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2nd Semester Final Study Guide, Energy, Energy Sources, Waves, Astronomy, Earth Science, Weather, Forces Know the following terms: Energy Conduction Convection Radiation Radiant energy Combustion Insulators Solids, liquids,& gases Heat of vaporization Kinetic energy Nuclear fission Mechanical energy Nuclear fusion (in the sun) Law of Conservation of Energy Energy Sources active solar heating passive solar heating nuclear waste fossil fuels photovoltaic cells hydroelectricity geothermal energy tidal energy turbines renewable resources nonrenewable resources biomass Waves waves transverse seismic frequency amplitude longitudinal wavelength reflection refraction interferences medium wavespeed Astronomy Asteroids Pulsar Main sequence star Planets Lunar eclipse Rotation Solstices Big Bang Theory Solar Eclipse Earth Science Weather Richter scale atmosphere Mercalli scale Hail lava Continental polar air mass magma Front transform plate boundary El Nino convergent plate boundary divergent plate boundary Geiger counter Layers of the Earth Forces Rock Cycle Newton’s Laws Subduction work Luster force Intrusive rock Extrusive rock Earthquake P-Wave Geology Concepts to know: Summer occurs on the hemisphere of the Earth that is …… Examples of good conductors Examples of insulators If the frequency of a wave doubles, the wavelength ….. Examples of fossil fuels Energy conversions in a hydroelectric plant. Why alternative energy sources are needed Examples of nonrenewable resources Examples of renewable resources When fossil fuels are burned, what is added to the atmosphere Volcanic eruption can greatly ________ Earth How clouds form Water __________& changes to water vapor _________ occurs due to changes in temp and pressure What is precipitation Winds over 120 km/h that last several weeks Names of the planets Ways to identify a mineral. Speed of air masses over land and water The direction of wind is dependent on moving from ____pressure to _____pressure Types of plate boundaries Comparing different energies of waves How to calculate wave speed Laws of Thermodynamics Types of interference What is at the center of the universe? Name the terrestrial planets Name the Jovian planets The reason the sun stays stable over time Classification of stars Which stars stay in the main sequence the longest What supports the Big Bang Theory? Symbols of different fronts Factors that affect a region’s temperature How humans affect climate change Why people originally thought the Earth was the center of the Universe Reasons why planets remain in orbit Why terrestrial planets are rocky Forces that shape Earths surface Relationship of altitude, air pressure, and density E=mc2 Better answer format/Possible Essays Describe a lunar eclipse Compare and contrast refraction and reflection Explain why it is necessary to find alternatives to fossil fuels Describe the rock cycle. Where and why do mountains form in terms of tectonic plates? How do the location of earthquakes tell us where plate boundaries are? Short answer Why do pipes in a heating system need to be insulated? How do seismic waves form Identify the part of a transverse wave How can you tell if a house has passive and active solar heating Which state of matter can you force into a smaller container-Explain What happens to the frequency and wavelength of a rope if you start shaking it more rapidly? Why is disposing of nuclear waste a problem How is hydroelectricity produced? Which fossil fuel is least polluting? What equation is used to find average speed? What equation is used to find the velocity of a wave? Explain what happens during a cold front, a warm front, a stationary front, and an occluded front. Why does biomass energy depend on the sun? Ways a metamorphic rock can form.