Public Economics: Welfare states and inequalities University of Castellanza Session #1(a) A European Social Model? 26 March 2014 This lecture Welfare state as defining Europe » Social cohesion and social inclusion Elements of the European Social Model » Social citizenship » Limited egalitarianism » Backbone state » Economic citizenship The EU and the ESM Reading Anthony Giddens, Europe in the Global Age, Cambridge: Polity Press,2007, Chapter 1. James Wickham, Unequal Europe, Chapter 1 (pdf available) T.R. Reid, ‘The European Social Model’, Chapter 6 of The United States of Europe (2004). Some quotes “There won’t be a bill to pay. We do it a bit differently here. In the National Health Service, we don’t charge for medical treatment’. (British nurse to American visitor in casualty ward)… quoted in Reid, The United States of Europe, p. 145. ‘This widely shared sense of the government’s social responsibility to everybody is another unifying force that makes Europeans feel they all belong to a single place – a place they believe, that is definitely not American.’ Reid, p.146. But is this about being British (or French or Italian or Swedish etc) or about being European? A European Good Thing? Europe has built a distinctive economic and social model that has combined productivity, social cohesion and a growing commitment to environmental sustainability. (Kok, 2004: 7) Preserving our European social model - our specific combination of market economy, welfare state and democracy - requires action not only at the European level but also at the global level. (Lamy, 2004:18) Inclusion & Cohesion INCLUSION Measures for vertical axis: Poverty rates (% below y% of median income); Income inequality (Gini coefficients, decile ratios) Vertical axis is about (in)equality FRAGMENTATION COHESION Horizontal axis is about trust and ‘social capital’ EXCLUSION Meausures for horizontal axis: Level of social capital and trust; crime Inclusion & Cohesion Cyber populism INCLUSION Millenarian egalitarianism (Bolshevism…Pol Pot…Taliban COHESION FRAGMENTATION Claudillo dictatorships; China? EXCLUSION Fascism Inclusion & Cohesion INCLUSION Cyber populism Settler democracies ANOMIE UK Millenarian egalitarianism (Bolshevism…Pol Pot…Taliban European Social Model Scandinavian social democracies COHESION Continental corporatism USA Claudillo dictatorships; China? Representative democracies Mediterranean familism ÈXCLUSION Fascism Social citizenship Education, health, housing, income support… Rights not charity Baseline for participation in society Financial costs (taxation) Rights means obligations Restrictions on diversity (‘thick citizenship’) Involves both inclusion and cohesion Egalitarian Europe (1) Income distribution Proportion of Population in Income Bands USA UK >200 150 to 200 Sw eden No European country has such a large proportion of its population with less than 50% of median income >120 to <150 >80 to <120 Italy >50 to <80 <50% Germany France 0% 20% 40% 60% Population (adult equivalent) 80% 100% The US has a larger proportion of its population with more than double the median income, but here Sweden is the outlier Egalitarian Europe (2) Attitudes to inequality Swe Ger ‘It is the responsibility of the government to reduce the differences between people with high incomes and those with low incomes’ (% agreeing) Legitimate income difference between ‘unskilled factory worker’ (income=100) and ‘Chairman of a large national company’ Aus NZ Can USA Egalitarian Europe (2) Attitudes to inequality Swe Ger ‘It Aus NZ Can USA is the responsibility of the 53.7 65.5 42.6 53.1 47.9 38.3 government to reduce the differences between people with high incomes and those with low incomes’ (% agreeing) Legitimate income difference between 239 ‘unskilled factory worker’ (income=100) and ‘Chairman of a large national company’ 711 480 419 Primarily about inclusion 512 1,114 Backbone state Public realm » NOT market, NOT personal » Importance of state service (Beamte, service public, civil servant) ‘This social capability is supported by a conception of the public realm whose underwriting of public science, public transport, public art, public networks, public health, public broadcasting, public knowledge and the wider public interest gives European civilization its unique character while offering many of its enterprises competitive advantage.’ (Hutton, 2002: 258-259). Simplest measure: state expenditure as % GDP Primarily cohesion Economic Citizenship Labour market regulation » Employment protection » Working time Health and safety Rights to information Rights to representation » Trade union membership » Trade union coverage » Workplace representation (Betriebsrat, European Works Council) Anti-discrimination » Equal pay (including pensions, benefits) » Equal opportunities (recruitment, promotion) Work-life balance » Parental leave » Right to flexible working Primarily cohesion Emergence of social Europe 1956 Treaty of Rome » 1974 Social Action Programme » » ‘A market economy, not a market society’ (Jospin) Social expenditure to contribute to competitiveness In parallel to single market programme 2000 Lisbon Declaration » » » Social Charter of Fundamental Rights of Workers 1990s Delors promoting ‘European Social Model’ » » » Response to enlargement; 1960s militancy Employee rights, equal opportunities Maastricht Treaty 1991 » Retraining for those effected by industrial change – The Union has today set itself a new strategic goal for the next decade: to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion An employment-based social policy Intergovernmentalism (‘Open Method of Co-ordination’) and ‘Soft law’ So ending European Social Model or reformulating European Social Model? Europe 2020 » » Smart growth with “smart sustainable and inclusive growth’ Explicit inclusion targets The EU and the ESM Positive integration: » Creating a single European society » EU creates basic social and economic rights for all Europeans » BUT these are limited; most social rights depend on national welfare states Negative integration » Creating a single European market » Removal national barriers to competition: Now very successful » BUT not a basis for a new European identity The current crisis » Austerity programmes seen as ‘European’ and destroying welfare states!