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Transcript
Pharmaceutical Technology / Dosage forms/ Lec:1
3rd stage
2011
Dr.Dhafir Qahtan
Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms
Aerosols: Pharmaceutical aerosols are products packaged under pressure that contain
therapeutically active ingredients that are released as a fine mist, spray, or foam on actuation
of the valve assembly.
Aromatic Waters: Aromatic waters are clear, saturated solutions of volatile oils or other
aromatic substances in water.
Capsules: Capsules are solid dosage forms in which one or more medicinal and/or inert
substances are enclosed within small shells of gelatin.
Creams: Creams are semisolid preparations containing one or more drug substances
dissolved or dispersed in a suitable base.
Drug Delivery Systems: Drug deliver systems are physical carriers used to deliver
medications to site-specific They include transdermal, ocular, and intrauterine systems.
Elixirs: Elixirs are sweetened, flavored, hydroalcoholic solutions intended for oral
administration. They! may be medicated or non medicated.
Emulsions: An emulsion is a type of dispersal system in which one liquid is dispersed
throughout another liquid in the form of fine droplets.
Gels: Gels are semisolid systems consisting of either suspensions of small inorganic particles
or large organic molecules interpenetrated by a liquid.
Implants or Pellets: Implants or pellets are small, sterile, solid dosage forms containing a
concentrated drug for subcutaneous implantation in the body where they continuously release
their medication over prolonged periods.
Inhalations: Inhalations are finely powdered drug substances, solutions, or suspensions of
drug substances administered by the nasal or oral respiratory route for local or systemic
effects. Special devices are used to facilitate their administration.
Injections: Injections are sterile preparations intended for parenteral administration by needle
or pressure syringe. Drugs may be injected into most any vessel or tissue of the body, but the
most common routes are intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC).
Liniments: Liniments are alcoholic or oleaginous solutions, suspensions, or emulsions of
medicinal agents intended for external application to the skin, generally by rubbing.
Lotions: Lotions are liquid preparations intended for external application to the skin. They are
generally suspensions or emulsions of dispersed solid or liquid materials in an aqueous
vehicle.
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Pharmaceutical Technology / Dosage forms/ Lec:1
3rd stage
2011
Dr.Dhafir Qahtan
Lozenges: Lozenges are solid preparations containing one or more medicinal agents in a
flavored, sweetened base intended to dissolve or disintegrate slowly in the mouth, releasing
medication generally for localized effects.
Magmas: Magmas are pharmaceutical suspensions of line particles that, because of a high
degree of physical attraction to the aqueous vehicle, torn a gelatinous mixture.
Ointments: Ointments are semisolid preparations intended for topical application to the skin,
eye, ear, or various mucous membranes. With some exceptions, ointments are applied for
their local effects on the tissue membrane rather than for systemic effects.
Pastes: Pastes are semisolid dosage forms that contain one or more drug substances
intended for topical application to the skin.
Plasters: Plasters are solid or semisolid adhesive masses spread across a suitable backing
material and intended for external application to a part of the body for protection or for the
medicinal benefit of added agents.
Powders: Powders are dry mixtures of finely divided medicinal and nonmedidnal agents
intended for internal or external use.
Solutions: Solutions are liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances
(solutes) dissolved in a solvent or mixture of solvents.
Spirits: Spirits are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of volatile substances. Depending on
their contents, some spirits are used orally for medicinal purposes and others as flavoring
agents.
Suppositories: Suppositories are solid dosage forms intended for insertion into body orifices.
They are used rectally, vaginally, and, occasionally, urethrally.
Tablets: Tablets are solid dosage forms containing one or more medicinal substances. Most
tablets also contain added pharmaceutical ingredients, as diluents, disintegrants, colorants,
binders, solubilizers, and coatings.
Tinctures: Tinctures are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of either pure chemical
substances or of plant extractives
Fluidextracts: Fluidextracts are liquid preparations of plant extractives, each milliliter of
which contains the active constituents from 1 gram of the standard drug that it represents.
Extracts: Extracts are highly concentrated powdered or pilular (ointment-like) extractives of
plant constituents prepared by the reduction of fluidextracts through evaporation.
Suspensions: Suspensions are preparations containing finely divided, undissolved drug
particles dispersed throughout a liquid vehicle.
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Pharmaceutical Technology / Dosage forms/ Lec:1
3rd stage
2011
Dr.Dhafir Qahtan
Syrups: Syrups are concentrated aqueous solutions of a sugar or sugar substitute.
Tablets: Tablets are solid dosage forms containing one or more medicinal substances. Most
tablets also contain added pharmaceutical ingredients, as diluents, disintegrants, colorants,
binders, solubilizers, and coatings.
Tinctures: Tinctures are alcoholic or hydroalcoholic solutions of either pure chemical
substances or of plant extractives.
Fluidextracts: Fluidextracts are liquid preparations of plant extractives, each milliliter of
which contains the active constituents from 1 g of the standard drug that it represents.
Extracts: Extracts are highly concentrated powdered or pilular (ointment-like) extractives of
plant constituents prepared by the reduction of fluidextracts through evaporation.
The Need for Dosage Forms
Besides providing the mechanism for the safe and convenient delivery of accurate dosage,
dosage forms are needed for additional reasons:
1. To protect the drug substance from the destructive influences of atmospheric oxygen or
humidity (coated tablets, sealed ampuls).
2. To protect the drug substance from the destructive influence of gastric acid after oral
administration (enteric-coated tablets).
3. To conceal the bitter, salty, or offensive taste or odor of a drug substance (capsules,
coated tablets, flavored syrups).
4. To provide liquid preparations of substances that are either insoluble or unstable in the
desired vehicle (suspensions).
5. To provide clear liquid dosage forms of substances (syrups, solutions)
6. To provide rate-controlled drug action (various controlled-release tablets, capsules, and
suspensions).
7. To provide optimal drug action from topical administration sites (ointments, creams,
transdermal patches, and ophthalmic, ear, and nasal preparations)
8. To provide for insertion of a drug into one of the body's orifices (rectal or vaginal suppositories).
9. To provide for placement of drugs directly in the bloodstream or body tissues (injections).
10. To provide for optimal drug action through inhalation therapy (inhalants and inhalation
aerosols).
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Pharmaceutical Technology / Dosage forms/ Lec:1
3rd stage
2011
Dr.Dhafir Qahtan
and protein). The stability of these products during production, formulation and storage is
affected by such properties. "salting out"
Repulsive and attractive forces
When molecules interact, both repulsive and attractive forces operate. The opposite charges
and binding forces between two molecules will attract one anther. When the molecules are
brought so close that the negatively outer charged electron clouds will repeal each other.
Thus attractive forces are necessary for molecules to cohere where as repulsive forces act to
prevent the molecules from interpenetrating and overcoming each other.
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