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DATA DATA STRUCTURE LINEAR DATA STRUCTURE NON-LINEAR DATA STRUCTURE DATA Applications/programs read data, store data temporarily, process it and finally output results. What is data? Numbers, Characters, etc. Data Application/ Program Information Data is classified into data types. e.g. char, float, int, etc. A data type is (i) a domain of allowed values and (ii) a set of operations on these values. Compiler signals an error if wrong operation is performed on data of a certain type. For example, char x,y,z; z = x*y is not allowed. BACK The Structural Organization of data is called as a Data Structure Or Data Structure is a collection of organized data that are related to each other. Data Structures can be classified in two ways those are: 1. Linear Data Structure(array, stack, queue) 2. Non-Linear Data Structure(graphs, Trees) BACK • The Representation of Data in a linear Order in the data structure is called as linear data structure. • Arrays are the best example for linear data structure because in array all the elements are homogeneous and linear. 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 • 10,20….80 are called as elements of the array. • The array index is starts from 0 and ends with n-1. A stack is a linear data structure. In a stack all the elements insert and delete Pop() Push() from only one end that is called as top of the 10 stack. 20 A stack follows LIFO(Last In First Out) 30 40 mechanism. 50 The stack data structure is mostly used in 60 system softwares. Data insert into stack using push() operation. Data delete from stack using pop() operation. 70 80 • A Queue is a linear data structure. • The queue having two ends, one is front end and rear end. • The front end is used to insert the data into queue. • The rear end is used to delete the data from queue. • The queue follows FIFO(First In First Out) Mechanism. • Data insert into queue using push() operation. • Data delete from queue using pop() operation. Push() Pop() 10 20 30 40 50 60 • • • Linked List is a linear Data structure. Linked List contains list of nodes. Each node contains two parts: 1. Data Part 2. Address of Next Node (Link to next node in the list) The nodes in the linked list represents in terms of structures. aman 101 100 aarav 102 101 arya ^ 102 BACK • The data structure which is used to store the data in non-linear order is called as non-linear data structure. • Trees and Graphs are the most popular non-linear data structures. • In trees, it has one root node and child nodes. Each root node having two child nodes those, left child and right child nodes. • A graph is a set of nodes and set of edges. • The edges are formed when the nodes are non-linearly connected among them. • A Tree is a non-linear data structure. • Each Tree can have one root node and child A nodes. Left child and right child. • The ending elements of the tree is called as • Terminal nodes don’t have any child node. • Accessing of a tree elements is called tree traversing. • Each sub-tree of a tree itself is a tree. • The number of vertical positions in the tree is called height of the tree. C B terminal nodes. D EF G • A Graph is a non-linear Data structure. • A graph is a set of nodes and edges. The edge is Connected Graph A B formed when two nodes are connected among them. • A Graph is connected Graph when the path existed between any two nodes in the graph. In connected graph each node can have two paths (incoming, outgoing). • A Graph is non-connected Graph when a node can have only one path then graph is called as nonconnected graph. BACK D C A B Non-Connected Graph D C BACK