Download Present Perfect Continuous

Survey
yes no Was this document useful for you?
   Thank you for your participation!

* Your assessment is very important for improving the work of artificial intelligence, which forms the content of this project

Document related concepts
no text concepts found
Transcript
Present Perfect
Continuous
Grammar Guide
mgr Anna Waligórska – Kotfas
PWSZ Konin
Verb Form
 We
form the present perfect continuous
with
HAVE/HAS+BEEN+PRESENT PARTICIPLE (v-ing)
Bob Geldof has been doing a lot of work
for charities since the mid-eighties.
What on earth have you been doing to that
child?
HAVE / HAS is an auxiliary!
Verb Form
Present Perfect
HAVE / HAS + v-ed / 3f
Continuous
TO BE + v-ing
HAVE / HAS + BEEN + v-ing
Use: Ongoing states and
actions
 We
use the present perfect continuous to
talk about a state or action which began in
the past and is still continuing or has just
finished:
‘You look hot.’ ‘Yes, I’ve been running.’
‘Where have you been?’ ‘I’ve been talking
to Jenny.’
How long have you been learning English?
Use: Ongoing states and
actions
 The
simple form of the present perfect
often focuses on the fact that an action is
completed – result is important;
while the continuous focuses on the fact
that it is still happening:
Simple: I’ve learnt how to play chess.
(= I can play chess now.)
Continuous: I’ve been learning how to play
chess.
(= I’m still
learning.)
Use: Focus on situation / action
 We
use the continuous to focus on an
action itself
I must have a bath. I’ve been gardening all
afternoon.
(= focus on activity)
I’ve planted a lot of new rose bushes.
(= focus on result/effect)
Use: Focus on situation / action
Sorry about the mess. I’ve been painting the house.
(= focus on activity)
I’ve painted two rooms since lunchtime.
(= focus on result)
She’s been reading your book. (= focus on activity)
She’s read 100 pages so far. (= focus on result)
We have been learning irregular verbs all afternoon.
(= focus on activity)
We have learnt all of them.
(= focus on result)
Use: Focus on duration
 We
use the continuous to focus on how long
something has been in progress
How long have you been waiting for me?
How long have they been living next door to
you?
How long have you been playing tennis?
It has been snowing all day.
That man has been standing on the corner
all day.
Use: Since / For
We often use the prepositions:
 SINCE (+ point in time)
She has been writing letters since
breakfast.
Unemployment has been rising steadily
since 2006.
I’ve been living here since January.
Use: Since / For
We often use the prepositions:
 FOR (+ period of time)
I have been learning how to play chess for
three years now.
He has been sleeping for ten hours.
We have been travelling for two months.
Use: Lately / Recently
 With
the adverbs lately or recently, we
use the present perfect continuous to talk
about new developments which may be
temporary:
Helen’s been spending a lot of time at the
club lately.
(= She didn’t use to.)
Recently I’ve been living in Sue’s flat.
(=temporary)
Verbs not used with continuous
 Some
verbs
(e.g. be / belong to / consist of / doubt /
exist / know / like / love / adore / believe
/ hate / have (= own) / mean / need /
possess / seem / think / understand /
want)
are not normally used in the continuous:
Verbs not used with continuous
I’ve had a pain in my stomach since I got
up this morning.
I’ve been here since Tuesday.
How long have you had your car?
How long have you known Jane?
Summary
Perfect – PRESENT RESULT
I've done the accounts – here they are.
 Present
Perfect Continuous – ACTIVITY
I've been doing my accounts all afternoon.
 Present
Summary
Perfect – REPEATED ACTION
She has played with the symphony
orchestra three times this season.
 Present
Perfect Continuous – DURATION
OF ACTION
She has been playing with the symphony
orchestra all season.
 Present
Summary
Perfect – HOW MUCH / HOW
MANY / HOW MANY TIMES
How many films have you watched so far?
I’ve watched 3 films.
 Present
Perfect Continuous – HOW LONG
How long have you been watching films?
I’ve been watching films since 8 o’clock.
 Present
Summary
Perfect – PERMANENT
People have eaten a lot less meat over the
last twenty years or so.
 Present
Perfect Continuous –
TEMPORARY
People have been eating less meat
recently because of the crisis.
 Present
Use
the present perfect
continuous tense
correctly!

Bibliography
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Bourke K.: Verbs and Tenses: Intermediate. Test it, Fix
it. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.
Leech G., Cruickshank B., Ivanic R.: An A-Z of English
Grammar & Usage. Harlow: Longman, 2004.
Murphy R.: English Grammar in Use. Cambridge:
Cambridge University Press, 2006.
Swan M.: Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford
University Press, 2005.
Thomas A. J., Martinet A. V.: A practical English
Grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.
Vince M.: Intermediate Language Practice (New
Edition) . Oxford: Macmillan Education 2010.