehead; program department full time to (BernardG. graduateprogram expanded. directorpost; expanded; Greenberg, Institutecited by Quantitative chairman). new Southern GeneticsProgram started. Regional EducationBoard as exampleof regional cooperation. Continuedits Increased George E. Expansion;first At ChapelHill, leadershiprole. provisionof Nicholson, Jr., degreesawarded. SurveyOperations statisticalservice chairman;name Unit and to Universityand changeto Psychometric region. Departmentof Laboratory Statistics. started. 1 In 1965 there was a name change to North CarolinaState Universityat Raleigh.In 1970, the Department of ExperimentalStatistics became the Departmentof Statistics;a comparablename change occurredearlier with the Departmentof MathematicalStatistics,as shown above. 173 Department of Biostatistics in the School of Public Health. All the early developments in statistics had the strong support of Frank Porter Graham, President of the University of North Carolina System, which then included three constituent institutions at Chapel Hill, Raleigh, and Greensboro. The entity known as the Institute of Statistics, was established at Raleigh in 1944 and was given University of North Carolina System status in 1946. The Institute of Statistics had an emerging leadership role in the field of statistics, especially in North Carolina and in the Southeast. The unique story of the Institute, as told by Frank Porter Graham, featured 'the cooperation of many persons and agencies, and the adventurous spirit of the preeminent leaders in this field'. It was 'an adventure in creative cooperation at one center for training ... urgently needed specialists and leaders' (Graham, 1948), a reputation that has facilitated a focus that continues to be a distinctive feature of international interest. The following pages include brief historical overviews and comments on distinctive characteristics, educational offerings, research emphasis, and consulting activities of the Institute of Statistics and of each department. Table 1 summarizes the historical context of the first 15 years. Other exhibit materials include lists of Ph.D. recipients through the 1975-76 academic year and present and former faculty. Outstanding students and faculty, broad balance of theory and application, and the cooperative focus referred to above are recurrent themes throughout this story. at Raleigh EarlyDevelopments Establishmentof North Carolina'sFirst Academic Department of Statistics On a train trip early in 1940, President Frank Porter Graham quite by chance met W.F. Callander, United States Department of Agriculture, who expressed a desire to help establish another center similar to the existing one at Ames, Iowa, where the training of statisticians and cooperative research with federal agencies could be done. President Graham told him, 'We will do it at North Carolina State College,' and shortly thereafter the initial developments were under way. W.F. Callander and C.F. Sarle, United States Bureau of Agricultural Economics, A.E. Brandt of the United States Soil Conservation Service, and others were contacted regarding the type of program and its leadership. Professor George W. Snedecor was asked to suggest names, and in a letter dated 7 September 1940, he recommended five young men, half-heartedly adding, 'If you would consider a woman, I know of no one better qualified than Gertrude M. Cox'. An offer dated 24 September 1940, was received by Miss Cox and she reported for work 1 November 1940, the first woman professor on the faculty of North Carolina State College. The Department of Experimental Statistics, in the School of Agriculture, was formally approved 22 January 1941, by the All-University Board of Trustees and Professor Cox was confirmed as head of the department. The major objectives of the Department of ExperimentalStatistics were to provide statistical consulting, computing assistance, and service courses for the research staff of the North Carolina AgriculturalExperiment Station and the School of Agriculture. A series of elementary courses in statistics was developed immediately. During the first summer, in 1941, basic applied and theory courses were given in statistics and related fields. The teachers were George W. Snedecor, Harold Hotelling, and Gertrude M. Cox, assisted by Robert J. Monroe and Carl F. Kossack. England's Scotland Yard would not permit R.A. Fisher to come to teach, probably because of his active training of foreign students. There were 83 regular students, who now represent a 'who's who' list of statisticians who have developed many of the statistical programs in the United States. During this same period, in addition to the regularcredit courses, three one-week conferences 46/2-D 174 were held for invited research investigators, especially from the Southern states. These conferences (agriculturaleconomics and rural sociology, biology and nutrition, and agronomy and horticulture) were held for the purpose of aiding research workers with some of their more pressing experimental problems; 243 persons registered. These were the first three of a series of conferences to be held in the South. Robert J. Monroe joined the faculty in 1941, as did Jackson A. Rigney, initially part time with Experimental Statistics and Agronomy. Richard L. Anderson joined the Department of Mathematics at North Carolina State College in June 1941, then became a member of the Statistics group 1 January 1942. Jay Wakeley arrived 13 September 1941. A joint arrangement by the Department of Experimental Statistics with the United States Department of Agriculture Division of Agricultural Statistics provided resident collaborators Alva L. Finkner and Walter A. Hendricks. The first formal research project between these two groups, including the Department of Agronomy, was entitled, 'Meteorological-SoilPlant Relationships'; David D. Mason was employed as a half-time graduate research assistant to work on this project. World War II military service affected many of the people who were associated with the new Department of Experimental Statistics, and developments during this period were necessarily slower than desired. Soon Robert J. Monroe was stationed at Camp Davis, Dave Mason and Alva L. Finkner were in Australia, Harold 'Cotton' Robinson was in Africa, and Jay Wakeley was in the Navy. Marvin Clay saluted the department on his way overseas by circling his Air Force plane low over 1911 Building, where Statistics was then located. In later war years, Richard L. Anderson was on leave at Princeton University, Office of Scientific Research and Development. The staff members remaining with the department were partially involved with the war effort. Any professor who had had advanced mathematics courses was drafted to help teach mathematics to soldiers sent to North Carolina State College for training. In the fall of 1943 Miss Cox, with the help of Richard L. Anderson, taught two preflight classes in spherical trigonometry. For awhile beginning 1 July 1944, J.M. Clarkson from the Department of Mathematics helped with teaching courses in mathematical statistics. Ralph E. Comstock joined the Statistics staff on 15 August 1943, and at first was half time with the Department of Animal Science. His main research interest was quantitative genetics. During these years there was a steady increase in the demands for teaching and consulting work. Although the staff devoted most of their energies to collaborating on research investigations, they also did fundamental research in statistical methodology and introduced into the curriculum courses in applied and mathematical statistics. Establishmentof the Institute of Statistics Requests for assistance increased rapidly, and early in 1944 it became clear that substantial expansion of the Statistics program was needed. Requests for permission to organize an Institute and to secure substantial funds to enable further development of the program and to handle contract projects were made to the Director, Agricultural Experiment Station, and directly to University President Frank Porter Graham. He phoned former North Carolina Governor O. Max Gardner, who was serving in Washington, D.C., and insisted that he had to be present at the meeting of the Executive Committee of the Board of Trustees. Mr Gardner rearranged a meeting of the War Mobilization and Reconversion Board, of which he was chairman, and came by train overnight to Raleigh to the meeting on 18 September 1944, when the committee approved establishment of the Institute of Statistics at North Carolina State College and appointed Miss Cox as director. A proposal was prepared for submission to the General Education Board (Rockefeller Foundation), which President Graham discussed with A.R. Mann of the General Education 175 Board. Frank Porter Grahamwrote later: 'The idea that such a fully integratedprogram requiringthe servicesof the best mindsin this field was to be undertakenin the South, was consideredin some parts of Americaand the worldto be recklessand even fantastic.It was consideredby some to be wiserfor a greatFoundationto back such an unprecedentedenterprise at one of the highlyendoweduniversitiesalreadyassuredof its own financialstability' (Graham,1948). The GeneralEducationBoarddecidedthat its supportwould go to the Universitywhich hadmadethe proposalandwaswillingto venturemostfor its fulfillment.On 7 December1944, $87,000was awardedto the Instituteof Statisticsto providefor expansionof its program. Earlyin the plans for the Instituteof Statistics,three purposeswere establishedas goals towardwhicheffortswereto be directed:(a) to providea teaching,research,consulting,and servicecenterfor statisticalwork; (b) to promotethe use of efficientstatisticaltechniquesin diverse fields of application;and (c) to advance statisticsthrough the discoveryof new techniquesby theoreticalinvestigations. It was recognizedthat, in orderto carryon this program,the Instituteof Statisticsfaculty shouldconsistof both theoreticaland appliedstatisticians:the theoreticalstatisticianto have a high degree of mathematicalingenuityand skill, along with the ability to develop new concepts, and the applied statisticianto have advancedtrainingin two researchfields, in statisticsand in a special field of application.Skill for planningsurveysand experiments appropriatefor manyspecialsituations,a consultingabilityachievedonly throughexperience knowledgeof the subjectmatterto whichthe statisticaltechniquesare applied,and abilityand willingnessto cooperatewereconsideredimportant. The work of the Instituteof Statisticsstaff was broadenedto includeresearchin mathematical,physical,and industrialstatistics;beforethis time, consultantassistancehad been providedprimarilyin the biologicaland social sciences.The establishmentof the Institute with additionalfunds made possible the developmentof a more extensiveprogramof cooperativeworkwithotherAgriculturalExperimentStationsin the Southandwithgovernment, industry,and privateresearchagencies. DuringWorldWarII statisticswasrapidlybecomingrecognizedas a vitalbranchof science. This recognitioncame not only becauseof the developmentsbeing made in the theory and techniquesof statistics,but also becauseresearchworkersin manyareaswererecognizingthe scope,usefulness,andefficiencyof statisticalmethodsfor scientificresearch.In NorthCarolina both the Departmentof ExperimentalStatisticsand the Instituteof Statisticswere part of these developments. As the war drew to a close, there were increasedstate, ExperimentStation, and General EducationBoardfunds.Facultyand supportpersonnelat North CarolinaStateCollegewere and graduatework, as addedto the point that they could sustaincoursesfor undergraduate well as expand researchand consultingprograms.Around this time Robert J. Monroe, Alva L. Finkner,David Mason, Harold F. Robinson,and Jay Wakeleyreturnedfrom war service.Also Henry'Curly'Lucas,WilliamG. Cochran,FrancisE. McVay,and Paul Peach were added to the staff, and JacksonA. Rigney became a full-time staff memberof the Departmentof ExperimentalStatistics.Researchsupport, secretarialservices,and bookkeeping activities were strengthened, and the Statistical Computing Service Laboratory was expanded to include 12 statistical clerks. Approximately 20 graduate students, most of them World War II veterans, were enrolled either as M.S. or Ph.D. candidates. Expansion of the Institute of Statistics Gertrude M. Cox made several trips to New York in 1944 and 1945 to negotiate with the General Education Board staff, and she traveled to other places to interview prospective staff and to locate potential funds. Included were visits to Columbia University and to Mountain 176 Lake,New Jersey,to talk with HaroldHotelling.As a resultof discussionswith Miss Cox he agreedto meetwithherand UniversityPresidentFrankPorterGrahamto talkaboutdeveloping a Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat the ChapelHill campusof the Universityof North Carolinaas partof the Instituteof Statistics.HaroldHotellingwroteon a sheetof hotel stationery what staff he would want, with proposed salaries,to start a Departmentof MathematicalStatistics. Miss Cox broughtback that sheetof hotel stationeryand wrotea proposalwhichwas submittedby way of Universitychannelsto the GeneralEducationBoard.On 7 December1945, they awardeda second grant, this one for $125,000,to supplementexisting funds, thus enablingfurtherexpansionof the Instituteof Statistics.Miss Cox had secureda promise from ProfessorCochranthat he wouldjoin the Institutestaffif Dr Hotellingdid. The latter had agreedthat he wouldjoin the programif moneywas obtainedto coversalariesproposed for five yearsfor five professors.Hotellingand Cochranacceptedappointmentsby phone on 8 December1945. On 17 February1946,therewas a publicannouncementthat the Instituteof Statisticshad been approvedon an All-Universitybasisby the ConsolidatedUniversityofficials.The Board of Trusteesapprovedformationof the Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat ChapelHill to begin 1 July 1946. Miss Cox continuedas the directorof the Instituteof Statistics,responsibleto the officeof the President;the associatedirectorswereWilliamG. Cochran(Raleigh)andHaroldHotelling (Chapel Hill). The graduateprogramand offeringsof the two academicdepartmentswere closely coordinated.The Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsat Chapel Hill provided strong offeringsin probabilitytheory and mathematicalstatisticswhile the Departmentof ExperimentalStatisticsat Raleighprovidedstrengthin intermediateand advancedmethods. Throughoutthe period1945to 1960,Ph.D. majorsin statisticson bothcampuseswererequired to take courseworkin both departmentsin orderto fulfilldegreerequirements. To facilitate this interchangeof students,classes were scheduledon Tuesdaysand Thursdaysin Chapel Hill and on the remainingdays in Raleigh.Both departmentshave continuedto expandtheir staffs and course offerings,and today there is still voluntaryinterchangeof students.(See furtherdescriptionsof each departmentlaterin this article.) Another developmentof the postwar period in North Carolinawas that the Biometric Section of the AmericanStatisticalAssociationstartedthe BiometricsBulletin(in 1945),with six issuesper yearand with GertrudeM. Cox as editorfor the first11 years.In 1947the name was changed to Biometrics,with four issues a year. The BiometricSociety was founded 6 September1947, as an internationalsociety devoted to the mathematicaland statistical aspects of biology; it began at once using this journalas its officialpublicationchannel.In September 1950, Biometrics became Biometrics,Journal of the Biometric Society. Regionalleadershiphas been an interestingpart of the Instituteof Statisticsstory.One of the stipulationsof the GeneralEducationBoardgrantswas that the Instituteacceptresponsibilities for stimulatingactivitiesin statisticsin the South. To fulfill this assignment,the Instituteprovidedthe followingregionalservices:(a) workconferences,15of whichwereheld, both in Raleighand in otherlocations,from 1941to 1948;(b) summersessions,five of which were held with regional, national, and international participants, 1941 to 1951; and (c) professional assistance. In fulfilling this third area of responsibility, the staff members of the Institute provided help and advice whenever and wherever they could, making visits to other universities to consult on local and regional projects. George W. Snedecor was employed to spend a quarter (or, sometimes, a semester) at each of four colleges in the South besides one year at North Carolina State College. These statisticians did teaching and consulting work and often were asked to make recommendations regarding the organization and coordination of statistics at these colleges. 177 As the postwarperiod progressed,the Instituteof Statisticscontinuedits leadershiprole and continuedto foster cooperativeventures.Some of the earliercooperativeresearchwas conductedwith the United StatesBureauof AgriculturalEconomics,WeatherBureau,Office of Naval Research,Soil ConservationService,Bureauof Plant Industry,Bureauof Animal Industry,Bureauof Mines,TennesseeValleyAuthority,andAgriculturalExperimentStations in the South,in the United States,and internationally. Researchin statisticaltheory was the majorfunctionof a numberof the staff members. Otherswere more heavily engagedin developingand testing samplingtechniques,experimentaldesigns,and methodsof analysisto leadto moreefficientproceduresfor obtainingand interpretingquantitativeinformation,e.g., studyof breedingand selectionproceduresto yield most rapidprogressin the geneticimprovementof animalsand plants.All staffmembersof the Institutewere encouragedto maintainclose contactwith other leadersin the statistical profession,not only by attendingand givingpapersat scientificmeetingsbut also by visiting other research centers and universitiesand by correspondenceand publications.There was extensive participationin the work of national and internationalorganizationsby servingas officersand editorsof journalsand by performingreferee,council,and committee work. As early as 1943, the Department of ExperimentalStatistics and the Agricultural ExperimentStation providedfor research,teaching,and graduateassistantsin the area of quantitativegenetics.This was made possiblewhen Ralph E. Comstockjoined the faculty. In April 1947the RockefellerFoundationmadea grantof $59,500to the Instituteto develop furtherthe QuantitativeGeneticsProgram,of whichDr Comstockand HaroldF. Robinson werethe co-leaders.Theprogramwas expandedin the early1950sby the additionof C. Clark Cockerham,Ken-ichiKojima, Dale F. Matzinger,and Robert H. Moll, as well as several postdoctoralfellows.Anothergrant,$170,000fromthe RockefellerFoundation,was received later. Two key eventsin the historyof statisticsin North Carolinabecameofficialin 1949.One was that on 1 April JacksonA. Rigney became head of the Departmentof Experimental Statistics,therebyallowingGertrudeM. Cox to devotefull time to the work of directingthe Instituteof Statistics.On 1 July 1949, a third departmentwas added to the Institute,the Departmentof Biostatisticsin the School of PublicHealth on the ChapelHill campus,with BernardG. Greenberg,one of the firstPh.D. recipientsin statisticsfromNorth CarolinaState College, as chairman.The mission of this departmenthas been to provide trainingand consultingassistanceto health-relatedprogramsin the Universityandto fulfillresearchneeds in this area. (See the departmentalsectionslaterin this article.) It was at the AuburnConference(7-9 September1948),the fifteenthand last of the series of workconferencessponsoredby the Instituteof Statisticsand the GeneralEducationBoard, that GertrudeM. Cox presenteda 'ProposedStatisticalPlan for the South-easternStates'.In the proposal she emphasizedthat the growing appreciationof the value of statisticshad created a demand for adequatelytrainedpersonnel.Suggestionswere made concerninga multistateregionalprogramfor coordinationof conferences,trainingstatisticiansin summer schools, visitinglecturers,and expansionof statisticsat each universityin the South. The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), dedicated to the improvement of graduate and professional education in the region, was established by interstate compact in June 1949. At an SREB-organized Graduate Work Conference which met at Daytona Beach, 4-7 September 1950, one conferee group was instructed to consider 'unique services' in the region. It was this group that first discussed the potentials of a coordinated, cooperative regional program in the then 'unique' field of statistics; a report of the rapidly developing program of the Institute of Statistics was presented as an example of regional cooperation, a role it has continued to serve. 178 Department of (Experimental)Statistics The earlyhistoryof the Departmentof Experimental Statisticsat NorthCarolinaStateCollege was closelyinterwovenwith the developmentof the Instituteof Statistics,as describedabove. In the postwarperiodthe departmentburgeoned.By July 1949the facultyhad increasedto 14 members.H. FairfieldSmith was added to help strengthenthe theory offerings.John Wishart,WilliamJ. Youden, and GeorgeW. Snedecorwere visitingprofessors.Therewere supportivepositionsfor residentcollaboratorsand assistantstatisticians.Most of the time up until 1960,the visitingprofessorshelpedwith teaching,research,and consulting.Theyhelped broadenthe scope of the permanentstaff's knowledgeabout the extensiveuse of statistical methodsand introducednew techniques,especiallysome of the ones they werefindinguseful in their own consulting. Individualconsultingwork of the staffmembershad been heavyfromthe day the program started,especiallyin biologyand economics,andindustrialconsultingworkbeganduringand rightafterthe war. Someexamplesare: (a) studyof the behaviorunderstressof textileyarns containingboth cotton and rayon;(b) seekingthe relationbetweenhydrocarbonmeltingpoint and size, weight,and conformationof the molecules;and (c) studyof sourcesof errorin the determinationof aminoacidconcentratesin biologicalassay.Therewerecontinuallyincreasing numbersof contributionsto the statisticsand other sciencesubjectareajournals. The Departmentof ExperimentalStatistics,Raleigh,with the help of the Departmentof MathematicalStatistics,ChapelHill, offeredcourse work towardM.S. and Ph.D. degrees. It also offeredthe baccalaureatedegree,but veryfew studentsthen choseto majorin statistics at the undergraduate level. Coursesweredesignedfor those preparingto teach statisticsand statistical theoryand for researchscholarsin other scienceswho wanteda practical develop workingknowledgeof statisticaltheory and models. Much of this developmentwas made possibleby the GeneralEducationBoard'sratherlargegrantsin 1944and 1945whichenabled staff to be secured.Many studentscame to take graduatework in statisticswith the help of and otherfederalsources. graduateassistantshipsandfundsfromthe VeteransAdministration 1949 six Ph.D. and M.S. ten had been awarded. By degrees degrees Developments of the 1950s The departmentshowedsteadydevelopmentduringthe 1950sin terms of faculty,graduate students,and financialsupport.By 1959,the facultyhad grownto nine full professors,three associate professors,and seven assistantprofessors(not includingvisiting professorsand postdoctoralfellows). During the ten-yearperiod, 1950 through 1959, a total of 46 Ph.D. degreesand 41 M.S. degreeswereawarded. Also duringthis period,substantialfunds werebeing securedfrom governmentalagencies in additionto those alreadymentioned,includingsuch defenseagenciesas Officeof Naval Research,Air Force,and ArmyOrdnance(industrialdesign).In additionto federaland state funds in supportof statisticalprograms,there were industrialcontractsundertakenby the Instituteof Statistics.On 12 January1953, UniversityPresidentGordon Gray announced that financial grants made to the Institute of Statisticsjust during the last part of 1952 amounted to $606,000. A basic tenet in the strategy of developing the Department of Experimental Statistics was that it must provide statistical service to all fields in the University and in the region. This was the cornerstone for continued support and growth, and several activities emerged during the 1950s as a direct result, as noted below. One development was the formation of the North Carolina State College Computing Center. On 1 April 1956, the Department of Experimental Statistics, with support from the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station and the Institute of Statistics, acquired the 179 first electronic digital computer in an educational institution in North Carolina (an IBM-650 computer). Arnold H.E. Grandage was named director of the newly formed Computing Center, which was administered by the department. All University faculty were encouraged to make use of the facilities. (Administration of the Computing Center was transferredto the Dean, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences on 1 July 1962, and from there to the Provost's Office on 1 July 1967.) On 26 November 1956, Jackson A. Rigney began what turned out to be a two-and-one-halfyear leave of absence as department head to serve as chief of mission of the Agency for International Development North Carolina State College program in Peru. His selection for this assignment was the direct result of having become broadly acquainted with agricultural research in his role as plant science statistician. Robert J. Monroe served as acting head of the department during this period. On 1 July 1958, Alva L. Finkner developed the Southeastern Fish and Game Statistics Project, a cooperative arrangement among the 14 Southeastern states, to provide statistical consulting and applied research to their fish and wildlife program. Guided by the Southeastern Wildlife Commissioners Association through a five-man steering committee, this project is continuing and is growing in breadth. It has been directed by Don W. Hayne since 1962. It supports two-and-one-half full-time faculty members and several graduate research assistants. The research in quantitative genetics jointly headed by Ralph Comstock and Harold F. Robinson attracted international attention during the 1950s and resulted in an organizational change. On 1 July 1958, the major contingent of the Quantitative Genetics Program was separated from the Department of Experimental Statistics to form the nucleus of the new Department of Genetics, in the School of Agriculture and Life Sciences. Harold F. Robinson, Professor of Statistics, became the head of the new department, and Professor of Genetics. C. Clark Cockerham, Professor of Statistics and Genetics, remained in the Department of Experimental Statistics to continue his research and to provide consultative assistance in statistical genetics and plant and animal breeding to the other departments. Developmentssince 1960 Developments proceeded at the same fast pace in the 1960s. In the post-Sputnik era, there was considerable agitation to give the basic sciences more visibility and autonomy on the North Carolina State College campus. One such move was the formation 1 July 1960, of a School of Physical Sciences and Applied Mathematics consisting initially of four departments: Chemistry, Applied Mathematics, Physics, and Experimental Statistics. The departments of Chemistry and Experimental Statistics were taken from the School of Agriculture, and the departments of Applied Mathematics and Physics were moved from the School of Engineering. Although administration of statistics teaching and associated academic activities was shifted to the new school, a Department of Experimental Statistics remained in the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station because of research projects directly associated with that area and to provide the service functions of statistical advising, consulting, and computing services. With the transfer of academic activities to the new school, the undergraduatecurriculumin statistics was revised to be more attractive to the student oriented to mathematical and physical sciences. Since the early 1960s, 20 to 35 undergraduatesper year have majored in statistics. Throughout these changes, the Institute of Statistics continued to support the major portion of the theoretical and applied statistical and biomathematical research work with state, grant, and contract funds. Some reorientation and development in the 1960s culminated in 1965 with a change in the name of the institution to North Carolina State University at Raleigh. In 1970 the name of the school became School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, and concurrently, the name 180 of the Department of Experimental Statistics was changed to the Department of Statistics. This change in name was in recognition of the department'sincrease in theory-orientedfaculty, thereby providing a full program in statistics. The use of statistical concepts and designs in a variety of biological research programs led inevitably to a strong interest in quantitative modeling of biological phenomena. The Biomathematics Program, with H.L. Lucas as director, was formally recognized with the awarding of a National Institutes of Health Training Grant in Biomathematics on 1 January 1961; actually Dr Lucas and several of his colleagues had been involved in the mathematical modeling of biological systems for several years. H.R. van der Vaart was employed in 1961. In the summer of that year the Biomathematics Program sponsored a two-week international conference in biomathematics at Cullowhee, North Carolina. This highly successful conference not only stimulated more interest in biomathematics in North Carolina, but throughout the nation and the world. On 1 May 1966, the Biomathematics Program received further stimulus with the award of a $1.125 million National Science Foundation Science Development Grant over a three-year period. Emphasis in the Biomathematics Program continues to be on graduate training and research, and support has been provided for several faculty, postdoctoral fellows, and an average of 12 to 15 predoctoral fellows per year. On 1 March 1962, Jackson A. Rigney accepted a temporaryforeign assignment and David D. Mason was named acting head of the Department of Experimental Statistics and acting director of the Raleigh section of the Institute of Statistics. Later in the year Professor Rigney elected to continue in international activities. Professor Mason, effective 1 July 1963, formally assumed both posts. Another event of the 1960s was formation of the Joint Econometrics Program. There had long been informal cooperation between the departments of (Agricultural) Economics and (Experimental) Statistics. This was facilitated by the fact that they were housed in the same building. T. Dudley Wallace was jointly employed by the two departments on 1 September 1959. The Joint Econometrics Program, which grew from Dr Wallace's activities, was formally initiated in 1964. The program continues to be active in 1976, with two joint faculty appointments and several other members from both the Department of Economics and Business and the Department of Statistics heavily involved. Professor Wallace resigned in 1974 and was replaced by Thomas Johnson. A.R. Gallant, appointed in 1971, replaced Charles H. Little. The Quantitative Genetics Program, cooperative between the Departments of Statistics and Genetics, was given a big stimulus in 1963 with the award of a National Institutes of Health Program Project Grant in the amount of $2.2 million for seven years. The already well-known program has since achieved worldwide recognition. The grant is currentlyin its thirteenth year and supports work in both the Department of Genetics and the Department of Statistics. Leadership in statistical computing developed during the 1960s. Since the formation of the department in 1941, emphasis has been placed on providing service computing for the research staff, especially the Agricultural Experiment Station. First, the major portion of the computing was done on desk calculators, with as many as 12 clerks employed at one time. As mentioned earlier, the Department of Experimental Statistics acquired an electronic digital computer (an IBM-650) in April 1956, the first in an education institution in North Carolina and one of the first in the nation. The acquisition required pioneering in writing and documenting computer programs for summarizing and analyzing research data. Considerable assistance was afforded this effort by a National Institutes of Health computer grant initiated in June 1962 and carrieduntil 1 October 1973, at an annual amount ranging from $120,000 to $140,000. Through assistance from this grant, the IBM-650 computer was replaced by the larger, more versatile IBM-1410 in 1963. 181 The most radical change in computer equipment that affected statistical computing came in 1965, with the introduction of the IBM-360 series. This series required the rewriting of all programs, especially those that utilized assembly language. This put many universities in a difficult situation. In the Southern region, through the organization of the University Statisticians of the Southern Experiment Stations, a committee was formed with Francis J. Verlinden of North Carolina State University as chairman to coordinate efforts in the development of statistical software for data analysis. Since the Department of Experimental Statistics had more programming personnel, and the support of the computer grant, it accepted the major portion of the task of re-programming. The concept of the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) was initiated in 1966 with the reemployment of A.J. Barr; he had just spent two years working in Washington, D.C., for IBM Federal Systems. Shortly after Mr Barr started the SAS development, J.H. Goodnight began working part time as a student, and later full time, on the statistical routines. Mr Barr and Dr Goodnight have consequently emerged as co-leaders of the SAS Project. Upon termination of the computer grant support, the SAS project was accepted (effective 1 July 1973) as a regional project by the Southern Experiment Stations. This support plus that from other users has enabled the Department of Statistics at Raleigh to maintain a strong position in the area of statistical computing. On 1 July 1976, the core personnel of the highly successful SAS Project left the University to form a private software corporation, the SAS Institute, Incorporated. SummaryHighlights of Consultingand Research The Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University has been heavily involved in statistical consulting and advisory activities since its formation in 1941. The first consulting was with research personnel of the North Carolina Agricultural Experiment Station, and this continues to be the heaviest consulting responsibility of the department, involving plant and animal sciences, economics, sociology, biological and agricultural engineering, the biological sciences, and food science. Complete service is provided, from planning and design of experiments and surveys, to collection and analysis of data, to review of manuscripts. As the faculty and interests of the department grew, so did the range of statistical consulting services provided to the University and state agencies. In addition to the Experiment Station services, statistical consulting is provided for the engineering and physical sciences, education, behavioral sciences, and various other disciplines. An example of one large responsibility is the previously mentioned 18-year-old Southeastern Cooperative Fish and Game Statistics Project, through which statistical consulting, computing, and applied research services are provided to the Southeastern states in estimating game kills, fish caught, fish and game population estimates, and other services necessary for the management and regulation of wildlife resources. Faculty members heavily involved in the department's consulting services often become involved in the research activities as well - e.g., developing and improving methodology and adapting existing methods of data analysis to particular situations. They also share in the publication of results. The department's lively research activity is reflected in the publication of 25 to 35 refereed journal articles per year plus numerous reports, presentations at professional meetings, and special conferences. The research can be grouped in the more or less traditional categories. In the area of estimation, testing, and decision procedures, there has been considerable activity in estimation of variance components, regression analysis including use of prior information, minimum bias estimation of polynomial response relationships, multivariate theory and analysis, nonparametricmethods (including nonparametricdiscrimination), maximum likelihood estimation for true-type scales, and studies in goodness-of-fit using transformation methods. 182 In the area of experimental design, there has been a continuing interest in response surface design since George E.P. Box visited the department in 1952-53, and generally in the development and improvement of designs and accompanying methodologies for use in agricultural, biological, and industrial experimentations. Recently there has been investigation of response surface fitting (or trend analysis) to account for variation in experimental material in addition to or in lieu of blocking. Investigation of the choice of mathematical models for soil fertility data and consequent optimal experimental design has been an active area. Sampling theory has been of continuing interest throughout the entire period. The various aspects of multistage sampling, including sampling on successive occasions and replicated samples of unequal size, have been studied. The basic problem of model construction in measurement and sampling of social networks is still under investigation. On the more applied side, there has been continuous activity for at least 20 years in development and refinement of theory and methodology in the design and analysis of sample survey and sampling methods in the agricultural, biological, and industrial areas. Research and training programs in biomathematics and in quantitative genetics have already been mentioned. In both areas the basic thrust has been toward mathematical modeling of biological systems. The Quantitative Genetics Program has been and is joint with the Department of Genetics, which has been primarilyconcerned with experimentalresearchwhereas the Department of Statistics has been oriented toward theory development. An exception to this has been in the area of numerical taxonomy, which has involved both theory and experimentation. All in all, the faculty of the Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University has covered a wide range in research interests, including rather theoretical contributions and highly applied methodology. Department of (Mathematical) Statistics As described earlier, the formation of the Department of Mathematical Statistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill followed the expansion of the Institute of Statistics to All-University status in 1946. With the development of this second department, training and research in statistics in North Carolina proceeded at a more rapid pace. Developments up to the Mid-Sixties In 1945-46 while negotiations with Harold Hotelling and the securing of additional financial support was progressing, the Institute of Statistics hired Jacob Wolfowitz to give basic graduate probability and statistical inference lecture courses, with considerable attention to philosophical implications. After one year of pioneer teaching, on both the Chapel Hill and Raleigh campuses, Wolfowitz decided to return to Columbia University in order to work with Abraham Wald. On 1 July 1946, the Department of Mathematical Statistics in the Graduate School was officially started under the chairmanship of Harold Hotelling, who assembled a faculty consisting of William G. Madow, P.L. Hsu, and Herbert E. Robbins. Maurice S. Bartlett was a visiting professor and Edward Paulson an instructor. Dr Hsu, Dr Madow, and Dr Paulson left in the next two years, but the faculty was strengthened in the fields of experimental design and multivariate analysis by the addition of two outstanding Indian statisticians, R.C. Bose and S.N. Roy, and in probability theory and statistical inference by Wassily Hoeffding, a young worker of great promise, which has since been abundantly fulfilled, and who is still with the department. Walter L. Smith, to whom the same description fully applies, came from England to join the department in 1954, following the departure of Dr Robbins. 183 The department benefited greatly during the formative years from the able guidance of Harold Hotelling. It was from his mature judgment that the main lines of development were laid down. One of his many capabilities was in the area of multivariate analysis. In cooperation with Gertrude M. Cox, Harold Hotelling wrote a proposal for a large research project in the areas of multivariate analysis, probability, and other mathematical statistics areas. A large grant was received from the Department of the Navy, Office of Naval Research, as early as 1947, and substantial funds were received from this source during the rest of Hotelling's active research years. These funds provided supplementary help in securing other key staff members, such as Wassily Hoeffding and S.N. Roy. Also, funds were provided for visiting professors and numerous graduate students. During the period 1948-55 there were at least 40 reports published in the Institute of Statistics series and in statisticaljournals, especially the Annals of Mathematical Statistics. Very soon after securing basic research funds from the Office of Naval Research, a contract was secured in 1951 from the Air Force, which substantially helped develop work in sequential design with R.C. Bose as project director. This contract helped secure new staff members, visiting professors, and graduate assistants. From this Air Force contract, the Institute of Statistics received over $168,000 between 1 November 1951, and 30 June 1957. Wassily Hoeffding was director of an Air Force project on nonparametric statistics which produced 11 articles submitted for publication to Annals of Mathematical Statistics, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Biometrika, and Biometrics in one year, October 1953 to October 1954. These are only three of the many contracts the Institute of Statistics had with the Office of Naval Research, Air Force, and Army Ordnance Corps. The capable staff secured by Harold Hotelling for these projects, the reports, publications, and graduates made Chapel Hill a world center in these fields. Harold Hotelling was succeeded as chairman in 1952 by George E. Nicholson, Jr., who continued existing policies and developed new ones. His interest in applications of statistics in public policy and operations research type of inquiries was reflected in his multifarious consulting activities; it introduced a component into the work of the department that survives to the present day. Also in 1952, the official name became the Department of Statistics. The research output of the department in the 1950s was quite remarkable, including in 1958-59 the well-known work of R.C. Bose with S.S. Shrikhande, a visiting professor, on the resolution of Euler's conjecture on the existence of Graeco-Latin squares, a problem of nearly 200 years' standing. The department's tenured staff remained small in this period, but there were several visitors to the department, which fact attests to the importance of the research work then in progress. Under the leadership of Walter L. Smith, rapid progress was being made at that time in queueing theory; eventually, in 1964, there was a successful conference on congestion theory sponsored by the department in cooperation with the Office of Naval Research. Beyond its main endeavor, research, the department had considerable influence on the development of statistical work on the Chapel Hill campus. Writing in the annual report of the department in 1968, Dr Nicholson, who was an active agent in much of this, remarked: 'The philosophy of the department was to cooperate and not compete with the development of statistics in all its aspects and to strengthen existing programs and to aid in establishing new ones. Consequently the department acted as the executive agent for the Institute of Statistics in its efforts to assist in establishing the Department of Biostatistics in 1949; cooperated with the Institute for Research in Social Science to establish the Social Science Statistical Laboratory in 1956; with the Graduate School to establish the Department of Information Science in 1964; with the Medical School to establish a biomathematics program in the School of 184 Medicine in 1965; and with the University to organize and participate in the Triangle Universities Computation Center also in 1965.' By 1965 some staff changes had occurred. A very sad one was the untimely death, in 1964, of S.N. Roy. This was a blow to the multivariatework of the department,which was further weakened by the retirement in 1966 of Professor Hotelling. However, advances were being made by newly recruited faculty. Thus, William J. Hall joined the permanent faculty in 1959, Norman L. Johnson in 1962, I.M. Chakravartiin 1964, and Malcolm R. Leadbetter in 1965. Dr Hall further strengthened the department in probability theory and Dr Chakravarti contributed to the further development of the new fields of coding theory and information theory to which R.C. Bose had turned his attention in the late 1950s. Bose and Chakravarti also continued the work of the department in experimental design, in particular with respect to the use of combinatorial mathematics and finite geometries in constructing such designs. Dr Leadbetter's initiatives in the field of stochastic processes and statistical inference were notable. His book co-authored with Harald Cramer should be mentioned here (Cramer and Leadbetter, 1967). Developmentssince the Mid-Sixties In 1966 the Department of Statistics became a regular department of the College of Arts and Sciences, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The distinguished work in teaching and research continued. A summer conference on combinatorial mathematics and applications, organized by the department in cooperation with the Institute of Statistics of the University of Paris and sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), was held at Royan, France, in 1965, and a symposium with the same title, sponsored by the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research, was held at Chapel Hill in 1967. Work in this field culminated in a Combinatorial Mathematics Year (actually 16 months, from 1 February 1969, to 31 May 1970) sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research. There was a symposium in June 1969 and a second conference on combinatorial mathematics and applications in May 1970 in Chapel Hill. During the Combinatorial Year there were about 20 special visitors in the department. A feature of the later 1960s was the development of a strong stochastic processes program, led by Walter L. Smith and Malcolm R. Leadbetter. They succeeded in arousing continuing interest in this program among their colleagues, and it is now an important facet of the work of the department. An NSF regional symposium on multiple time series in January 1973 (principal speaker E. Parzen) was one outcome of this activity. A considerable expansion in the work of the department, and a rapid increase in number of faculty occurred in the period 1968-70. This was stimulated by an NSF Science Development (Center of Excellence) grant which operated from 1968-73, with extension to 1975. The Department of Statistics at Chapel Hill, one of six in the United States, benefited considerably from the grant, although some of the benefits proved unexpectedly transitory because the University was unable to honor its commitment to continue the funding of some of the new positions created by the grant. In 1968, with the appointment of Charles R. Baker, courses in statistical communication theory were introduced. This program was strengthened by the appointment of Stamatis Cambanis in 1969 and has developed steadily. Floyd J. Gould joined the faculty in 1968; he had special interests in operations research, a field in which, as already noted, George E. Nicholson was also strongly interested. There has been a separate Curriculumin Operations Research and Systems Analysis since 1973, but the Department of Statistics continues to offer an operations research option to its own graduate students. Other faculty recruited at this time include Gordon D. Simons, the present chairman; 185 Douglas G. Kelly,joint with the Departmentof Mathematics;K.J.C. Smith;and EdwardJ. Wegman;all arestillin the departmentin 1976.WilliamS. Cleveland,ThomasAllanDowling, and WoolcottW. Smithalso joined the facultybut left withina few years. In 1968-71, in cooperationwith the Departmentof Biostatisticsand the Psychometric Laboratory,the departmentparticipatedin a programsponsoredby the National Science Foundation to study the effectivenessof using computers in undergraduatestatistics were instruction.At aboutthis time, 1969-70,coursesintendedspecificallyfor undergraduates introduced.Beforethen the departmenthad offeredno undergraduate courses,thougha few undergraduatesdid attend some coursesin the department,and it was possible to take a statisticsmajorin the bachelorof sciencedegreeprogram. The developmentof undergraduate coursesin the departmenthas been striking.In 1969-70 therewere about 15 undergraduatestudentsenrolledfor coursesin the fall semesterand 40 in the spring.The correspondingfiguresfor 1975-76were518 and 540. Thisveryconsiderable expansionhas resulted,since 1972,in increasingopportunitiesfor the graduatestudentsto obtainteachingexperience.Initiationandcontinuationof this expansionowesmuchto K.J.C. Smith,who devotedconsiderableeffortto formulatingandpublicizingthe courses.Thefurther utilization of computer resources in undergraduateinstruction has received continued attention,especiallyby EdwardJ. Wegman. In 1971,GeorgeE. Nicholson,Jr.,was succeededas chairmanof the departmentby Norman L. Johnson, who in turn was succeededby Gordon D. Simons in 1976. The department suffereda majorloss with the retirementof R.C. Bosein 1971.His outstandingcontributions to experimentaldesign,codingtheory,and informationtheoryprovidedinspirationfor much researchactivity in the department.Unfortunately,the departmenthas not been able to replacehim. I.M. Chakravartiand DouglasG. Kellyhavecontinuedthis workin a most able manner,but a full-timeco-workerin this field is needed. The departmenthas sufferedalso fromthe lack of an experiencedmultivariateanalystsince the death of S.N. Roy in 1964. It is only due to the generosityof PranabK. Sen and the Departmentof Biostatisticsin making his time availableboth for lecturingand student guidance during the last ten years that a viable multivariateanalysis programhas been continuedto the present. The latestadditionto the facultyis R.J. Carroll,who joined the departmentin 1974. His field of specializationis selection procedures,and he has contributedeffectivelyto the teachingand consultingactivitiesof the department. Since the earliestdays, the facultymembersof the departmenthave playedactiveroles in the affairsof nationaland internationalstatisticalsocietiesby way of beingofficeholders,and they have servedon committeesand on editorialstaffs of journals.These activitiesare so numerousand widelyrecognizedthat no attemptis madehereto set them out in detail.Four presentor previousfacultymembershave been electedto the NationalAcademyof Sciences. Students in the Departmentof Statistics Thevariedinterestsof the facultymakeit possibleto offerquitea widechoiceof specializations to graduatestudentsin the Departmentof Statisticsat ChapelHill. At presentthey have a choice of six major fields: inference, design, multivariate analysis, probability, communication theory, and operations research. Whichever field is chosen, students are required to take several broadening courses in other fields and in other departments. Since its inception, the courses offered by the department have had a strong mathematical and theoretical flavor. Still, the department has always operated on the principle that application and theory can not be separated and, indeed, that each stimulates the other. This was partially recognized as early as 1952 when the name was changed from Department of Mathematical Statistics to Department of Statistics. Indeed, members of the faculty have 186 worked on appliedstatisticalproblemsthroughoutthe lifetimeof the department,but this was not reflectedin courses availableto studentsuntil recently.In the last two years an experimentalcoursein problemsof appliedstatisticshas been offered.It is not plannedthat this shouldbe a majoractivityof the department;it is intendedto assistin the generalstatistical educationof graduatestudentsin the department. The departmenthas beenveryfortunatein the qualityof its graduatestudents.Not onlyhas each year'sentryclassbeen amongthe highestin the Universityin termsof conventionaltest scores and grade-pointaverages,but this promise has on the whole been borne out by subsequentperformance. Number of graduatestudentshave remainedfairly stable over the last ten years. In fall 1976, there were 40 graduatestudentsenrolled,a figuresomewhathigher(by 3-5 students) than those over the previousfive years. The first Ph.D.s were awardedin 1948. Up till 1 September1976, 62 M.S. degreesand 125 Ph.D.s had been obtained in the department.After the initial period of growth,the numberof Ph.D.s awardedhas remainedmore or less stable at about four to six per year since 1954. Departmentof Biostatistics Still anothervital elementin the distinguishedhistoryof statisticsin North Carolinais the contributionof the Departmentof Biostatisticswhichdevelopedat the Universityof North Carolinaat ChapelHill (UNC-CH).It has beensaid: 'It is generallyrecognized... thattoday the biostatisticsdepartmentat the Universityof North Carolinahas one of the most advanced programsin the nation'(Sheps, 1976). Early Developments The Departmentof Biostatisticswas establishedin the School of Public Health on 1 July 1949, with the active collaborationand financialsupportof the Instituteof Statistics.Early for the key on, EdwardG. McGavran,deanof the schoolagreedthatone of the requirements appointmentof chairmanof the new departmentwas a person thoroughlyfamiliarwith mathematicalstatisticswho could developjoint programsboth with HaroldHotellingin the Departmentof MathematicalStatisticsand GertrudeM. Cox in the Departmentof ExperimentalStatisticsin Raleigh.Sucha leaderwas found in the personof BernardG. Greenberg who himselfnow servesas dean of the school. The primarymissionof the new departmentwas to teachone or two servicecoursesand to provideconsultationin statisticsto meetthe needsof studentsandfacultyin publichealthand the otherhealthdisciplinesin the UNC-CHDivisionof HealthAffairs.It soon becameclear that, without researchand withouttrainingbiostatisticians,the servicerole in teachingand consultationwould becomesterileand obsolete.Accordingly,a trainingprogramleadingto the M.P.H. degreewas introducedin 1950and the first studentgraduatedin 1951. Froman initialcorecoursein elementarypublichealthstatistics,the mainteachingfunction expandedto includespecializedcoursesin biologicalassay,statisticalmethodsin epidemiology, and the history and uses of vital statistics and demography in the administration of health programs. In 1951, responsibility was assumed for teaching statistical methods to medical and dental students. This increased load brought a transfer of funds from those two units, which enabled the department to employ C. Clark Cockerham the following year. Cockerham, a new Ph.D. from Iowa State in genetics and statistics, remained for one year and concentrated upon teaching and consulting with medical students and faculty. He transferred in 1953 to the statistics and genetics program in Raleigh and has continued to be a bulwark of strength for 187 that effort. He was replacedby Harry Smith who was a graduatestudentin the Raleigh programat the time. WhenSmithbecamean instructorin 1953,the yearwas markedby two key developments in the Departmentof Biostatistics.The firstwas the formalintroductionof a joint educational effortbetweenBiostatisticsand the othertwo statisticaldepartmentsin the Institute.Instead of grantingits own Ph.D. degree,the planwasto enrollthe doctoralstudentsfromBiostatistics in one of the other two statisticsdepartmentsfor fulfillingthe formaldegreerequirements. Coursesin publichealthand/orbasicpreclinicalmedicalsubjectswereindividuallyprescribed for each student,and directionof the doctoraldissertationcould be undertakenby a faculty memberfrom any one of the threedepartments.Thus, Dr Greenbergservedas chairmanof the doctoral committeefor Harry Smith who receivedthe first such degreein 1954 from Raleigh. This arrangementhas continuedto the presenttime, althoughit was considerablyreduced in 1965when Biostatisticsappliedfor and receivedpermissionto enroll studentsfor its own Ph.D. degreethroughthe GraduateSchool.By thattime,the numberof facultyin Biostatistics had grown to a size where the departmentcould be independentin supervisingdoctoral students. The secondkey developmentin 1953was the receiptof a traininggrantfrom the National Heart Instituteof the National Institutesof Health, United StatesPublicHealth Service,to train biostatisticiansto serve as consultantsin health research.This grant was one of the originalfour made to departmentsof biostatistics;this markedthe firsttimethatthe National Institutesof Healthprovidedfunds for any kind of trainingprogram.The funds came from the researchallocation to the National Heart Institute, and the necessaryCongressional committeesauthorizedthe use of researchfunds for trainingbecausebiostatisticianswould enhancethe quality of researchin the cardiovascularfield. After the Russian Sputnikon 4 October1957,trainingprogramsbecamecommonin manybiomedicaldisciplines,and the National Instituteof GeneralMedicalScienceswas establishedto administerthese training grants.The grantin biostatisticsto the Universityof North CarolinaSchoolof PublicHealth is still activeaftermorethan 20 years. This traininggrantprovidedfunds for studentstipends,postdoctoralfellowships,faculty, and one visitingfacultymembereach year. As a result,the Departmentof Biostatisticswas able to attractas visitingprofessorsfor one or more years such outstandingstatisticiansas David R. Cox, J.O. Irwin,David B. Duncan,DavidJ. Newell,AhmedE. Sarhan,HerbertA. David, RobertC. Elston,ManindraN. Ghosh,K. RubenGabriel,PranabK. Sen,and others, some of whom remainedas regularfacultymembers. In additionto the doctoralprogramin conjunctionwith the othertwo departmentsin the Institute of Statistics,the Departmentof Biostatisticsofferedthe Ph.D. degree in Public Health, with specializationin Biostatistics,for those who were anxious to emphasizethe applicationsof statisticalmethodsto solve publichealthproblems.The firstgraduateof this programwas AhmedE. Sarhanin 1955.Thisparticularprogramwas discontinuedin the late 1960s, and in 1970 the Dr.P.H. degree was substitutedfor it. Sarhan remainedfor an additionalyear after graduationperformingresearchand working in collaborationwith Greenberg on the monograph, Contributionsto Order Statistics, which was published a few years later by John Wiley and Sons (Sarhan and Greenberg, 1962). Two major contributions to the field of statistics made by the Department of Biostatistics prior to the 1960s should be mentioned here. First was the concept of field training, a kind of practicum lasting approximately ten weeks in which the master's degree student is assigned to a field counselor in an operating health agency. The purpose was, and still is, to familiarize students with real problems and to provide individual opportunities to learn more about public health and to apply academic knowledge of statistical methods in solving a health 188 problem.The field trainingwas conceivedas an integralpart of the curriculum,involving academiccreditand supervisedby regularfacultyas well as the fieldcounselor. The initialcollaborativearrangementwas developedwith the TennesseeStateDepartment of Healthin Nashvilleunderthe field directionof Ruth Pufferand Ann Dillon. Later,it was expandedto includelocal andfederalhealthunitsas wellas otherstatedepartmentsof health, organizationsfor prepaidmedicalcare,and healthresearchagencies.The role of fieldtraining is explainedin moredetailin a publicationby Greenberg(1964)in TheAmericanStatistician in February1964. The secondcontributionof the departmentin this periodinvolvedthe pioneeringeffortsof the facultyin developingthe principlesand practicesunderlyingthe cooperative,multicenter, clinicaltrial. In 1955,the Departmentof Biostatisticsundertooka contractwith the Cancer ChemotherapyProgramof the National Cancer Institute to serve as the statisticalcoordinatingcenterfor the SoutheasternCooperativeCancerChemotherapyStudy Group, a consortiumof approximatelyten medical schools conductingjoint researchwith chemotherapeuticagents believedto be of value in treatingleukemiaand lymphoma.James E. Grizzle,now chairmanof the department,joined it a year lateras a researchassistantunder this programand helpedBernardG. Greenbergto establishthe philosophicalprinciplesfor organizingand statisticallyservicingcollaborativeclinical trials. Later, the programwas extendedthrougha contractwith the VeteransAdministrationto providestatisticalservices to VeteransAdministrationhospitalsstudyingthe relativevalue of four operationsin the treatment of gastric ulcer. In 1959, Greenberg (1959) published in The American Statistician the first availablearticledescribingthe designand conductof cooperativefield and clinical trials. In 1958, there were two importantdevelopmentsthat influencedthe subsequentdevelopmentof the department.Roy R. Kuebler,a newPh.D. recipientin mathematicalstatisticsand biostatistics,who workedunderthe supervisionof R.C. Bose, remainedwith the department on a permanentbasis.He addeda new dimensionto the teachingeffortsof the Departmentof Biostatisticsand was a sourceof strengthin buildingthe foundationfor the expandeddegree programsdescribedin the followingsection. The otherkey milestoneof 1958startedin 1955with the returnof H. BradleyWells for a doctoralprogramin public health. In 1958,he combinedthis period of study with a work effort involvingthe North CarolinaState Board of Health. Under a contractbetweenthe departmentand the statehealthdepartment,Wellsspentone day a weekin Raleighconsulting with programdirectorson statisticalproblems.Thatcontractwiththe statehealthdepartment for statisticalservicesfroma facultymemberhas continuedunabated;Wellswas followedby James R. Abernathy,CraigD. Turnbull,and Roger Grimson,who is currentlyperforming this function. Developmentsafter 1960 The period after 1960 was markedby a rapid expansionin trainingand researchefforts Nothing was moreimpressive,however,than the successfulexecutionof two specialsummer sessionsin 1963and 1964. Under a joint arrangementwith the BiometryTrainingProgram directors and the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, the Department of Biostatistics sponsored each summer a special session with outstanding visiting professors teaching 10 to 12 courses in biostatistics, ranging from elementary courses to the most advanced possible. Well over 100 students enrolled during each summer session to take advantage of this unique opportunity. The faculty who were assembled to teach at these sessions are listed in Exhibit XIII. Research grants and contracts continued to grow, providing the necessary funds for expansion of the department. Some grants were for training purposes; others were for basic 189 statistical research, such as order statistics with the Army Research Office; others were for statistical consulting services in cooperative clinical trials. The number of graduate students specializing in biostatistics grew exponentially and the doctoral program was as heavily subscribed as the master's degree programs. Some key dates in inaugurating new educational programs, with accompanying training grants, were as follows: 1965 - Ph.D. in biostatistics authorized by the Graduate School. 1965 - M.S.P.H. and Ph.D. programs in statistical aspects of demography and population studies. 1965 - Ph.D. program in statistical genetics. 1967 - M.S.P.H. program in biostatistics with special emphasis on problems of mental health, stressing data analysis and evaluation of programs. 1970 - Ph.D. program, in conjunction with Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, on statistical problems in environmental health. 1970 - Master's, Ph.D., and Dr.P.H. programs to study the problems of health services research and evaluation of service programs. 1973 - Master's and doctoral programs with concentration in public health data management and computers. 1976 - Undergraduatedegree in public health (B.S.P.H.) with specialization in biostatistics as one of the options. In all of the above areas, the Department of Biostatistics has active researchwork in progress and is heavily engaged in consultation with health research workers in diverse disciplines. The department has a long record of providing statistical and data-management services to healthrelated investigations dating back to studies of growth and nutrition and the early cancer chemotherapy clinical trials. Development of new statistical methods has been an integral part of the departmental research program. Major problems have included the design of cooperative clinical studies, fetal and neonatal mortality studies, blood-bank inventory policy, human genetics, order statistics, population and fertility models, multivariate analysis, nonparametric methods, survivorshipanalysis, and use of randomized response in survey research. It would be too lengthy a compilation to attempt to identify the above contributions with the individual faculty members who joined the department in the 1960s and thereafter. Nevertheless, some of the outstanding faculty who made significant contributions were Dana E.A. Quade, Robert C. Elston, Herbert A. David, Forrest E. Linder, Mindel C. Sheps, Regina E landt-Johnson, Peter A. Lachenbruch, Gary G. Koch, and many others. Major current efforts in the mid-1970s are: 1. The Central Patient Registry and Coordinating Centerfor the Lipid Research Clinics Program. This program, which includes two major studies, is designed to measure blood lipids in selected population groups and to test the validity of the theory that lowering cholesterol levels may have a significant effect on heart disease. The data are being gathered in 16 participating clinics in the United States, Canada, Israel, and the Soviet Union. 2. The Study of the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control. This research is designed to extract information on hospital-acquired infections from 500,000 patient charts selected randomly from 350 hospitals. 3. The Study of the Health of Workersin the Rubber Industry. The purpose of this study is to identify work-related illnesses and environmental hazards and ultimately to develop a system of surveillance of the health status of workers and the environment in the rubber industry. This collaborative effort also involves the Department of Epidemiology and the Department of Environmental Sciences and Engineering in the School of Public Health. Both the Lipid Research Program and the Occupational Health Studies Program have associated areas of graduate and postgraduate training. 46/2-E 190 4. The Improvementof Statistical Methods to Measure Population Change. Research in demographicmethodshas been centeredarounda cooperativeinternationalprogramcalled POPLAB(Laboratoriesfor PopulationStatistics),whichis designedto increaseinstitutional capacityin variousareasof the worldfor the collectionand analysisof demographicdata. The currentdepartmentbudgetis in excessof $3 million,and thereare about75 students, equally dividedin master'sand doctoralprograms.The numberof regularfull-timefaculty is in excess of 30 and has reacheda plateauduringthe last few years.All of this growthto become the largest health statisticsand biostatisticaltrainingunit would not have been possible withoutthe earlyactive supportand collaborationof the Instituteof Statisticsand the encouragementof GertrudeM. Cox and School of Public Health Dean EdwardG. McGavran. At one periodin the late 1960s,the departmentwas simultaneouslythe host for the editors of Technometricsand Biometrics and associate editors for International Statistical Review, Journal of American Statistical Association, and Journal of Chronic Diseases. Graduates and facultyfromthe departmenthavebeenjournaleditorsandcontributors;theyhaveestablished independentreputationsfor themselvesas academicians, departmentchairmen,administrators, and researchscientists. Suchachievementshave helpedto establisha Departmentof Biostatisticsat the University of North Carolinawhichwill continueto undertakea vital role in developingnew statistical methodology,as well as in trainingand helpingto applygood statisticalmethodsby meansof consultationwithresearchworkersand serviceagencies.The departmenthas takenits rightful national and internationalplace with the two other major departmentsin the Instituteof Statistics. Other Ventures Throughout the history of the development of statistics in North Carolina, there has been a prevalentspiritof cooperation.Much of this traditionhas its roots in the facilitatingrole of the Instituteof Statistics.A few more developmentsin the state shouldbe mentioned. One is the highly respected L.L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory which originated in 1952 in affiliation with the Department of Psychology at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. The laboratory was started by L.L. Thurstone, who was influenced in his decision to come to North Carolina by the existence of the Institute of Statistics. There was a cooperative relationship with the Institute of Statistics from the beginning. The Institute provided all the salary of T.E. Jeffrey as an assistant for L.L. Thurstone for at least three years and secured a grant from the United States Army Ordnance for cooperative psychological research. This grant provided for statistical staff consulting time, a graduate assistant, and computer machine time for analytical help. In reminiscing about a later period, Lyle V. Jones, who became director of the Laboratory in 1957 (and who is now Dean of the GraduateSchool), commentson 'a numberof joint activities' involving the Institute and one or more of the academic units. One of these was the pooling of funds in 1957-58 from the Psychometric Laboratory and the departments of Biostatistics and Statistics to purchase a small computer, the Royal-McBee LGP-30, that was shared by all three units. This was the first high-speed electronic computer on the campus in Chapel Hill. Also a joint effort was a five-year research project on multivariate analysis, with the principal investigator located in Biostatistics and faculty salaries of selected members in all three academic units coming from funds in the grant. Another development began when the staff of the sampling section, headed by Alva L. Finkner, Department of Experimental Statistics, Raleigh, began cooperating with Daniel O. Price of the Institute of Research in Social Science, Chapel Hill. The Institute of Statistics 191 secured an Air Force grant for human resource research, and this grant provided part of the salary of Daniel O. Price and the salaries for two graduate assistants. It was decided in 1954 that a Survey Operations Unit was needed to augment the survey research capabilities on both campuses. It was located in Venable Hall, Chapel Hill. John Monroe came from a similar facility at Iowa State University to head the unit. Daniel O. Price and J. Stacy Adams, a doctoral candidate in social psychology (now Reynolds Professor, School of Business Administration) held part-time positions in the first years of operation of the unit. The unit became the Social Science Statistical Laboratory in 1956. Close relations with all interested departments were assured by a steering committee consisting of representatives from the Institute of Research in Social Science and from political science, journalism, business administration, biostatistics, and both departments of statistics. This committee provided guidance in the formulation of policy and practices as well as sources for sampling and survey projects. In cooperation with the sampling section of the Department of Experimental Statistics, the unit aggregated and developed master sample materials for the state of North Carolina. Most of this work involved counting culture (houses) on county highway maps and creating 'count units' (road-bound areas) to make a frame for area probability sampling of the state, counties, or groups of counties. Early projects of the unit were trade area studies of Winston-Salem and Norfolk, two data collection projects for TVA studies, a sociological study in Appalachia, and a national sample of veterinarians. Three major undertakings were a study of smoking habits of all American Tobacco Company employees, a highly concentrated health survey in Nashville, Tennessee, and the beginning of an evaluation of the Census of Agriculture in 1959. During the period 1954-59, two books InterviewingTechniquesby J. Stacy Adams (1958) and Handbook of Area Sampling by John Monroe and Alva L. Finkner, and a number of research reports in the Institute of Statistics (1976) series were published. John Monroe organized and taught for several years a course in survey methodology which was designed primarily for a special MPH curriculum in biostatistics. In March 1959, the Social Science Statistical Laboratory was transferred to the emerging Research Triangle Institute to provide a nucleus of operations personnel for the Social and Statistical Sciences groups. With a combined interdisciplinary staff of more than 250, they have a capability that is distinctive among national survey research organizations. The Research Triangle Institute is a significant example of the close working ties among the academic centers in North Carolina - North Carolina State University at Raleigh, the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and Duke University at Durham. Under the leadership of the Honorable Luther H. Hodges (North Carolina's industry-mindedgovernor), a Research Triangle Commission was appointed in 1955. In January 1957, this Commission appointed an Executive Committee to study the problems involved in establishing a Research Institute. This committee invited Gertrude M. Cox to submit to them a proposal regarding the possibilities of establishing a statistical unit in a Research Institute. A committee of seven senior statisticians, with Gertrude M. Cox as chairman and Alva L. Finkner as secretary, submitted their report 16 June 1958, to the Executive Committee of the Governor's Research Triangle Commission. On 1 July 1959, Gertrude M. Cox (on one-half time) began to organize and staff a Statistics Research Division of the Research Triangle Institute. The Social and Statistical Sciences groups, with ten centers, have on their staffs a large number of statisticians and social scientists, and have conducted many cooperative research projects with the three academic departmentsof statistics. Some senior statisticians at Research Triangle Institute hold adjunct professorships and direct the training and provide employment for graduate students. 192 The traditions that developed in the early days in the history of statistics in North Carolina continue to be evident as the concentration of statisticians in the state proliferates. The cooperative focus is not the only tradition. Another is the broad balance of theory and application; another is the distinguished roster of faculty and graduates. Perhaps the healthiest characteristic has been not to become atrophied by tradition; statistics in North Carolina has developed with adaptability to changing times. Notes and References Adams, J. Stacy (1958). InterviewingTechniques.ChapelHill: Universityof North CarolinaPress. Cramer,H. and Leadbetter,M.R. (1967). Stationaryand RelatedStochasticProcesses: Sample FunctionProperties and TheirApplications.New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc. of theInstituteof Statistics,page4. Graham,F.P. (1948).'A UniqueStory',in thefirstRecordof Research fieldandclinicaltrials.American B.G. (1959).Conductof cooperative Statistician, 13, 13-17,28. Greenberg, Greenberg,B.G. (1964). Field trainingfor biostatisticians.AmericanStatistician,18, 19-22. Institute of Statistics(1976). One activity of the Instituteof Statisticsthat has continuedis the publicationof its seriesof researchreports.Themostrecent,Number1080,waspublishedin July1976. Monroe, J. and Finkner,A.L. (1959). Handbookof Area Sampling.Philadelphia:Chilton Co. to OrderStatistics.New York: John Wiley and Sons, Sarhan,A.E. and Greenberg,B.G. (1962). Contributions Inc. Sheps, Cecil G. (chairman)(1976). HigherEducationfor PublicHealth: Reportof the MilbankMemorialFund Commission, p. 122.NewYork:Prodist. Appendix List of Exhibits for the History of Statistics in North Carolina Department of Statistics (NCSU) Current Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State Exhibit I. University (NCSU) as of end 1975-76 academic year H. Former Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State Exhibit University (NCSU) as of end of 1975-76 academic year III. Exhibit Visiting Faculty in Department of Statistics at North Carolina State University (NCSU) prior to end 1975-76 academic year Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Statistics at North Carolina Exhibit IV.1 State University (NCSU). Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Statistics at North Carolina Exhibit V.' State University (NCSU). Department of Statistics (UNC-CH) Exhibit VI. Current Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) as of end 1975-76 academic year. Former Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina Exhibit VII. at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year. Exhibit VIII. Visiting Faculty in Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year. Exhibit IX.' Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Exhibit X.1 Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Statistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). 1 Enquiriesupon the detail in these Exhibits should be addressedto the ExecutiveEditor. Alternatively,a complete copy may be inspectedfor referenceat the Libraryof the Royal StatisticalSociety in London. 193 Department of Biostatistics Exhibit XI. Current Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) as of end 1975-76 academic year. Exhibit XII. Former Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year. Exhibit XIII. Visiting Faculty in Department of Biostatistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH) prior to end 1975-76 academic year. Exhibit XIV.' Doctoral Degree Recipients from Department of Biostatistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Exhibit XV.' Master's Degrees Awarded by Department of Biostatistics at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH). Exhibit I Name Rank Date of appointment Bhattacharyya, B.B. Cockerham, C.C. Cox, Gertrude M. Gold, H.J. Grandage, A.H.E. Hader, R.J. Hafley, W.L. Hayne, D.W. Lucas, H.L. McVay, F.E. Mason, D.D. Monroe, R.J. Nelson, L.A. Proctor, C.H. Quesenberry, C.P. Rawlings, J.O. Ridgeway, D.L. Rigney, J.A. Steel, R.G.D. van der Vaart, H.R. Wesler, O. Gallant, A.R. Gerig, T.M. Giesbrecht, F.G. Goodman, M.M. Johnson, Thomas Linnerud, A.C. Manson, A.R. Wasik, J.L. Goodnight, J.H. Wakeley, J.T. Bayless, D.L. Schreuder, H.T. Professor Professor Professor Emeritus Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Adjunct Professor Adjunct Associate Professor Adjunct Assistant Professor September 1963 September 1953 November 1940 July 1965 September 1952 July 1948 June 1966 September 1962 January 1946 August 1948 September 1953 February 1941 March 1964 September 1960 September 1966 July 1960 July 1967 January 1941 September 1960 February 1962 July 1964 July 1971 September 1969 August 1971 August 1967 August 1974 July 1967 December 1965 September 1967 July 1970 April 1970 January 1969 December 1966 1 Enquiriesupon the detail in these Exhibits should be addressedto the ExecutiveEditor. Alternatively,a complete copy may be inspectedfor referenceat the Libraryof The Royal StatisticalSocietyin London. 194 Exhibit II Name Terminal rank Years of employment Anderson, Richard L. Bartholomay, Anthony F. Cochran, William G. Comstock, Ralph E. Cox, Gertrude M. Finkner, Alva L. Peach, Paul Robinson, Harold F. Shreve, Darrell R. Smith, H. Fairfield Stacy, Ralph W. Wallace, T. Dudley Williams, Evan J. Hall, William J. (one-half time) Herbst, Laurence J., Jr. Horvitz, Daniel G. Koop, John C. Little, Charles H. Peterson, Roger G. Smart, William W.G., Jr. Teichman, Robert Warren, Jerry A. Burrows, Peter M. Carter, Melvin W. Cerimele, Benito J. Chang, Monica Liu Fleischer, Jack Gray, Clifton W. (one-half time) Greenwald, E.K. Martin, D.C. Matzinger, Dale F. Meade, James H., Jr. Mendenhall, William, III Moll, Robert H. Rohde, Charles H. Williams, Mary B. Carroll, Sarah P. Fleming, Margaret Foster, Walter D. Harris, Mary J. Teichroew, Dan Swindel, Benee F. Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Instructor Instructor Instructor Instructor Instructor Adjunct Associate Professor 1942-67 1967-69 1946-48 1943-57 1940-60 1941-60 1946-50 1946-58 1960-62 1949-57 1962-65 1959-73 1956-58 1960-63 1962-70 1953-57 1960-67 1968-70 1962-65 1953-65 1966-70 1965-70 1971-75 1958-60 1968-70 1967-69 1953-60 1959-60 1966-69 1966-73 1957-58 1962-63 1958-59 1957-58 1963-65 1967-74 1947-56 1946-55 1949-50 1949-53 1950-53 1966-75 195 Exhibit IlI Name Rank Dates Box, G.E.P. Carter, Melvin W. Chapman, D.G. Cooke, Dennis Cress, Charles E. Dixon, W.J. Fryer, Holly C. Gomez, F. Pimentel Griffiths, John Kendall, M.G. Kimura, Motoo Li, Jerome C.R. Morton, George Mott, G.O. Mukai, Terumi Nyquist, Wyman E. Otha, Tomoko Patterson, H.D. Pielou, Evelyn Schultz, E.F., Jr. Sen, A.R. Shrikhande, S.S. Sisson, Donald V. Snedecor, G.W. van der Vaart, H.R. Warren, John Watson, G.S. Weir, Bruce S. Wilkenson, Graham Williams, E.J. Wishart, John Youden, W.J. Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Assistant Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Assistant Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Associate Professor Visiting Instructor Visiting Professor Visiting Research Associate Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor Visiting Professor 1952-53 1967, 1968, 1969 (summers only) 1958-59 1957-58 1973-74 1951-52 1975 1952-53 1956 1953 1972 1957 1956-57 1951-52 1975, 1976 1969-70 1972 1957-58 1967-68 1953-54 1974 1960-61 1975-76 1957-58 1957 1975-76 1959 1972, 1973, 1974 1962 1956-57 1949 1951 Special Summer Sessions Bliss, C.I. Bose, R.C. Duncan, D.B. Fisher, R.A. Hotelling, Harold Kossack, Carl F. Nicholson, G.E. Robson, D.S. Roy, S.N. Smith, W.L. Snedecor, G.W. Wolfowitz, J. Youden, W.J. Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Assistant Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor Professor 1946 1951 1956, 1959 1946 1941 1941 1959 1963 1951 1956, 1959 1941, 1946, 1951 1946 1951 196 Exhibit VI Name Rank Date of appointment Baker, Charles R. Chakravarti, I.M. Hoeffding, Wassily Johnson, Norman L. Leadbetter, Malcolm R. Simons, Gordon D. Smith, Walter L. Cambanis, Stamatis Kelly, Douglas G. Smith, K.J.C. Wegman, Edward J. Carroll, Raymond J. Professor Professor Professor Professor (Chairman 1971-76) Professor Professor (Chairman 1976-) Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor 1968 1964 1947 1962 1965 1968 1954 1969 1968 1968 1968 1974 Exhibit VII Name Terminal rank Years of employment Bose, Raj Chandra David, Herbert A. Duncan, David B. Hall, William J. Hotelling, Harold Nicholson, George E., Jr. Robbins, Herbert E. Roy, Samarendra Nath Gould, Floyd J. Hsu, P.L. Madow, William G. Bohrer, Robert E. Cleveland, William S. Dowling, Thomas Allan Shachtman, Richard H. Smith, Woollcott K. Paulson, Edward Kenan Professor Emeritus Professor Professor Professor Kenan Professor Emeritus Professor Professor Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Instructor 1947-71 1968-69 1955-61 1957-68 1964-died 1973 1947-died 1971 1945-53 1948-died 1964 1968-73 1946-48 1946-48 1965-67 1969-71 1967-December 1971 1968-73 1970-January 1972 1946-47 Exhibit VIII Name Dates Adams, John William Aigner, Martin Baldessari, Bruno A. Barlotti, Adriano Bartlett, Maurice Stevenson Basu, Debabrata Behboodian, Javad Bentley, Donald L. Berlekamp, Elwyn R. Bertaud, Marcel 1962-65 September 1965-June 1966 September 1964-June 1966 1945-46 August 1964-July 1965 August 1970-May 1971 August 1970-August 1971 September 1966-December 1966 1962-63 197 Exhibit VIII (continued) Name Dates Bhapkar, Vasant P. Bhattacharyya, Helen Bhattacharyya, P.K. Bogdanoff, John L. Bruck, R.H. Camion, Paul Chu, John T. Clatworthy, W.H. Cohan, Avery Corsten, Leo Caspar Antoon Dall'Aglio, Giorgio Deshpande, Jayant Vinayak DeWaal, Daniel J. Diananda, P.H. Durbin, James Eicker, Friedheim Engler, Jean Ann Fand, David I. Foata, Dominique Gyprien Freeman, Harold Gabriel, Kuno Ruben Gere, B.H. Gupta, Ram Prakash Guthrie, Donald, Jr. Hannan, Edward Joseph Hayakawa, Takesi Heathcote, Christopher Hunter, Jefferey Joseph Ibragimov, Ildar A. Ikeda, Sadao Ito, Paul K. Joshi, V.M. Kallenberg, Olav Katz, Leo Khatri, Chinubhai Ghelabhai King, Randall M. Kojima, T. Kotz, Samuel Kozelka, Robert M. Krafft, Olaf Krier, Nicholas Kulldorf, Gunnar K.O. Laskar, Mrs Renu Chakravarti Lee, Doris Margaret Linder, Arthur Lindgren, Sven George Kristian Marsaglia, George 1964-66 August 1975-May 1976 1961-62 September 1965-June 1966 September 1963-May 1964 January 1974-May 1974 1951-52, 1953-55 September 1968-June 1969 1961 February 1958-June 1959 September 1962-June 1963 September 1966-August 1967 August 1974-May 1975 September 1953-July 1954 September 1958-May 1959 February 1959-September 1960 September 1957-August 1958 June 1958-59 August 1974-November 1974 July 1959-June 1961 September 1957-July 1958 September 1970-May 1971 September 1967-July 1968 August 1969-June 1970 October 1958-May 1959 September 1969-August 1970 September 1961-August 1962 October 1968-January 1969; January 1973-June 1973 October 1973-February 1974 1965-67 1954-55 June 1966-September 1966 September 1973-May 1974 Summer of 1950 February 1964-January 1965 August 1974-May 1975 1971-72 September 1962-June 1963 September 1963-June 1964 September 1963-June 1964 September 1970-June 1971 1952-53 1967-68 September 1951-May 1952 September 1963-May 1964 September 1970-May 1971 1953-54 198 Exhibit VIII (continued) Name Dates Masry, Elias Masuyama, Motosaburo McGilchrist, Clyde A. Mesner, Dale Marsh Miller, Hilton D. Momoi, Makoto Morimura, Hidenori Moustafa, Madany D. Nakamura, Akira Naor, Pinhas Paul Nemenyi, Peter Bjorn Ogawa, Junjiro Page, Ewan Stafford Paulson, Edward Philipp, Walter Pitman, Edward James George Potthoff, Richard F. Quails, Clifford Raghavarao, D. Rajput, Balram S. Ray-Chaudhuri, Dwijendra K. Robertson, Tim Rootzen, Holger Roy, Jogabrata Ruist, Erik Harald Runnenburg, Johannes Saw, John Grenville Schutzenberger, Marcel P. Sethuraman, Jayaram Shrikhande, S.S. Siotani, Minoru Spivey, Walter Allen Srivastava, Jagdish Narain Stout, William F. Sugiyama, Takakazu Suigiura, Nariaki Sundrum, Ramaswamy Meenatchi Tate, Robert F. Tranquilli, Giovanni B. Vuagnat, Pierre Watanabe, Hisao Watson, G.S. Zyskind, George August 1973-May 1974 September 1965-May 1966 January 1974-June 1974 September 1964-May 1965 September 1964-May 1965 August 1968-69 September 1968-May 1969 November 1956-September 1957 September 1966-June 1967 September 1962-June 1964; July 1966-October 1966 September 1965-June 1966 1955-65 July 1962-April 1963 September 1947-June 1948 August 1972-May 1973 1948-49 1965-66 1970-71 August 1972-May 1973 August 1969-June 1972 1960-61 September 1974-May 1975 September 1975-June 1976 October 1959-May 1960 1948-49 September 1964-August 1966 September 1959-August 1960 September 1960-August 1961 September 1962-May 1963 1951-52; 1958-59 August 1968-September 1969 1956-57 1961-63 August 1974-May 1975 February 1967-September 1968 September 1967-August 1968 July 1953-June 1954 1948-49 September 1964-April 1965 September 1971-December 1971 1970-71 1957-58 1958-59 199 Exhibit XI Name Abernathy, James R. Elandt-Johnson, Regina C. Elston, Robert C. Greenberg, Bernard G. Grizzle, James E. Koch, Gary G. Kuebler, Roy R., Jr. Lachenbruch, Peter A. Linder, Forrest E. Quade, Dana E. A. Sen, Pranab K. Wells, Henry Bradley Coulter, Elizabeth J. Davis, Clarence E. Gillings, Dennis B. Helms, Ronald W. Kleinbaum, David G. Kupper, Lawrence L. Lingner, Joan W. Shachtman, Richard H. Symons, Michael J. Williams, 0. Dale Bilsborrow, Richard E. Francis, Mildred E. Hogue, Carol R. Imrey, Peter B. Rademaker, Alfred W. Smith, Wendell C. Stewart, J. Richard Suchindran, Chirayath M. Turnbull, Craig D. Kaplan, Ellen B. Sorant, Alexa M. Grimson, Roger C. Adlakha, Arjun L. Ahmed, Susan W. Samuels, Steven J. Baker, Raymond H. Current faculty rank Initial appointment Professor 1 July 1965 Professor 1 September 1964 Professor 1 July 1960 Dean of the School 1 July 1949 of Public Health and Kenan Professor 1 January 1960 Department Chairman and Professor Professor 1 December 1967 Professor 1 September 1958-30 June 1976 Professor 1 June 1965-30 June 1976 Professor 1 September 1966 Professor 1 August 1962 Professor 1 August 1965 1 February 1958 Professor 1 September 1965 Professor Associate Professor 1 June 1972 Associate Professor 1 May 1971 Associate Professor 1 August 1968 Associate Professor 1 July 1970 Associate Professor 1 July 1970 Associate Professor 1 December 1970 Associate Professor 1 June 1973 Associate Professor 1 August 1969 Associate Professor 1 October 1970 15 October 1972 Assistant Professor Assistant Professor 1 August 1974 1 September 1974 Assistant Professor Assistant Professor 1 July 1972-31 July 1975 15 June 1974 Assistant Professor Assistant Professor 1 July 1974 1 September 1970-30 June 1976 Assistant Professor 1 September 1972 Assistant Professor 1 August 1971 Assistant Professor Instructor 1 September 1959 Instructor 1 September 1970-30 November 1976 Research Associate 1 September 1976 Professor Research Assistant 1 July 1975 Professor Research Assistant 1 January 1976 Professor Research Instructor 1 March 1976 Lecturer and 1 November 1973 Associate currently Director for Operations at the Population Lab 200 Exhibit XI (continued) Name Current faculty rank Initial appointment Blake, Martha Ellan Chanlett, Eliska Krusa, Hans Namboodiri, Kadambari Lecturer Research Associate Research Associate Research Associate 1 March 1974 1 March 1970 1 January 1974 1 July 1969 Name Terminal rank Years of employment Bartholomay, Anthony F. David, Herbert A. Sheps, Mindel C. Smith, Harry, Jr. Professor Professor Professor Instructor Assistant Professor Professor Associate Professor Associate Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Assistant Professor Instructor Instructor and Visiting Assistant Professor Instructor Instructor Instructor Instructor Instructor Instructor Research Associate Research Professor and Visiting Professor Research Associate Professor Research Associate Professor Research Assistant Professor Research Assistant Professor Lecturer 1 September 1967-30 June 1969 1 September 1964-31 August 1972 1 December 1968-15 January 1973 1 July 1953-30 June 1954 1 July 1954-30 June 1955 1 July 1966-30 June 1971 1 September 1956-30 June 1971 1 December 1960-29 February 1964 1 August 1967-31 August 1971 1 July 1952-30 June 1953 1 September 1957-1 July 1959 9 September 1964-31 August 1969 1 July 1962-31 July 1964 1 October 1959-31 January 1961 1 July 1970-June 1973 1 February 1970-30 June 1971 Exhibit XII Donnelly, Thomas G. Kosa, John Brogan, Donna Ruhl Cockerham, C. Clark Diamond, Earl L. Glasser, Jay H. Hassanein, Khatab M. Pasternack, Bernard S. Cranford, Sarah Fergany, Nader Gehan, Edmund A. Johnson, William D. Leiva, Miriam A. Ridgway, Linda S. Stephenson, Ruth E. Yelverton, Katie C. Sarhan, Ahmed E. Back, Kurt W. Miller, Norman Phillips, Bernard S. Strickland, Lloyd H. Lieberman, Milton D. 1 July 1955-31 January 1958 1 August 1968-30 June 1974 1 July 1966-30 November 1966 1 September 1968-28 February 1970 1 July 1964-31 December 1964 1 December 1966-15 August 1972 1 July 1955-31 August 1956 1 September 1956-15 August 1970 (intermittent employment) 1 September 1956-31 August 1959 15 September 1958-1 September 1961 1 September 1956-31 August 1958 1 September 1959-1 July 1960 1 February 1973-30 June 1974 201 Exhibit XIII Name Rank and home institution Bilsborrow, Richard E. 15 October 1972Visiting Assistant Professor 15 October 1973 Assistant Professor at New York of University, Department Economics, New York City, New York 1 January 1973Visiting Assistant Professor 1 June 1974 Lecturer in Statistics at Burdwan of Economics, University, Department West Bengal, India 1 January 1972Visiting Associate Professor 31 December 1972 Associate Professor of Statistics at Calcutta University, Calcutta, India 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Associate Professor of Biostatistics at 31 August 1970 the University of California, School (intermittent of Public Health, Berkeley, employment) California 1 November 1969Visiting Professor International Research Branch, 30 April 1970 Chief, Office of International Statistical 1 May 1970for 30 June 1974 National Center Programs, Health Statistics, U.S. Public (Adjunct Professor) Health Service, Rockville, Maryland 1 July 1962Visiting Associate Professor 30 September 1962 Chief of the Public Health Statistics Carolina State North Section, Board of Health, Raleigh, North Carolina 1 August 1955Visiting Professor 31 July 1956 Professor at Birkbeck College, of University London, Department of Statistics, London, England 1 July 1969Visiting Associate Professor 30 June 1970 Senior Research Scientist at the Division of University Melbourne, of Mathematical Statistics, Melbourne, Australia 1 January 1971Visiting Associate Professor 30 June 1971 Private Research Consultant, associated with a large number of university projects, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 15 September 1970Visiting Instructor 31 January 1971 Statistics Mathematics Statistician, Unit Division of Research in Epidemiology, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Chakravorti, Sukharanjan Chatterjee, Shoutir K. Chiang, Chin Long Cooke, Dorothy S. Council, Charles R. Cox, David R. Davis, Arthur W. Donnelly, Thomas G. Dowd, John E. Dates 202 Exhibit XIII (continued) Dates Name Rank and home institution Duncan, David B. 2 February 1958Visiting Professor 31 August 1958 Professor, University of Florida, Department of Statistics, Gainesville, Florida 1 July 1972Visiting Assistant Professor 30 June 1974 Graduate of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in the Department of Biostatistics 1 September 1964Visiting Associate Professor Research Assistant Lecturer and Head 1 September 1965 of the Statistics Department at the Agricultural University, Department of Agricultural Experimentation, Poznan, Poland 1 July 1970Visiting Assistant Professor 30 June 1971 Instructor, Cairo University, Department of Statistics, Cairo, Egypt 1 October 1962Visiting Assistant Professor 31 March 1965 Chief, Public Health Statistics Section, North Carolina State (intermittent Board of Health, Raleigh, North employment) Carolina 1 August 1971Visiting Associate Professor Lecturer in Statistics, Exeter University, 30 June 1972 Exeter, Devon, England 1 September 1966Visiting Associate Professor 31 August 1967 Associate Professor of Statistics at Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel 1 August 1975Visiting Assistant Professor 31 December 1975 Graduate in demography at the Catholic University of Louvain, Belgium 1 January 1953Visiting Professor Lecturer at the University of Calcutta, 1 July 1954 Department of Statistics, Calcutta, India 1 July 1972Visiting Professor Statistical Advisor in various countries 31 August 1973 at the United Nations and affiliated agencies 1 September 1970Visiting Associate Professor Scientific Rothamsted 31 August 1971 Officer, Principal Experimental Station, Harpenden, Herts, England Edelman, David A. Elandt-Johnson, Regina C. Fergany, Nader A. Flinchum, Glenn A. Fryer, John G. Gabriel, K. Ruben Gamrah, Hamed A. Ghosh, Manindra Goodman, J. Roe Gower, John C. 203 Exhibit XIII (continued) Name Rank and home institution Hamilton, C. Horace 1 February 1967Visiting Research Professor Professor of Rural Sociology at the 30 June 1971 North Carolina State College, Raleigh, North Carolina 1 July 1972Visiting Assistant Professor Research Assistant at the University of 1 July 1974 North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biostatistics 1 July 1958Visiting Professor School of London 30 June 1962 Lecturer, Hygiene, of University London, London, (intermittent W.C.1., England employment) 1 January 196530 June 1965 June Assistant Professor 19681 Visiting 31 January 1969 Senior Lecturer at the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia 1 October 1969Visiting Assistant Professor 31 August 1970 1 October 1972Professor Visiting 30 June 1974 Professor of Sociology at the University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada 1 May 1967Adjunct Professor 24 July 1967 Research Assistant at the University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia 1 September 1966Visiting Professor Director of the National Center for 31 January 1967 Health Statistics, Rockville, Maryland 1 September 1972Adjunct Professor 30 June 1974 Mathematical Statistician in the Office of the Director, Bureau of Health Professions, Education and Manpower Training, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 15 October 1968Visiting Professor 30 November 1968 Professional Fellow - acted as the the for consultant/advisor Australian National University, Canberra, Australia 1 July 1974Visiting Associate Professor Associate Professor in Statistics at the 31 December 1974 University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia Imrey, Peter B. Irwin, J.O. John, Kallacheril S. Joshi, Prakash C. Krotki, Karol J. Laby, Betty Linder, Forrest E. Losee, Garrie J. McArthur, Norma McGilchrist, Clyde A. Dates 204 Exhibit XIII (continued) Dates Name Rank and home institution Myers, Robert J. 1 March 1970Visiting Professor Manpower Advisor to the government 31 December 1973 of Zambia, Lusaka through the Ford Foundation 1 August 1971Visiting Associate Professor Senior Teacher at the Tel Aviv 31 July 1972 of Statistics, University, Department Tel Aviv, Israel 1 July 1959Visiting Professor Senior Lecturer in Biostatistics 1 August 1960 at the Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, England 1 September 1958Visiting Associate Professor Research Associate in the Institute of 1 July 1959 Statistics at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill 15 May 1966Visiting Associate Professor Associate Professor at the New York 15 September 1967 University, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York City, New York 1 August 1975Visiting Assistant Professor Lecturer at the University of Exeter, 31 July 1976 of Mathematical Department Statistics and Operational Research, Exeter, EX4 4PU, Devon, England 1 February 1972Visiting Professor Statistical Advisor to Kenya, U.S. 30 June 1974 Bureau of the Census, Washington, D.C. 1 September 1969Adjunct Professor 30 June 1975 Chairman, at the University of California, Department of Sociology, Los Angeles, California 1 September 1962Visiting Assistant Professor Research Associate at the University 30 June 1963 of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biostatistics 1 September 1969Visiting Assistant Professor Lecturer in Statistics at the University 31 August 1970 of London, The London School of Economics, London, England 1 August 1965Visiting Associate Professor Assistant Professor of 1 July 1966 Visiting Statistics at the University of California, Berkeley, California Nathan, Gad Newell, David J. Ogawa, Junjiro Puri, Madan L. Read, Kenneth L. Rose, J. Hugh Sabagh, Georges Sarndal, Carl-Erik Scott, Alastair J. Sen, Pranab K. 205 ExhibitXIII (continued) Name Rank and home institution Siervogel, Roger M. 1 August 1973Visiting Assistant Professor Research Associate at the University 31 October 1974 of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biostatistics, Genetic Laboratory 1 September 1972Visiting Assistant Professor Graduate of the University of North 1 September 1973 Carolina at Chapel Hill, Department of Biostatistics 1 July 1972Visiting Professor Professor and Chairman at California 30 June 1973 State College, Department of Sociology, Los Angeles, California Suchindran, Chirayath M. Thomlinson, Ralph Special Summer Session Abbey, Helen Anderson, Paul S. Bailey, Albert E. Brown, Byron Wm., Jr. Chiang, Chin Long Colton, Theodore 46/2-F Dates 27 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor 7 August 1964 Associate Professor, Department of and of School Biostatistics, Hygiene Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 17 June 1963Visiting Assistant Professor 26 July 1963 Assistant Professor in Public Health 29 June 1964(Biometry), Department of 7 of August 1964 Epidemiology, Yale School Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 29 June 1964Visiting Professor 7 August 1964 Director, Bureau of Administration and Management, Pennsylvania Department of Health, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania 29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor 7 August 1964 Associate Professor, Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 17 June 1963Visiting Associate Professor 26 July 1963 Associate Professor of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, California 29 June 1964Visiting Professor 7 August 1964 of Research Associate, Department Medical Preventive Medicine, School, Harvard University, Boston, Massachusetts 206 Exhibit XIII (continued) Name Rank and home institution Cornell, Richard G. 29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor 7 August 1964 Associate Professor of Statistics and Director of the Biometry Training Program, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Professor of Statistics, Virginia 26 July 1963 Polytechnic Institute, Blacksburg, Virginia 29 June 1964Visiting Associate Professor 7 August 1964 Senior Research Fellow, Department of Statistics, University of Aberdeen, Old Aberdeen, Scotland 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Bureau of Records and 26 July 1963 Director, of New York, Statistics, City Department of Health, New York City, New York 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Assistant Chief, Division of Research 26 July 1963 Grants (1963) and Chief, Scientific 29 June 1964and Technical Information Office, 7 August 1964 National Cancer Institute (1964), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 17 June 1963Visiting Professor 26 July 1963 Head, Sampling Group, Statistics Research Division, Research 29 June 19647 August 1964 Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Gustavus 26 July 1963 Professor, Adolphus St Minnesota College, Peter, 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Professor of Biometry, School of 26 July 1963 Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 17 June 1963Visiting Professor 26 July 1963 Head, Department of Biostatistics, School of Medicine, Louisiana State University, New Orleans, Louisiana 17 June 1963Visiting Professor Senior Lecturer in Biostatistics, The 26 July 1963 Medical School, Newcastle upon Tyne, England David, Herbert A. Elston, Robert C. Erhardt, Carl L. Hemphill, Fay M. Horvitz, Daniel G. Johnson, Eugene A. Li, C.C. McMahan, C.A. Newell, David J. Dates 207 ExhibitXIII (continued) Name Rank and home institution Perrin, E.B. 29 June 1964Visiting Assistant Professor 7 August 1964 Assistant Professor, Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 17 June 1963Visiting Associate Professor 26 July 1963 Associate Professor of Biostatistics, 29 June 1964School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 7 August 1964 Michigan 29 June 1964Visiting Assistant Professor 7 August 1964 Lecturer in Mathematical Statistics, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool, England 29 June 1964Visiting Professor 7 August 1964 Professor of Biometry, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut Remington, Richard D. Tweedie, M.C.K. White, Colin Dates Resume L'expansion que la statistique en tant que discipline universitairea prise dans le syst6me universitairede Caroline du Nord est n6e avant Pearl Harbor. La croissanceinitiale - qui ffit frein6ede certainsc6t6s mais aussi stimul6epour d'autresdurantles ann6esde la SecondeGuerreMondiale- a constitu6une base de depart solide pour la croissanceaccl16r6esurvenueapresguerre,tout en pr6servantla haute qualit6des travauxet leur ad6quationaux besoins de l'6tat, de la region et de la nation, caract6ristiquesde l'expansionde l'6poquepr6sente. Ce qu'on appellemaintenantle d6partementde statistique(Ecole des sciencesmath6matiqueset physiquesde l'Universit6d'Etatde Carolinedu Nord) fi1tfond6Alafinde1940.Ce d6partementde pointeconnutune demande rapidementcroissante(au plan local et national) en matiere de formation, de participationA la rechercheet faireface Aces besoins,deuxautresd6partementsde statistique d'aidesous forme de consultations.Pour aider "A furent cre6s rl'Universit6de Caroline du Nord, a Chapel Hill, lesquels sont maintenantle d6partementde Statistiquede l'Ecole des Arts et Sciences,(cre6en 1946)et le d6partementde Biostatistiquede l'Ecole de Sant6 Publique(cr66en 1949).Tous les d6veloppementsdu debuten mati"rede statistiquerecurentI'appui6nergique de Frank Porter Graham, President du systhmeuniversitairede Caroline du Nord qui incluait alors trois institutions de base, A Chapel Hill, A Raleigh et a Greensboro.L'entit6 connue sous le nom d'Institut de Statistiquefi1tconstitu6eA Raleigh en 1944 et a requen 1946 son statut (systemeuniversitairede Carolinedu Nord).