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project on their experiences of learning mathematics. In addition, we have collected data
from students participating in the units of work. These include a survey of the tasks they
enjoyed most and those they felt they learned most mathematics from, as well as an openended question about their ideal mathematics class.
Research Findings
Meetings with teachers and particularly our intensive data collection throughout units
of work at two schools have yielded rich data about student preferences and performance
in lessons developed using the task types, as well as the opportunities and constraints
experienced by teachers.
In the papers that follow, our colleagues elaborate on the rationale for each of the task
types on which our research focuses, the definitions they have developed for each of these
types and research findings relating to teachers’ experience of teaching them.
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Ainley, J., & Pratt, D. (2005). The Significance of task design in mathematics education: Examples from
proportional reasoning. In Chick, H.L. & Vincent, J. L. (Eds.) Proceedings of the 29th International
Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 1, 93–122.
Boaler, J. (2003). Studying and capturing the complexity of practice: The case of ‘dance of agency’. In N. A.
Pateman, B. Dougherty, and J. Zilliox (Eds.), Proceedings of the 27th International Conference for the
Psychology of Mathematics Education, 1, 3–16.
Brousseau, G. (1997). Theory of didactical situations in mathematics. Dordrecht: Kluwer.
Christiansen, B., & Walther, G. (1986). Task and activity. In B. Christiansen, A. G. Howson, & M. Otte
(Eds.), Perspectives on mathematics education (pp. 243–307). The Netherlands: Reidel.
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on teaching (pp. 392–431). New York: Macmillan.
Hiebert, J., & Wearne, D. (1997). Instructional tasks, classroom discourse and student learning in second
grade arithmetic. American Educational Research Journal, 30(2), 393–425.
Kaiser, G. (2006). The mathematical beliefs of teachers about applications and modelling – results of an
empirical study. In J. Novotna, H. Moraova, M. Kratka and N. Stehlikova (Eds.), Proceedings of the 30th
International Conference for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, 3, 393-400.
Knobel, M. (1999). Everyday literacies: Students discourse and social practice. New York: Peter Lang.
Stein, M. K., Grover, B. W., & Henningsen, M. (1996). Building student capacity for mathematical thinking
and reasoning: An analysis of mathematical tasks used in reform classrooms. American Educational
Research Journal, 33(2), 455-488.
Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
Walls, F. (2005). Challenging task-driven pedagogies of mathematics. In P. Clarkson, A. Downton, D.
Gronn, M. Horne, A. McDonough, R. Pierce & A. Roche (Eds.) Proceedings of the 28th Annual
Conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia, 751-758.