Chapter 10 Medieval Kingdoms in Europe LESSON 1 – Feudalism LESSON 2 – Peasants, Trade and Cities LESSON 3 – The Growth of European Kingdoms Feudalism reached it height by the High Middle Ages ( 1000-1300 A.D. ) Stronger kings began to assert their authority They often clashed with lesser kings and lords England England had been ruled by Anglo-Saxon kings for centuries, but in 1066 , William of Normandy invaded England and defeated the forces of their king, Harold. This was a famous battle known as the Battle of Hastings . England The battle determined the language and ruling class of England in the Middle Ages. The Normans spoke French and it blended with the locals into a new English language. Other traditions blended as well. The French nobles held fiefs under William's rule. William, who became known as " William the Conqueror " had a famous census taken which also took count of all his land holdings. The census was called the " Domesday Book". England Changes in England: 1) England had strong rulers, but eventually the nobility resented the King's power. 2) 1215: nobles forced King John to sign the Magna Carta 3) Magna Carta: a) limited the king's power to punish outside the law b) the king had to obey the law England Changes in England: Parliament: a representative body made up of: 1-two knights from each county 2-two people per town 3-all the nobility This eventually became two bodies: The House of Lords / The House of Commons France 1) became a large country 2) had the best governing monarchy in Europe 3) Parliament with Three Estates : 1st Estate: Clergy 2nd Estate: Nobility 3rd Estate: everyone else Holy Roman Empire Otto I of Germany tried to unify Germany and Italy into what was called the Holy Roman Empire He was not able to accomplish this and others tried to unify these states as well. None of the powers backed by the Roman Catholic Germany and Italy would remain as many independent states and territories until the 19th century. Spain/Umayyad Caliphate Spain was conquered by the Umayyads in 725 Had been known as the province of Al-Andalus. Rule lasted for several centuries . Jews and Christians were allowed to live and practice their religions there. Spain/Umayyad Caliphate They had to abide by the concept of DHIMITUDE 1) paid a special tax 2) followed other special rules and limits. Several Christian groups resisted and began the RECONQUISTA (Re-Conquering) of Spain. By 929 A.D., several Christian kingdoms were in Northern Spain. The Reconquista would still last for 500 more years. Central and Eastern Europe The Slavic people were originally a single group from central Europe They divided into three groups: Western, Southern, Eastern Central and Eastern Europe Western: Kingdom of Poland and Hungarian kingdoms were converted to Christianity and most became Catholics Southern: most accepted Eastern Orthodox Christianity due to the influence of the Byzantine Empire Central and Eastern Europe Eastern: KIEVAN RUS 1) Eastern Slavs were originally in present day Ukraine and Russia. 2) In the late 8th Century, Vikings (called the RUS) conquered the area and settled with the Slavs there. Central and Eastern Europe Eastern: KIEVAN RUS 3) This area attracted Byzantine missionaries, who converted them to Eastern Orthodox Christianity. This established a link to Byz. 4) 13th Century: Infighting by the K-R enabled them to be overtaken by the MONGOLS. Central and Eastern Europe Eastern: KIEVAN RUS 5) One benefit of this was that the Russian state later unified to work to oust the Mongols some decades later.