Chapter 8 Power Point Solutions 1. Define communications including connectivity, the wireless revolution, and communication systems. Computer communications is the process of sharing data, programs and information between two or more computers. Connectivity uses computer networks to link people and resources. The wireless revolution is the single most dramatic change in connectivity and communications has been widespread use of mobile devices like smartphones and tablet PCs with wireless Internet connectivity. The communication systems are electronic systems that transmit data from one location to another. 2. Discuss communication channels including physical connections (twisted-pair, coaxial, and fiberoptic cable) and wireless communications (Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, microwave, WiMax, LTE, satellite, and infrared). Communication channels carry data from one computer to another. Physical connections are between sending and receiving devices. Twisted-pair cable are set of copper wires twisted together. Coaxial is a single copper cord. Fiber optic cable transmits as pulses of light through tiny tubes of glass. Wireless communications do not use a substance to connect, just air. Bluetooth is short range radio communication standard. Wi-Fi is wireless fidelity communicates over short distances. A microwave uses high frequency radio waves. WiMax allows greater distances for Wi-Fi. LTE promises greater speed and frequency in the near future. Satellite uses satellites orbiting about 22,000 miles above earth. Infrared are light waves used in a short distance. 3. Discuss connection devices including modems (telephone, DSL, cable, and wireless modems) and connection services (DSL, ADSL, cable, satellite and cellular connection services). Connection devices act as an interface between sending and receiving devices. Modems are short for modulators and demodulators-convert from digital and analog and vice versa. Connection services do not require modems and are very expensive. 4. Discuss data transmission including bandwidths (voiceband, medium band, broadband, and baseband) as well as protocols (IP addresses, domain name servers, and packetization). Data transmission are several technical matters that affect how the data is transmitted. Bandwidths is the measurement of the width or capacity of the communication channel. Protocols are rules for exchanging data from computers. 5. Discuss networks by identifying and defining specialized terms that describe computer networks. Networks is a communication systems that connects two or more computers so that they can exchange information and share resources. Nodes are any device connected to a network. Client is a node that requests and uses resources from other nodes. . Server is a node that shares resources with other nodes. Directory server is a specialized server that manages resources. Host is a computer system that can be accessed over a network. Router is a node that forward or routes data packets. Switch is a central node that coordinates the flow of data. Network interface cards are expansion cards that connect a computer to a network. Network operating system controls activities of all computers on the network. Network administrator is a computer specialists responsible for network operations. 6. Discuss network types including local area, home, wireless, personal, metropolitan, and wide area networks Local area are computer and devices linked in distances of less than a mile. Home are the usage of LANS in home/apartments. Wireless is wireless local area network. Personal works within a very small area. Metropolitan span distances up to 100 miles. Wide area networks is countrywide and worldwide networks. 7. Define network architecture including topologies (bus, ring, star, tree, and mesh) and strategies (client/server and peer-to-peer). Network architecture are how the networks are arranged and resources are shared. Network topology is the physical layout. Bus is where each device is connected to a common cable called a bus. Ring is where all communications travel on. Strategies are how information and resources are shared. 8. Discuss organization networks including Internet technologies (intranets and extranets) and network security (firewalls, proxy servers, intrusion detection systems, and virtual private networks). Organization networks include intranets which are private networks within an organization. Extranets are private networks that connect to more organizations. Network security are commonly used technologies.