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Chapter 15 Individuals, groups
and teams
Qiang Jiang
School of Business
Sichuan University, China
[email protected]
Topic list
1 Individuals
2 Groups
3 Teams
4 Team member roles
5 Team development
6 Building a team
7 Successful teams
1 Individuals
• Personality is the total pattern of
characteristic ways of thinking , feeling and
behaving that constitute the individual` s
distinctive method of relating to the
1 Individuals
• Managing personality
– With the task
– With the systems and management
– With other personalities in the team
1 Individuals
• if incompatibilities occur, the manager or
supervisor has three options
– Restore compatibility
– Achieve a compromise
– Remove the incompatible personality
1 Individuals
• Perception is the psychological process by
which stimuli or in-coming sensory data are
selected and organised into patterns which
are meaningful to the individual
– The context
– The nature of the stimuli
– Internal factors
– Fear of trauma
1 Individuals
• Attitude is a mental state __exerting a
directive or dynamic influence upon the
individual` s response to all objects and
situations with which it is related
– Knowledge, beliefs or disbeliefs, perceptions
– Feelings and desires
– Volition, will or the intention to perform an action
• .
1 Individuals
• Behaviour will be influenced by:
– Attitudes to work
– Attitudes at work
1 Individuals
• Intelligence is a wider and more complex
concept than the traditional view of IQ.
– Analytic intelligence
– Spatial intelligence
– Practical intelligence
– Intra-personal intelligence
– Inter-personal intelligence
1 Individuals
• Role theory suggests that People behave in
any situation according to other people` a
expectations of how they should behave in
that situation.
– A role set
– Role ambiguity
– Role incompatibility or role conflict
– Role signs
– Role models
2 Groups
• Group is any collection of people who
perceive themselves to be a group.
– A sense of identity
– Loyalty to the group ,and acceptance within the
– Purpose and leadership
2 Groups
• Why form groups?
A preference for small groups
The need to belong and to make a contribution
Common rank, specialisms, objectives and interests
The attractiveness of a particular group activity
Resources offered to groups
Power greater than the individuals could muster alone
Formal directives
2 Groups
• Group is any collection of people who
perceive themselves to be a group.
– A sense of identity
– Loyalty to the group ,and acceptance within the
– Purpose and leadership
2 Groups
• Formal and informal groups
• Individual and group contribution
– Group dynamics have an effect on performance
– Group offer synergy
– Group dynamics and synergy may be negative
3 Teams
• Team is a small number of people with
complementary skills who are committed to a
common purpose, performance goals and
approach for which they hold themselves
basically accountable
– Work organisation
– Control
– ideas generation
– Decision making
3 Teams
• Limitations of the team working
– Not suitable for all job
– Teamwork introduced ,because of it better performance,
not people feel better or more secure
– Team processes delay decision-making
– Social relationships might be maintained at the expense of
other aspects of performance
– Group norms may restrict individual personality and flair
– Team consensus and cohesion may prevent consideration
of alternatives or constructive criticism
– Personality clashes and political behaviour within a team
can get in the way of effective performance
3 Teams
• Organise team work
– Multi-disciplinary teams
– Multi-skilled teams
– Virtual teams
4 Team member roles
• Who should belong in the team?
– Specialist skills
– Power
– Access to resources
– The personalities and goals
4 Team member roles
• Belbin: nine team role
– Plant(ideas)
– Resource investigator(find resources for the team)
– Co-ordinator (organize tasks)
– Shaper(question)
– Monitor-evaluator(how do we do it)
– Team worker(support)
– Implementer(doer)
– Completer-finisher(details)
– Specialist(if needed)
4 Team member roles
• Balanced team
– Individuals inclined towards some roles more than
– Individuals tend to adopt one or two team roles
more or less consistently
– Individuals are likely to be more successful in
some roles than in others
4 Team member roles
• Contribution
– Proposing
– Supporting
– Giving information
– Blocking/difficulty stating
– Shutting-out behaviour
– Bringing-in behaviour
– Testing understanding
– summarising
5 Team development
• Tuckman's stages of group development
– Forming(get together)
– Storming(competition for leadership)
– Norming(agree what to do )
– Performing(get task done)
– Dorming
– Moruning/adjourning
6 Building a team
• Team identity
• Team solidarity
• Commitment to shared objectives
7 Successful teams
• Evaluating team effectiveness
– Task performance: fulfill of task and goal
– Team functioning: maintenance of team working,
managing demands of team dynamics , roles and
– Team member satisfaction: fulfill of individual
development and relationship needs
7 Successful teams
• Reward schemes
– Profit sharing schemes
– Gainsharing schemes
– Employee share option schemes