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Chapter 25 The Beginning of the TwentiethCentury Crisis: War and Revolution By; Marshall Caldwell The Road to WWI Nationalism: Liberals had thought that the organization of European states would remain peaceful based on a sense of fraternity, but had actually led to competition and rivalries over colonial and commercial interests during an era of imperialist expansion. Led to Europe's division into allies. Germany, Austria, and Italy against France, Great Britain, and Russia. Germany wanted to create an empire, France wanted to win back over Alsace-Lorraine from Germany, and Austria wanted to gain land from Serbia. Internal Dissent: The growth of Nationalism kept ethnic groups from achieving the goal of nationhood, such the Slavs, Irish, and Poles. The Road to WWI Militarism: The growth of large mass armies through conscription heightened tensions in Europe making war inevitable. Russia had 1.3 million men in military, France and Germany both had about 900,000, and the British, Italian, and Austrian armies was between 250,000 and 500,000. Military machines had doubled in size and military leaders had created complex plans mobilize men and supplies. The Road to WWI The Outbreak of War: The Summer of 1914: Serbia, supported by Russia, wanted to create big, independent Slavic state in the Balkans but Austria prevented this from happening. The Austrian heir to the throne, Archduke Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sofia was assassinated by Gavrillo Princip, a Bosnian activist who worked for the Black Hand. Austrian leaders sought for the backing of Emperor William II and his chancellor, Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg. They issued to Austria a “blank check”, giving Austria everything they needed for war and giving full support. With Germany’s support Austrian leaders issued an ultimatum to Serbia, in which they mostly rejected, then they had declared war. The Road to WWI In July, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia issued a partial mobilization of the Russian army against Austria which eventually thwarted into a full mobilization. Germany considered this an act of war and asked Russia to halt its army, in which Russia ignored, and Germany declared war on Russia. The German General Staff divised a plan under a two front war with France and Russia called the Schliefen Plan, in which Germany would rapidly invade France through Belgium, and then attack the Russian army. Germany declared war on France, and Great Britian declared war on Germany because of the violation of Belgium neutrality. The War 1914-1915: Illusions and Stalemate: People seemed convinced that their nation’s cause for the war was just. They had an illusion that it would be a short war and the troops would be home before Christmas. The soldiers thought it would be exhilarating and fun adventure in which they could come home proud and with medals. But these illusions soon died dreadfully. The Schlieffen Plan had a major defect since Germany’s right flank was used to fight against the Russians in the East. In the First Battle of the Marne, German troops where met with an unexpected British and French army in which the German army had to fall back. They where not pursued because of exhaustion and the battle ended in a stalemate. In the beginning of the Russian battle, Russian armies where pushing the German army West, but soon was defeated and pushed farther East. Austria was defeated by the Russians and forced out of Serbia, and Italy broke their alliance. The war 1916-1917: The Great Slaughter: With the German army back in the West, trench warfare was created in which both lines of trenches were protected by barbed wire 3 to 5 feet high and 30 yards wide, concrete machine-gun nests, and mortar batteries, supported by heavy artillery. In between these trenches was a “no-man’s land” in which one army would try to cross over r fall back and the other army would go next. Men in these trenches lived in damp mud with the rot of decomposing bodies, and swarms of rats. Experienced Foot Rot and other diseases. The Widening of the War: The Ottoman Empire joined the war with Germany. The War Eventually, revolts came about in the Ottoman Empire, which destroyed the Ottoman Empire European’s used people from their colonies, mainly in Africa, in the War for fighting and labor, killing many. Japan then joined the allies, primarily to seize control of German territories in Asia, in which they conquered. The USA tried to remain neutral but joined because of German using unrestricted submarine warfare resulting in the sinking of the Lisitiana in which more than one-hundred Americans lost their lives The USA entry gave the allies a psychological boost for the war. But still suffered heavy loses. The War A New Kind of Warfare: Airplanes appeared on the battlefront for the first time in history first to spot enemies, but evolved into attack ground targets and dogfights. The first tank was invented by the British, at first they where not very effective, but was created better and becoming very effective in the war, but it came to late. The Home Front: The Impact of Total War: Total war effected the lives of all citizens. European countries devised new systems of mass conscription or military draft. Countries mobilized millions of men to the battlefield. Governments expanded their control over their economies shelving free markets and installing the nationalization of transportation systems and industries. The War Civilian morale was beginning to crack under the pressure of the war. Strikes occurred frequently, and liberal and socialists opposed the war. Governments fought back with exaggeration. The war temporarily ended unemployment, even giving women opportunities not opened to them before. Male resistance though made it difficult for women. At the end of the war, governments moved quickly to remove women from the jobs. Gave women more freedom. Social classes where not recognized during the war. War and Revolution The Russian Revolution: Tsar Nicholas II relied on the army and bureaucracy to uphold his regime, but the war magnified Russia’s problems, challenging the Russian government. The Tsar did not lead the army efficiently because of lack of training and Russian industry was unable to produce the weapons. Thus, the army suffered considerable losses. Nicholas’ wife Alexandra insulated Nicholas from the increasingly bad citizen events. Rasputin also influenced people with a deep-seated belief in the power of the Tsar, but was assassinated. Disasters in economy, political, and civilian affairs followed. War and Revolution A series of riots broke out in Petrograd. The Women's March became backed by troops, and was soon out of control and the Duma abdicated the Tsar and established a provisional government. The moderate Constitutional Democrats was responsible for setting up this government but faced the soviets, or councils of workers’ and soldiers’ deputies. The soviet of Petrograd was formed, and soon the Marxist Social Democratic Party which split into Mensheviks (wanting the Social Democrats to be amass electoral socialist party) and Bolsheviks. The Bolsheviks where led by V. I. Lenin. Became a violent party that would destroy the capitalist system. Issued in Lenin’s “April Theses”, Lenin maintained that the soviets of soldiers, workers, and peasants where instruments of power, stirring up revolutionary action. War and Revolution Leon Trotsky joined Lenin in the Bolsheviks and they overthrown the provisional government with little bloodshed. Lenin became the commissioner of war. The Bolsheviks became the communists and made reforms. Civil wars followed but the Red Army under Trotsky prevailed. War communism was used. The Last Year of War: After defeating the Russians, German forces succeeded in advancing 40 miles to the Marne river, 35 miles from Paris. But an allied counterattack including fresh American troops defeated the Germans and advanced towards Germany, eventually defeating Germany. Between 8 to 9 million soldiers died on the battlefield, 22 million was wounded. Birthrate declined as well as devastation of economy. War and Revolution Revolutionary Upheavals in Germany and Austria-Hungary: In Germany the Social Democrats formed as well as the German communist party. Both were crushed in revolution Austria-Hungary became independent republics of Austra, Hungary, and Czchoslovakia. The Peace Settlement Peace Aims: The Big Four (David Lloyd of Great Britain, Vittorio Orlando of Italy, Georges Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson of the United States) met at the Paris Peace conference. Wilson wanted to create A “League of Nations” to prevent future wars, but Clemenceau and George wanted to demilitarize Germany, as well as have Germany pay war reparations as punishment. The Treaty of Versailles: Consisted of five separate treaties with the defeated nations of Germany, Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. The Peace Settlement The War Guilt Clause declared Germany (and Austria) responsible for starting the war and ordered Germany to pay reparations for the war. Germany had to reduce its army to only 100,000 men, cut back its navy, and eliminate its air force. Germany lost Alsace and Lorraine to France, and 30 miles to the East of the Rhine was established a demilitarized zone. Germany was outraged by this, and thought of it as harsh. The Other Treaties: Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania, Poland, Czechoslovakia, Austria, and Hungary emerged the from Austria-Hungary, as well as land from Germany and Russia. The Americans was not part of the League of Nations.