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CHAPTER 6: LITHOSPHERE &
HYDROSPHERE
LITHOSPHERE
MINERALS
ROCKS
SOIL
PERMAFROST
ENERGY RESOURCES
POLLUTION & DEGRADATION
HYDROSPHERE
INLAND WATERS
OCEANS
CRYSOPHERE
ENERGY RESOURCES
POLLUTION & DEGRADATION
THE LITHOSPHERE
 A hard shell of the Earth, consisting of the
crust and the topmost part of the Upper
Mantle.
 Contains minerals and rocks that are essential
to the development of human civilization. It is
the source of building materials, metals, and
precious stones.
 On average, only 100 km thick (Earth’s radius
= 6300 km)
THE LITHHOSPHERE - MINERALS
 Solid inorganic substances with clearly defined
composition and properties
 4000 minerals are known to exist on Earth
 Classification:
Geologists classify minerals according to 4
distinct properties –
1) colour (idiochromatic & allochromatic)
2) transparency (transparent, translucent, &
opaque)
3) hardness ( 1 to 10)
4) streak (powder it leaves behind when
rubbed)
THE LITHOSPHERE - MINING
 Geologists who wish to mine for minerals
must:
1) Locate
2) Extract (mine the ore)
3) Separate
 Quebec mines:
Gold, Copper, Zinc, Nickel, & Iron
THE LITHOSPHERE - ROCKS
 Rocks are heterogeneous solids composed of many
minerals.
 Rocks don’t have clearly defined Physical or
Chemical properties.
 TYPES OF ROCKS:
Igneous – formed when magma cools and
solidifies
Sedimentary – formed by the accumulation
and compaction of debris
Metamorphic – former igneous or
sedimentary rocks that have
been transformed by heat or
pressure
THE LITHOSPHERE - ROCKS
 USES OF ROCKS:
ROCK
TYPE
USES
GRANITE
INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
Ornamental stone
DIORITE
INTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
Ornamental stone
PUMICE
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
Building materials,
cosmetic industry
BASALT
EXTRUSIVE IGNEOUS
Insulation, floor tiles,
road construction
SANDSTONE
SEDIMENTARY
Building materials
LIMESTONE
SEDIMENTARY
Cement, building
materials
GNEISS
METAMORPHIC
Building materials
MARBLE
METAMORPHIC
Interior design,
decorative objects
THE LITHOSPHERE - SOIL
 Soil comes from PARENT ROCK
 Over time, frost, wind, and rain wear down
the rock on the surface of the Lithosphere.
This disintegration leads to the formation of
lithosol (a soil consisting mainly of large rock
fragments). This mixes with organic matter
from decomposing plant and animal residue.
The mixture sets off a series of complex
physical and chemical reactions that
eventually produces SOIL.
THE LITHOSPHERE - SOIL
 Soil Horizons are differentiated layers
running roughly parallel to the surface of the
ground
 SOIL HORIZONS:
1) Organic Matter
2) Topsoil
3) Subsoil
4) Fragmented Parent Rock
5) Unaltered Parent Rock
(page 192)
THE LITHOSPHERE - SOIL
 Organic matter – layer containing mostly




HUMUS (decomposing plant and animal
residue)
Topsoil – a mixture of HUMUS and WATERSOLUABLE MIINERALS (supports plant life)
Subsoil – composed of small particles (deep
roots draw nutrients)
Fragmented PARENT ROCK – disintegration
of the underlying parent rock
Unaltered PARENT ROCK – this layer is the
starting point for soil formation
THE LITHOSPHERE - SOIL
 Three conditions must be met for soil to be
fertile enough to support plant life:
1) sufficient amount of minerals (water –
soluble nutrients
2) adequate moisture
3) proper soil pH (balanced)
THE LITHOSPHERE - PERMAFROST
 Permafrost is ground whose temperature has




been 0°C or lower for atleast two years.
Found in polar regions and high altitudes
Active Layer – can thaw and grow plant life
with a brief growing season (until refreezing)
Makes agriculture impossible and
construction difficult
A rise of just a few degrees can soften the
ground
THE LITHOSPHERE – ENERGY
RESOURCES
 Energy resources:
Fossil Fuels – Oil, Natural Gas, Coal
- forms liquids and gases from marine
organisms that died and were buried in sand
and silt
- forms solids from terrestrial plants and
trees that once grew in swamps
 1 - Fossil Fuels result from the transformation
of organic residue
THE LITHOSPHERE – ENERGY
RESOURCES
 2 - Uranium – radioactive element that occurs
naturally in the Earth’s crust
 3 - Nuclear Energy – the energy stored in the
bonds between he particles in the nucleus of
an atom.
 4 - Geothermics – the energy that comes
from the internal heat of the Earth
THE LITHOSPHERE – POLLUTION
& DEGRADATION
 The energy of tomorrow?
Must be RENEWABLE
Must be AFFORDABLE
Must be CLEAN
 Pollutants –
Soil Depletion
Contamination
THE HYDROSPHERE
 The Hydrosphere is the Earth’s outer layer of
water, uniting water in all three states:
- liquid
- solid
- gas
 97% salt water (Oceans & Seas)
 3% fresh water (21% groundwater, rivers,
lakes, etc – 79% glaciers)
THE HYDROSPHERE – INLAND
WATERS
 Inland Water – all the freshwater bodies
found on the continent, uniting rivers, lakes,
and groundwater.
 Watershed – an area of land whose lakes and
rivers all empty into the same larger body of
water. (Quebec has 3 – Hudson Bay, Ungava
Bay, St. Lawrence River)
THE HYDROSPHERE – INLAND
WATERS
 What effects water flow within Watersheds?
1) Topography – shape, slope, and terrain of the
area
2) Geology – type, depth, and structure of the rock
3) Climate – rain or snowfall, winds, and
temperature
4) Vegetation – density and diversity
5) Development – Agricultural, Industrial, or Urban
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
 Oceans – Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and
Southern
 Ocean waters are moved by currents that
carry them all over the world. Two important
parameters in the study of oceans:
* temperature and salinity
 Closer to coast line lie smaller and shallower
seas
 Temperatures range from 4°C at the bottom
of the ocean to 26°C at the surface near the
equator
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
 FACTORS affecting temperature:
Depth – influences temperature because
sunlight rarely reaches 200m in depth causing a
rapid drop in temperature.
The Seasons – Water loses heat more
slowly than land so the change is less
pronounced
Latitude – Surface temperatures reach
25°C or 26°C at the equator and between 12°C
and 17°C in temperate zones
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
 SALINITY – a measure of the amount of salt
dissolved in a liquid (Oceans 3.4% -3.7%)
 Salt does not EVAPORATE and therefore
become concentrated in the oceans
 Near the poles, melting ice ( adds Fresh
Water) dilutes the salt content 3%
 Near heat and drought areas (Water
evaporates more quickly) increase Salt
percentage 4%
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
 CIRCULATION – the water in the ocean is in
constant motion. Waves and tides on the
surface and ocean currents in its depths.
 OCEAN CURRENT – the movement of
seawater in a certain direction
 OCEAN CIRCULATION – the combined effect
of all currents that move across the oceans
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
 SURFACE CURRENTS
Driven by the wind mostly to a depth of 400m
 SUBSURFACE CURRENTS
Driven by deep currents to a depth of 800m and
density of water (colder = less buoyant = sink)
 THERMOHALINE CIRCULATION
Surface and subsurface (Hot & Cold) form a huge
“Conveyer Belt” to move water all around the
world and to transfer heat and regulate all of
Earth’s climate
THE HYDROSPHERE - OCEANS
THE HYDROSPHERE - CRYOSPHERE
 CRYOSPHERE – consists of all the frozen water
on Earth’s surface
 PACK ICE – composed of the ice floating on the
oceans near the North & south pole
Approx. 12 million square kilometers 2008
14 million square kilometers 2005
16 million square kilometers 1979
 GLACIERS – a mass of ice on land, formed by
compressed snow
THE HYDROSPHERE – ENERGY
RESOURCES
 HYDRAULIC ENERGY – the energy that can be
derived from moving water
WATERFALLS AND RIVERS
HYDROELECTRIC DAMS – converts a river’s
hydraulic energy into electrical power
WAVES AND OCEAN CURRENTS
TURBINES – Buoys in the ocean that converts an
ocean’s current or waves into electrical power
THE HYDROSPHERE – POLLUTION
& DEGRADATION
 HUMAN ACTIVITIES
Domestic, Industrial, Agricultural, or Navigational
 CHEMICALS
Factory discharge, Atmospheric Contaminants
 LIVING ORGANISMS
Fertilizers, Pesticides, Phosphorus, Mercury
 THREATS AT SEA
Accidental spills, Dumping, HydroCarbons