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HLTH 120N: Lecture 18

Differentiate between life span & life
expectancy

Know what physiologic changes occur with
aging & give examples

Identify micronutrient considerations

Understand concerns that threaten health

Identify available community programs

Age 65 years and older

Age >85 years:
 “Very elderly”
 Fastest growing U.S. population subgroup

Average U.S. life expectancy = 78.1 years

Life span: the age to which the longest-living
member of the species has lived
Declined sensory perception

Abnormal taste perception
 secondary to disease or medication use

Declined olfactory perception

Loss of visual acuity

Food selection and preparation techniques
Gastrointestinal Function

Declined salivary production

Dysphagia: ____________________________

Atrophic gastritis
 Vitamin deficiency?

Lactose intolerance
Body Composition

Increased body fat

Sarcopenia
 Decreased __________________

Bone mineral density declines

How can muscle mass & strength be
maintained?
Organ Function Decreases
 Less adaptable to environmental/physiologic
stressors
 Kidneys:
 Liver:
 Pancreas:
 Bladder control may decline

Heart:

Brain: Neurons decrease
 What does this impact?

Biologic age is influenced by lifestyle:






energy needs from loss of muscle
mass and lean tissue

Recommendations for fat, carbohydrate,
proteins:
 currently same as for younger adults

Older adults can eat slightly less fiber
Differences to prevent disease progression

Calcium & vitamin D :
 poor calcium absorption & reduced vitamin D
production inskin

Iron needs
:
 reduced muscle mass; no menstruation

Adequate intake of B-vitamins (B12, B6, and
folate) is a special concern

AI for fluid: same as for younger adults
 Men: 3.7 liters/day
 Women: 2.7 liters/day

Impaired thirst perception

Decline in bladder control

Risks?


Overweight and Obesity
 ↑severity & consequences of osteoarthritis

Limits mobility
 Weight loss improves functional status
Underweight
 Low protein stores ↑ infection
 Causes & treatment?


Diagnosed after menopause as _________ levels
sharply decline
Males
 linked to declining testosterone & steroid therapy

Most common/serious risk:

Osteoporosis treatment

and
 resistance training
 medications
fracture
supplementation

One of the most prevalent chronic diseases

Osteoarthritis: a disease of “wear and tear”
 Common with _________________________

Rheumatoid arthritis:
 typically strikes younger adults

Glucosamine-Chondroitin

Constipation—fluid and insoluble fiber

Dental health issues:
 may avoid healthful foods

Eye disorders
 studies show which supplements are helpful?

Dementia: lower risk with antioxidants, certain
unsaturated fatty acids, folate, vitamin B12,
healthy weight

Polypharmacy:
 more than
prescription medications at once

Affects appetite

Alters digestion and absorption

Food–drug interactions

Appropriate supplement use can enhance
nutritional status of older adults

Elder abuse and neglect
 Denial of healthful food & fluids

Food insecurity and hunger
 7% of elderly
 What is available?

Social isolation
 Options?

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
(SNAP)

Child and Adult Care Program

Commodity Supplemental Food

Nutrition Services Incentive Program

Emergency Food Assistance Program