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The Three Hallmarks of Superconductivity
Zero Resistance
Complete Diamagnetism Macroscopic Quantum Effects
Flux F
V
0
Tc
Temperature
Magnetic Induction
DC Resistance
I
T>Tc
0
T<Tc
Tc
Temperature
1
Flux quantization F = nF0
Josephson Effects
Zero Resistance
R = 0 only at w = 0 (DC)
R > 0 for w > 0
E
Quasiparticles
2D
The Kamerlingh Onnes resistance
measurement of mercury. At 4.15K the
resistance suddenly dropped to zero
Energy
Gap
0
2
Cooper Pairs
Perfect Diamagnetism
Magnetic Fields and Superconductors are not generally compatible
The Meissner Effect


Superconductor
H

H


 
B  0 H  M  0
l(T)
magnetic
penetration
depth
l
superconductor
 
H  H 0 e  z / lL
l
3
T<Tc
Spontaneous exclusion of magnetic flux
B0
z
surface
screening
currents
l(0)
l is independent of frequency (w < 2D)

H
T>Tc

H z 
vacuum

H
Tc
T
The Yamanashi MLX01 MagLev
test vehicle achieved a speed of
343 mph (552 kph) on April 14, 1999
What are the Limits of Superconductivity?
Phase Diagram
Jc
Normal
State
Superconducting
State
Tc
Ginzburg-Landau
free energy density
4
Temperature
dependence
Currents
0Hc2
Applied magnetic field
BCS Theory of Superconductivity
Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)
Cooper Pair
s-wave ( = 0) pairing
+
+
S
+
+
Spin singlet pair
v
v
+
+
+
+
S
First electron polarizes the lattice
Tc   Debye e1/ NV
Second electron is attracted to the
concentration of positive charges
left behind by the first electron
Debye is the characteristic phonon (lattice vibration) frequency
N is the electronic density of states at the Fermi Energy
V is the attractive electron-electron interaction
A many-electron quantum wavefunction Y made up of Cooper pairs is constructed
with these properties:
An energy 2D(T) is required to break a Cooper pair into two quasiparticles (roughly speaking)
Cooper pair size:   vF 
5

D
http://www.chemsoc.org/exemplarchem/entries/igrant/hightctheory_noflash.html
Where do we find Superconductors?
Also:
Nb-Ti, Nb3Sn, A3C60, NbN, MgB2, Organic Salts ((TMTSF)2X, (BEDT-TTF)2X),
Oxides (Cu-O, Bi-O, Ru-O,…), Heavy Fermion (UPt3, CeCu2Si2,…),
Electric Field-Effect Superconductivity (C60, [CaCu2O3]4, plastic), …
Most of these materials, and their compounds, display spin-singlet pairing
6
The High-Tc Cuprate Superconductors
Layered structure – quasi-two-dimensional
Anisotropic physical properties
Ceramic materials (brittle, poor ductility, etc.)
Oxygen content is critical for superconductivity
YBa2Cu3O7-d
Tl2Ba2CaCu2O8
Two of the most widely-used HTS materials in applications
7
Spin singlet pairing
d-wave ( = 2) pairing