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COLONG
 Members
Phang
Name:
Zi Feng
Shen Yizhe
Wong Jian Kun Vincent
Chow Hao Wen Samuel
Syukri Omar BinTalib
WHAT IS CANCER?

Cancer is the second-leading cause of death
in the United States
 develops
when cells in a part of your body begin to
grow out of control
 Cancer cells can sometimes travel to other parts of
the body where they then begin to grow and replace
normal tissue
 Cancer cells develop because of damage to DNA
 Cancer cells usually form a tumour
 Different types of cancer behave differently
WHAT IS COLORECTAL
CANCER?
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is the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths
in the United States
occurs most frequently in men and women > 50
usually develops slowly over several years
is cancer that develops in the colon or the rectum
The walls of the colon and rectum have several
layers of tissue
The colon has 4 sections
A PICTURE OF THE COLON
OR THE LARGE INTESTINE
SYMPTOMS OF COLON
CANCER
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The most common is rectal bleeding
Chronic bleeding may result in iron deficiency
anaemia, which may cause fatigue and pale skin
These are the likely symptoms:
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pooping more or less often
stool is thinner than usual
stomach cramping or bloating
bright red blood in or on poop
unexplained weight loss
constantly feel tired
feel gassy
Low iron content in blood (anaemia) etc
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WHAT CAUSES
COLORECTAL CANCER
Family history of colorectal cancer
A personal history of colorectal cancer
Having had colorectal cancer
Age > 50
Diet:
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A diet high in fat, especially fat from animal sources
Lack of exercise
Overweight
Smokers are 30% to 40% > likely to die of colorectal
cancer
Heavy use of alcohol
PREVENTION OF
COLORECTAL CANCER
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Regular Screening or testing
Diet and exercise
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
Female hormones
Other factors:
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strong family history of colorectal cancer
Genetic tests
People with familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP) should start
colonoscopy during their teens
People with hereditary non-Polyposis colon cancer should start
colonoscopy screening during their twenties
TREATMENT FOR
COLORECTAL CANCER
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Cancers that have not spread beyond the colon or
rectum may require only surgery. If the cancer has
spread, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or both is
needed
Staging is a way for the doctor to tell how far the
cancer has spread
The most common staging system are:
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Stage I: cancer has not spread beyond the inside of colon or
rectum
Stage II: cancer has spread into the muscle layer of colon or
rectum
Stage III: cancer has spread to one or more lymph nodes in the
area
Stage IV: cancer has spread to other parts of the body
TREATMENT FOR
COLORECTAL CANCER

Types of surgery:
 polypectomy
 colonoscopy
 sigmoidoscopy
 bowel
resection
 colostomy
 Radiation therapy
 Chemotherapy
TEST FOR COLORECTAL
CANCER

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Colonoscopy is a test that allows the doctor
to look at the interior lining of the large
intestine through a instrument called a
colonoscopy
A colonoscopy helps to detect ulcers,
polyps, tumours, and areas of inflammation
or bleeding
 Is
a thin, flexible instrument that ranges from 48 inch
to 72 inch long
 A small video camera is attached to it
 In some cases, the colonoscopy may use fibre optics
 However, digital video technology has generally
replaced fibre optics
HOME TREATMENT
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For nausea or vomiting, watch for and treat early signs of
dehydration
For diarrhoea, do not eat for several hours until you feel
better and watch for signs of dehydration
For constipation, do gentle exercise, drink plenty of fluids
and eat lots of foods that contain fibre
For fatigue get extra rest while you are having
chemotherapy or radiation therapy
For sleep problems go to bed at the same time every
night, exercise during the day, and avoiding naps
For mouth sores:
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Drink cold liquids and from a straw
Eat soft food
Rinse your mouth several times a day with a warm
saltwater rinse
TREATMENT WITH
PALLIATIVE CARE
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Palliative care is the care that relieves suffering
and improves the quality of a patient’s life
Common symptoms that are treated and
controlled or relieved by palliative care can
include:
 fatigue
 depression
and anxiety
 pain
 trouble
breathing
 loss of appetite and weight loss
 confusion