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```COMP527:
Data Mining
COMP527: Data Mining
M. Sulaiman Khan
(mskhan@liv.ac.uk)
Dept. of Computer Science
University of Liverpool
2009
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 1
COMP527:
Data Mining
COMP527: Data Mining
Introduction to the Course
Introduction to Data Mining
Introduction to Text Mining
General Data Mining Issues
Data Warehousing
Classification: Challenges, Basics
Classification: Rules
Classification: Trees
Classification: Trees 2
Classification: Bayes
Classification: Neural Networks
Classification: SVM
Classification: Evaluation
Classification: Evaluation 2
Regression, Prediction
Introduction to Data Mining
Input Preprocessing
Attribute Selection
Association Rule Mining
ARM: A Priori and Data Structures
ARM: Improvements
Clustering: Challenges, Basics
Clustering: Improvements
Hybrid Approaches
Graph Mining, Web Mining
Text Mining: Challenges, Basics
Text Mining: Text-as-Data
Text Mining: Text-as-Language
Revision for Exam
January 28, 2009
Slide 2
COMP527:
Data Mining
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Today's Topics
What is Data Mining?
Definitions
KDD: Knowledge Discovery in Databases
KDD Process
Differences with Statistics
Views on the Process
Basic Functions
Why would you do this?
Motivations
Applications
Summary
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 3
COMP527:
Data Mining
What is Data Mining?
Some Definitions:
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“The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and
potentially useful information from data” (Piatetsky-Shapiro)
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"...the automated or convenient extraction of patterns representing
knowledge implicitly stored or captured in large databases, data
warehouses, the Web, ... or data streams." (Han, pg xxi)
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“...the process of discovering patterns in data. The process must be
automatic or (more usually) semiautomatic. The patterns discovered
must be meaningful...” (Witten, pg 5)
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“...finding hidden information in a database.” (Dunham, pg 3)
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“...the process of employing one or more computer learning techniques
to automatically analyse and extract knowledge from data contained
within a database.” (Roiger, pg 4)
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 4
COMP527:
Data Mining
What is Data Mining?
Keywords from each definition:

“The nontrivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown, and
potentially useful information from data” (Piatetsky-Shapiro)

"...the automated or convenient extraction of patterns representing
knowledge implicitly stored or captured in large databases, data
warehouses, the Web, ... or data streams." (Han, pg xxi)

“...the process of discovering patterns in data. The process must be
automatic or (more usually) semiautomatic. The patterns discovered
must be meaningful...” (Witten, pg 5)

“...finding hidden information in a database.” (Dunham, pg 3)

“...the process of employing one or more computer learning techniques
to automatically analyze and extract knowledge from data contained
within a database.” (Roiger, pg 4)
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 5
COMP527:
Data Mining
KDD: Knowledge Discovery in Databases
Many texts treat KDD and Data Mining as the same process, but it
is also possible to think of Data Mining as the discovery part of
KDD.
Dunham:
KDD is the process of finding useful information and patterns in
data.
Data Mining is the use of algorithms to extract information and
patterns derived by the KDD process.
For this course, we will discuss the entire process (KDD) but focus
mostly on the algorithms used for discovery.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 6
COMP527:
Data Mining
KDD: Knowledge Discovery in Databases
KDD (Knowledge Discovery in Databases) is the nontrivial
process of identifying valid, novel, potentially useful and
ultimately understandable patterns in data.
(Fayyad, Shapiro, & Smyth, CACM 96)
Or KDD : non-trivial extraction of implicit, previously unknown
and potentially useful information
Data mining is just a part of the KDD process
Data mining applies algorithms to large data to produce models
or patterns interesting to the user.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 7
COMP527:
Data Mining
The Data Mining (KDD) Process
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 8
COMP527:
Data Mining
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KDD Process Components
Operational Data
- Day-to-day data used to run business
Clean, collect and summarise
- Most Data is not suitable for data mining
- Errors or Noise, missing data, invalid formats
Data warehouse
- Mega store of clean (analysis) data
Data Preparation
- Validating the data for mining (e.g. remove noise, formatting,
running
validation routines etc.)
Training Data – Data used as test case for mining
Data Mining – the process of applying mining algorithms on data
to produce interesting patterns
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 9
COMP527:
Data Mining
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Differences with Statistics
Data Mining
Algorithms scale to large
data
Data is used secondary for
Data mining
DM–tools use background
knowledge for End-User
Strategy :
– Exploration
– Cyclic
Introduction to Data Mining
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Statistics
Many algorithms with
Data is used for the Statistic
(primary)
Statistical background is
often required
Strategy:
– Conformational
– Verifying
– Few loops
January 28, 2009
Slide 10
COMP527:
Data Mining
Piatetsky-Shapiro View
Knowledge
Interpretation
Data Model
Data Mining
Transformed Data
Transformation
Preprocessed Data
Preprocessing
Target Data
Selection
Initial Data
Introduction to Data Mining
(As tweaked by Dunham)
January 28, 2009
Slide 11
COMP527:
Data Mining
CRISP-DM View
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 12
COMP527:
Data Mining
Data Mining Functions
All Data Mining functions can be thought of as attempting to find a
model to fit the data.
Each function needs Criteria to create one model over another.
Each function needs a technique to Compare the data.
Two types of model:
 Predictive models predict unknown values based on known data
 Descriptive models identify patterns in data
Each type has several sub-categories, each of which has many
algorithms. We won't have time to look at ALL of them in detail.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 13
COMP527:
Data Mining
Data Mining Functions
Predictive
Classification: Maps data into predefined classes
Regression: Maps data into a function
Prediction: Predict future data states
Time Series Analysis: Analyze data over time
(Supervised Learning)
Data
Mining
Descriptive
Clustering: Find groups of similar items
Association Rules: Find relationships between items
Characterisation: Derive representative information
Sequence Discovery: Find sequential patterns
(Unsupervised Learning)
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 14
COMP527:
Data Mining
Classification
The aim of classification is to create a model that can predict the
'type' or some category for a data instance that doesn't have one.
Two phases:
1. Given labelled data instances, learn model for how to
predict the class label for them. (Training)
2. Given an unlabelled, unseen instance, use the model to
predict the class label. (Prediction)
Some algorithms predict only a binary split (yes/no), some can
predict 1 of N classes, some give probabilities for each of N
classes.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 15
COMP527:
Data Mining
Clustering
The aim of clustering is similar to classification, but without
predefined classes.
Clustering attempts to find clusters of data instances which are
more similar to each other than to instances outside of the
cluster.
Unsupervised Learning: learning by observation, rather than by
example.
Some algorithms must be told how many clusters to find, others try
to find an 'appropriate' number of clusters.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 16
COMP527:
Data Mining
Association Rule Mining
The aim of association rule mining is to find patterns that occur in
the data set frequently enough to be interesting. Hence the
association or correlation of data attributes within instances,
rather than between instances.
These correlations are then expressed as rules – if X and Y appear
in an instance, then Z also appears.
Most algorithms are extensions of a single base algorithm known
as 'A Priori', however a few others also exist.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 17
COMP527:
Data Mining
Why?
That all sounds ... complicated. Why should I learn about Data
Mining?
What's wrong with just a relational database? Why would I want to
go through these extra [complicated] steps?
Isn't it expensive? It sounds like it takes a lot of skill, programming,
computational time and storage space. Where's the benefit?
Data Mining isn't just a cute academic exercise, it has very
profitable real world uses. Practically all large companies and
many governments perform data mining as part of their planning
and analysis.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 18
COMP527:
Data Mining
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Why Data Mining? Some general reasons
We are Data rich but knowledge poor
Computing affordable
- Storage, CPU, networking
Data is too large to analyse (Very Large Databases (VLBD)
- Dimensionality (size)
- distributed (location spread)
- heterogeneous (different types of data)
- Statistics, databases
Competitive pressure in business enterprises
- Customer profiling (Need to know who is a good customer)
- Business to Business (B2B – Being “old” is not profitable)
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 19
COMP527:
Data Mining
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Data is Everywhere!
Relational database—A commodity of every enterprise
Huge data warehouses are under construction
POS (Point of Sales): Transactional DBs in terabytes
Object, relational, distributed, heterogeneous and legacy
databases
Spatial databases (GIS), remote sensing database (EOS), and
scientific/engineering databases (Genetic data etc)
Time-series data (e.g., stock trading) and temporal data
Text (documents, emails) and multimedia databases
WWW:A huge, hyper-linked, dynamic, global information system
(XML, Web content and Web usage data)
Crime data – terrorist data  more recent applications
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 20
COMP527:
Data Mining
The Data Explosion
The rate of data creation is accelerating each year. In 2003, UC
Berkeley estimated that the previous year generated 5 exabytes
of data, of which 92% was stored on electronically accessible
media.
Mega < Giga < Tera < Peta < Exa ... All the data in all the books
in the US Library of Congress is ~136 Terabytes. So 37,000
New Libraries of Congress in 2002.
VLBI Telescopes produce 16 Gigabytes of data every second.
Each engine of each plane of each company produces ~1 Gigabyte
of data every trans-atlantic length journey.
Google searches 18 billion+ accessible web pages.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 21
COMP527:
Data Mining
Data Explosion Implications
As the amount of data increases, the proportion of information
decreases.
As more and more data is generated automatically, we need to find
automatic solutions to turn those stored raw results into
information.
Companies need to turn stored data into profit ... otherwise why are
they storing it?
Let's look at some real world examples.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 22
COMP527:
Data Mining
Classification
The data generated by airplane engines can be used to determine
when it needs to be serviced. By discovering the patterns that
are indicative of problems, companies can service working
engines less often (increasing profit) and discover faults before
they materialise (increasing safety).
Loan companies can “give you results in minutes” by classifying
you into a good credit risk or a bad risk, based on your personal
information and a large supply of previous, similar customers.
Cell phone companies can classify customers into those likely to
leave, and hence need enticement, and those that are likely to
stay regardless.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 23
COMP527:
Data Mining
Clustering
Discover previously unknown groups of customers/items.
By finding clusters of customers, companies can then determine
how best to handle that particular cluster.
For example, this could be used for targeted advertising, special
offers, transferring information gathered by association rule
mining to other members of the cluster, and so forth.
The concept of 'Similarity' is often used for determining other items
that you might be interested in, eg 'More Like This' links.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 24
COMP527:
Data Mining
Association Rule Mining
By finding association rules from shopping baskets, supermarkets
can use this information for many things, including:
 Product placement in the store
 What to put on sale
 What to create as 'joint special offers'
 What to offer the customer in terms of coupons
 What to advertise together
It shouldn't be surprising that your Tesco coupons are for things
that you sometimes buy, rather than things you always or never
Wal-Mart in the US records every transaction at every store -petabytes of information to sift through. (TeraData)
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 25
COMP527:
Data Mining
Data/Information/Knowledge/Wisdom
Note well that data mining applications have no wisdom. They
cannot apply the knowledge that they discover appropriately.
For example, a data mining application may tell you that there is a
correlation between buying music magazines and beer, but it
doesn't tell you how to use that knowledge. Should you put the
two close together to reinforce the tendency, or should you put
them far apart as people will buy them anyway and thus stay in
the store longer?
Data mining can help managers plan strategies for a company, it
does not give them the strategies.
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 26
COMP527:
Data Mining
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Summary
What is data mining?
KDD - knowledge discovery in databases: nontrivial extraction of
implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information
Why do we need data mining?
- Very large data - data explosion,
- Dimensionality of data
- Heterogeneity of data
- Technology rich
- Traditional techniques infeasible
Introduction to Data Mining
January 28, 2009
Slide 27
```
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