Download The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Planning a speech
and designing effective slides
Jane E. Miller, PhD
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Overview
•
•
•
•
•
Time considerations
Audience issues
Number of slides
Design considerations
Example slides
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Planning for a speech: Time
• Find out how much time you will have.
– 15 minutes
• Typical in a multi-speaker conference session
– An hour
• Typical in an individual colloquium or seminar
– Three hours
• Typical of a once a week graduate course
• Even if you are talking about the same topic, will
need to adjust amount of material to fit each of
these time slots.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Planning a speech: Audience
• What is their substantive background?
– Are they all from your field or discipline?
– Are they multidisciplinary?
• What level of methodological or statistical
training do they have?
• Are their interests in your work academic or
applied?
E.g., policy, advocacy.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
How many slides?
• Figure on an average of ~1 minute per slide.
– Short text slides take less time.
– Tables, charts, diagrams, maps, detailed
quotations, or other images require more time.
• Need time to explain layout of exhibits before you
state associated question or conclusion.
• See podcast on explaining a chart “live.”
• Rehearse the speech.
– Can you cover the slides in allotted time without
rushing?
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Design considerations
• Use readable type size
– 40 point for titles
– At least 24 point for contents
• Text bullets
• Table title, labels, and contents
• Chart titles, axis labels, and legends
Many folks forget
to enlarge type
size on tables and
charts.
• Use color for emphasis
– Underscore key terms or conclusions
– Identify statistically significant findings
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Wording and organization
of text slides
• Write succinct text for slide
– Aim for ≤6 bullets per slide.
– Use short phrases to convey key points.
• Complete sentences aren’t necessary.
• Use indenting to
– Group related material.
– Present facts to support points.
• Define all acronyms and symbols
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Guidelines for slide titles
• Give each slide a short, declarative title.
• Make each title fit the specific slide.
– Do not label all of your results slides “Results” :(
– Convey the particular topic presented.
• “Race and birth weight”
• “Trends in income”
• Alternatively, title slide with
– A rhetorical question about the topic.
– The associated conclusion.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Adapting tables or charts
• Stick to 1 or 2 major points per slide.
– Focus each slide on one part of a detailed table.
• Break a complex table into simpler tables or
charts. E.g., a slide might include
– Univariate chart: Distribution of one variable
– Bivariate table or chart: Relation of one
independent variable with your dependent
variable
– Three-way: Chart of association between two
independent variables and a dependent variable
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Conveying statistical significance
• Make it easy to see inferential statistical test
results.
– Answers, not just raw materials.
• In tables, identify statistically significant
results with symbols (e.g. “**”) or color.
• In charts, use symbols or confidence intervals.
• Avoid standard errors except for long
seminars for statistical audience.
– Can include detailed statistical results in
handouts.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Replace some tables with charts
• Charts make it easier to see patterns
without asking viewers to do a lot of mental
arithmetic.
– Direction
– Magnitude
– Statistical significance
• Focus each slide on one aspect of results.
– Write title to match
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Visual materials for conclusions
• For conclusions, display a text slide in place of
your detailed data tables or charts.
– Restate findings.
• To which hypothesis do they pertain?
– Interpret or digest findings in light of your
project’s objective.
• Conclusion.
• Recommendation.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Example slides
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Introduction
• “Low birth weight, which is defined as a weight of
less than 2,500 grams or 5.5 lbs., is a widely
recognized risk factor for infant mortality and a
variety of other health and developmental problems
through childhood and even into adulthood (Institute
of Medicine 1985).
• In 1999, US infants born weighing less than 2,500
grams (5.5 pounds) were 24 times as likely as normal
birth weight infants to die before their first birthday
(Mathews, MacDorman and Menacker 2002).
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Consequences of low birth weight
• Low birth weight (LBW): <2,500 grams (5.5
lbs.)
• LBW infants more likely to:
– Die before their first birthday.
• 24 times as likely as normal-weight infants to die in
infancy.
– Have other health problems in
• Infancy.
• Childhood.
• Adulthood.
– Have developmental problems.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Data
• The data were taken from the 1988–1994 National
Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES
III), which is a cross-sectional, population-based,
nationally representative sample of the United
States. To allow for an adequate number of Mexican
Americans to study separately, that group was
oversampled in the NHANES III.
• Our study sample included 9,813 infants, including
3,733 non-Hispanic white infants, 2,968 non-Hispanic
black infants, and 3,112 Mexican-American infants.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
NHANES III data
• 1988–1994 National Health
and Nutrition Examination
Survey.
– Nationally representative
sample of US infants
• Oversample of Mexican
Americans.
– Cross-sectional.
– Population based.
• N = 9,813.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Previous studies
of race and birth weight
Article
Smith & Jones
(1999)
Williams (2000)
Travis et al.
(1990)
Type of study &
data source
Sample survey;
birth certificates
Retrospective
survey; maternal
questionnaires
Prospective study;
medical records
RR† of LBW:
black/white
Comments
2.2*
Nationally
representative;
controlled
education.
3.8*
Study in State X;
no controls for
SES
1.5
Enrolled women
in prenatal care
clinics in NYC.
Low SES only.
† RR: Relative risk of low birth weight (LBW) for black compared to white
infants. * denotes p < 0.05.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Dependent variables
• Birth weight
– Reported by mother at time of survey.
– Asked in pounds or grams.
• Converted to grams for analysis.
• Low birth weight
– Questionnaire asked “low birth weight.”
• “Low” not defined on questionnaire.
– For analysis, defined LBW: <2,500 grams.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Independent variables
• Socioeconomic status:
– Mother’s education (years).
• Low SES indicator: < high school education.
– Mother’s age at child’s birth (years).
• Low SES indicator: teen mother.
– Family income-to-poverty ratio (IPR).
• IPR = family income in $ compared against poverty level
for family of same size and age composition.
• Low SES indicator: poor.
• Maternal smoking.
– Did she smoke cigarettes while pregnant?
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Birth weight and socioeconomic characteristics
by race/ethnicity, US, 1988–1994 NHANES III
NonHispanic
white
NonHispanic
black
Mexican
American
All
Birth weight
Mean (grams)
3,426.8
3,181.3
3,357.3
3,379.2
5.8
11.3
7.0
6.8
9.4
22.9
18.4
12.5
% Mother <high school
14.7
30.1
58.4
21.6
% Poor
14.7
48.5
50.7
23.9
3,733
2,968
3,112
9,813
% Low birth weight
Socioeconomic characteristics
% Teen mother
Unweighted N
Statistics are weighted to population level using weights provided with the NHANES III (US DHHS 1997).
Differences across racial/ethnic origin groups were statistically significant for all variables shown (p < 0.01).
Low birth weight by race/ethnicity
From second row of preceding table.
p < 0.05
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Minority racial groups have lower SES
From bottom three rows of table.
All p < 0.05
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Summary
• Adapt your materials for:
– Time
– Audience
• Design slides to be simple and easy to read.
• Maintain a clear story line throughout your talk.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Suggested resources
• Chapter 12 in Miller, J. E. 2015. The Chicago
Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Suggested online resources
• Podcasts on
– Choosing tools to present numbers
– Creating effective tables and charts
– Preparing speaker’s notes, practice and deliver a talk.
– Explaining a chart or table live: the “Vanna White
technique”
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Suggested practice exercises
• Study guide to The Chicago Guide to Writing
about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
– Questions #1, 3, and 7 in the problem set for chapter
12
– Suggested course extensions for chapter 12
• “Reviewing” exercise #1 parts a-f, k, and l
• “Writing” exercises #1 and 2
• “Revising” exercises #1 and 2
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.
Contact information
Jane E. Miller, PhD
[email protected]
Online materials available at
http://press.uchicago.edu/books/miller/numbers/index.html
The Chicago Guide to Writing about Numbers, 2nd Edition.