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BI 231 - Anatomy and Physiology 1
Muscle List
Muscles of the Head and Neck
Muscle
frontalis (frontal belly of
occipitofrontalis)
orbicularis oculi
Origin(s)
epicranial aponeurosis
medial margin of orbit
Insertion(s)
skin of eyebrow, bridge of
nose
skin around eyelid
Action(s)
raises eyebrows, wrinkles
forehead
closes eye
zygomaticus
zygomatic bone
corner of mouth
orbicularis oris
maxillary bone & mandible
lips
buccinator
orbicularis oris
masseter
alveolar processes of
maxilla & mandible
zygomatic arch
temporalis
temporal bone
platysma
fascia of chest (upper
thorax) & neck
mandible (coronoid
process)
mandible & skin of cheek
retracts and elevates
corner of mouth (smiling)
compresses, purses lips
(kissing)
compresses cheeks
(whistling)
elevates mandible &
closes jaw (primary
muscle of mastication)
elevates mandible
sternocleidomastoid
sternum (manubrium) &
clavicle
mandible & temporal bone
(mastoid process)
temporal bone (styloid
process)
mandible (mylohyoid line)
temporal bone (mastoid
process)
hyoid
sternum (manubrium) &
clavicle
sternum (manubrium) &
1st costal cartiage
hyoid
thyroid cartilage of larynx
depresses hyoid bone &
larynx
transverse and costal
processes of cervical
vertebrae
superior surfaces of first
two ribs
elevate ribs or flex neck
digastric
stylohyoid
mylohyoid
sternohyoid
sternothyroid
scalenes
lateral surface of
mandibular ramus
hyoid
hyoid
tenses skin of neck &
depresses lower lip /
mandible (frowning)
flexes neck & rotates head
depresses mandible &
elevates larynx
elevates larynx
elevates floor of mouth
and hyoid bone;
depresses mandible
depresses hyoid & larynx
Muscles of the Shoulder and Anterior Thorax
Muscle
serratus anterior
Origin(s)
upper ribs (1-9)
Insertion(s)
scapula
pectoralis major
pectoralis minor
clavicle, sternum (body), &
ribs (2-6)
upper ribs (3-5)
humerus (greater tubercle
& intertubercular groove)
scapula (coracoid
process)
deltoid
clavicle & scapula
humerus (deltoid
tuberosity)
Action(s)
protracts shoulder; upward
rotation of scapula
flexes, adducts, & medially
rotates humerus
depresses and protracs
shoulder; downward
rotation of scapula;
elevates ribs
abducts humerus; (ant.)
flexes and medially rotates
humerus or (post.)
extends and laterally
rotates humerus
1
latissimus dorsi
teres major
spinous processes of
inferior thoracic and all
lumbar vertebrae, ribs (812) & lumbodorsal fascia
scapula (inferior angle)
teres minor
scapula (lateral border)
subscapularis
subscapular fossa of
scapula
humerus (intertubercular
groove)
extends, adducts, &
medially rotates humerus
humerus (intertubercular
groove)
humerus (greater
tubercle)
extends, adducts, &
medially rotates humerus
laterally rotates humerus
lesser tubercle of humerus
medial rotation of shoulder
Muscles of the Posterior Thorax
Muscle
levator scapulae
Origin(s)
transverse processes of
cervical vertebrae (1-4)
Insertion(s)
scapula
Action(s)
elevates scapula
infraspinatus
infraspinous fossa of
scapula
greater tubercle of
humerus
lateral rotation at shoulder
supraspinatus
supraspinous fossa of
scapula
greater tubercle of
humerus
abduction at the shoulder
rhomboid major
spinous processes of
upper thoracic vertebrae
spinous processes of
vertebrae C7 to T1
occipital bone, ligamentum
nuchae, and spinous
processes of all thoracic
vertebrae
iliac crest, vertebrae, and
ribs 3-6
scapula
adducts scapula &
downward rotation
adducts scapula &
downward rotation
elevates, retracts,
depresses, or rotates
scapula; elevates clavicle;
extends neck
extends vertebral column
and/or neck; lateral flexion
of vertebral column
rhomboid minor
trapezius
erector spinae (really 3
groups of muscles)
scapula
clavicle & scapula
ribs and vertebrae above
the origin
Muscles of the Body Wall
Muscle
rectus abdominus
pubis
external oblique
ribs 5-12
internal oblique
ilium (iliac crest) and
lumbodorsal fascia
Inferior ribs, xiphoid
process & linea alba
transversus abdominus
ilium (iliac crest), lower
ribs (6-12), and
lumbodorsal fascia
inferior border of each rib
linea alba & pubis
compresses abdomen,
depresses ribs & flexes
spine
compresses abdomen,
depresses ribs & flexes
spine
compresses abdomen
superior border of rib
below
elevates ribs during
inspiration
external intercostals
Origin(s)
Insertion(s)
costal cartilage of ribs 5-7
& sternum (xiphoid
process)
ilium (iliac crest) & linea
alba
Action(s)
depresses ribs, flexes
vertebral column
2
internal intercostals
superior border of each rib
inferior border of rib above
depresses ribs during
expiration
quadratus lumborum
iliac crest and iliolumbar
ligament
last rib and transverse
processes of lumbar
vertebrae
together, depress ribs;
alone flexes vertebral
column laterally
diaphragm
xiphoid process, cartilages
of ribs 4-10, anterior
surfaces of lumbar
vertebrae
central tendonous sheet
contraction expands
thoracic cavity,
compresses
abdominopelvic cavity
Muscles of the Arm
Muscle
biceps brachii
Origin(s)
scapula (coracoid
process)
Insertion(s)
radius (tuberosity)
brachialis
humerus (anterior distal
surface)
humerus (ridge superior to
lateral epicondyle)
scapula & humerus
ulna
Action(s)
flexes elbow & supinates
forearm (turns corkscrew
& pulls cork)
flexes elbow
radius (styloid process)
flexes elbow
ulna (olecranon process)
extends elbow
brachioradialis
triceps brachii
Muscles of the Forearm
Muscle
supinator
pronator teres
flexor carpi radialis
flexor carpi ulnaris
extensor carpi radialis
longus
extensor carpi ulnaris
flexor digitorum
superficialis
extensor digitorum
Origin(s)
humerus (lateral
epicondyle) and ulna
humerus (medial
epicondyle) & ulna
(coronoid process)
humerus (medial
epicondyle)
humerus (medial
epicondyle) & ulna
humerus
humerus (lateral
epicondyle) & ulna
humerus (medial
epicondyle) & anterior of
ulna and radius
humerus (lateral
epicondyle)
radius
Insertion(s)
Action(s)
supinates forearm
radius
pronates forearm
base of 2nd & 3rd
metacarpals
pisiform, hamate, & base
of 5th metacarpal
base of 2nd metacarpal
flexes & abducts wrist
base of 5th metacarpal
extends & adducts wrist
midlateral surface of
phalanges 2-5
flexes digits 2-5 and wrist
posterior surface of
phalanges 2-5
extends digits 2-5 and
wrist
flexes & adducts wrist
extends & abducts wrist
3
Muscles of the Hip
Muscle
iliopsoas (= iliacus +
psoas major)
gluteus maximus
Insertion(s)
femur (lesser trochanter)
Action(s)
flexes hip
femur & iliotibial tract
gluteus medius
Origin(s)
vertebrae (T12-L5) & ilium
(iliac fossa)
ilium (iliac crest), sacrum,
& coccyx
ilium (anterior iliac crest)
gluteus minimus
ilium
femur (greater trochanter)
tensor fasciae latae
ilium (iliac crest & anterior
superior iliac spine)
iliotibial tract
adductor longus
pubis (inferior ramus)
femur (linea aspera)
adductor brevis
pubis (inferior ramus)
femur (linea aspera)
adductor magnus
pubis (inferior ramus) &
ischium (ischial tuberosity)
femur (linea aspera)
extends & laterally rotates
thigh
abducts & medially rotates
thigh
abducts & medially rotates
thigh
flexes and medially rotates
thigh; tenses fascia lata
which laterally supports
the knee
adducts, flexes, & medially
rotates thigh
adducts, flexes, & medially
rotates thigh
adducts, & medially
rotates thigh
femur (greater trochanter)
Muscles of the Thigh
Muscle
rectus femoris
Insertion(s)
tibia (tibial tuberosity) via
patellar tendon
Action(s)
extends knee & flexes
thigh at the hip
extends knee
semimembranosus
femur (proximal half of
linea aspera)
femur (distal half of linea
aspera)
ischium (ischial tuberosity)
& femur (linea aspera)
ischium (ischial tuberosity)
tibia (tibial tuberosity) via
patellar tendon
tibia (tibial tuberosity) via
patellar tendon
tibia (tibial tuberosity) via
patellar tendon
tibia (lateral condyle) &
fibula (head)
tibia (medial condyle)
semitendinosus
ischium (ischial tuberosity)
tibia
gracilis
pubis (inferior ramus)
tibia
sartorius
ilium (anterior superior
spine)
tibia (medial surface near
tibial tuberosity)
vastus medialis
vastus lateralis
vastus intermedius
biceps femoris
Origin(s)
ilium (anterior inferior
spine) & rim of
acetabulum
femur (entire linea aspera)
extends knee
extends knee
flexes knee, extends &
laterally rotates thigh
flexes knee, medially
rotates leg, & extends hip
flexes knee, medially
rotates leg, & extends hip
flexes leg, adducts &
medially rotates thigh
flexes knee, flexes &
laterally rotates thigh
(“tailors muscle”)
Muscles of the Leg
Muscle
gastrocnemius
Origin(s)
femur (condyles)
soleus
tibia & fibula (head)
popliteus
lateral condyle of femur
Insertion(s)
calcaneous via calcaneal
tendon
calcaneous via calcaneal
tendon
Action(s)
plantar flexes foot, inverts
foot, and flexes knee
plantar flexes foot
posterior surface of
proximal tibial shaft
medial rotation of tibia;
flexion at knee
4
peroneus (fibularis) longus
lateral condyle of tibia &
fibula
base of 1st metatarsal &
medial cuneiform bone
peroneus (fibularis) brevis
tibialis anterior
fibula
tibia (lateral condyle)
tibialis posterior
tibia and fibula
base of 5th metatarsal
base of 1st metatarsal &
medial cuneiform bone
tarsals and metatarsals
flexor digitorum longus
tibia
extensor digitorum longus
tibia (lateral condyle) &
fibula
inferior surface of
phalanges 2-5
superior surface of
phalanges 2-5
plantar flexes & everts
foot; supports longitudinal
arch
plantar flexes & everts foot
dorsiflexes & inverts foot
adducts, inverts, and
plantar flexes foot
flexes toes 2-5
extends toes 2-5
5
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