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Chapter: Chapter 11: Earth Materials Chapter: Chapter 12: Volcanic and Tectonic Landforms (Chapter 12 will also be in a future quiz) 1. Granite and basalt differ because __________________. A) Granite is extrusive and basalt is intrusive. B) Granite is intrusive and basalt is extrusive C) Granite is an igneous rock and basalt is a metamorphic rock D) Basalt is an igneous rock and granite is a metamorphic rock E) Basalt is an sedimentary rock and granite is a metamorphic rock 2. When magma inserts itself as a thin layer between the strata of existing rocks without disturbing these older layers to any great extent, it is termed a _____________. A) dike B) sill C) stock D) pluton E) batholith 3. Rocks which are modified by heat or pressure or both are classified as __________. A) sedimentary rocks B) igneous rocks C) plutonic rocks D) metamorphic rocks E) extrusive igneous rocks 4. Two landforms that are classified as extrusive volcanic are: A) a dyke and sill B) an anticline and syncline C) a laccolith and batholith D) a lava flow and cinder cone E) a sill and anticline 5. Which of the following elements is the most abundant in the Earth's crust A) Silicon B) Aluminum C) Iron D) Oxygen E) Calcium 6. Which of the following is a mafic extrusive rock? A) gabbro B) peridotite C) basalt D) andesite 7. Which of the following statements best describes mafic rocks? A) high in calcium and iron B) high in magnesium and iron C) high in magnesium and feldspar D) high in feldspar and calcium E) high in feldspar and silica 8. Which of the following is an example of a felsic mineral? A) quartz B) mica C) pyroxene D) amphibole 9. Which of the following is a type of clastic sedimentary rock? A) Limestone B) Dolomite C) Shale D) Chert E) Coal E) granite 10. Which of the following is a type of chemically precipitated rock? A) Sandstone B) Coal C) Mudstone D) Limestone E) Conglomerate 11. Which of the following minerals is most resistant to chemical alteration? A) quartz B) mica C) pyroxene D) amphibole 12. Sediments accumulate in layers known as _____________ separated by surfaces known as _______________. A) lava / strata B) strata / bedding planes C) shales /planes D) sills / shales E) sediments / stratifications 13. Which of the following is a type of carbonate rock? A) sandstone B) limestone C) coal D) rhyolite E) basalt 14. Halite is a mineral that is commonly mined to create which of the following commodities? A) cement B) natural gas C) limestone D) salt E) gypsum 15. Which of the following types of rock can be split into hard flat plates? A) slate B) schist C) quartzite D) gneiss E) marble 16. What are the two sources of energy that drive the rock cycle? A) solar radiation and the force of gravity B) the carbon cycle and the force of gravity C) the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle D) solar radiation and radiogenic heat E) the force of gravity and the hydrological cycle 17. Which of the following features is not associated with diverging crustal plate boundaries? A) Island arcs B) mid-ocean ridge C) rift valley D) Fluid, low-silica lava E) Lava containing significant amounts of magnesium 18. How does the age of ocean rock vary with distance from ocean ridges? A) Only young rocks are found near the ridges with progressively older rocks appearing with distance from the ridges. B) The oldest rocks are found adjacent to the ridges, with progressively younger rocks found with distance from the ridges. C) All rocks in oceans basins are the same age. D) The age of rocks varies with distance from subduction zones only. E) The age of rocks within ocean basins varies with depth rather than distance from ocean ridges. 19. Comparatively inactive regions of very old continental rocks are referred to as: A) continental shields B) suspect terrains C) alpine chains D) mountain arcs E) orogenic belts 20. The rocks of the oceanic crust are largely composed of ________. A) ferrous metals B) felsic minerals C) granite D) mafic minerals E) silica only 21. The process of seafloor spreading involves the creation of new crust and its continuous movement away from its source. Which of the following serve as that source? A) mid-oceanic ridges B) hotspots on the ocean floor called magma oases C) oceanic trenches, oftentimes several thousand meters below the surface of the seafloor D) the sources are varied, with little seeming logic to their locales 22. A fold that is arch-like and has completely folded over itself is: A) an recumbent anticline B) an overturned syncline C) a plunging anticline D) a divergent anticline E) a recumbent syncline 23. Which of the following statements most accurately describes the composition of continental crust? A) Continental crust is composed of rocks very similar to basalt B) Continental crust is made up entirely of mafic rocks C) Continental crust is made up entirely of felsic rocks D) Continental crust has a composition identical to oceanic crust E) Continental crust is made up of both mafic and felsic rock 24. What is the approximate age of the Earth? A) 1.9 billion years B) 2.8 billion years C) 3.4 billion years D) 4.6 billion years E) 6.5 billion years 25. If you were to move from a continental landmass out to sea, in what order would you encounter continental and ocean basin relief features? A) continental slope, continental shelf, continental rise, abyssal plain B) continental shelf, continental rise, continental slope, abyssal plain C) continental shelf, continental slope, continental rise, abyssal plain D) continental rise, continental slope, continental margin, abyssal plain E) continental margin, continental slope, continental shelf, abyssal plain 26. The boundary between the North American Plate and the Eurasian Plate is a: A) converging boundary B) spreading boundary C) transform boundary D) continental suture E) boundary that is currently not classified 27. A fault boundary where there is horizontal motion of two adjacent plates, one sliding past the other is referred to as a: A) rift fault B) reverse fault C) overthrust fault D) transform fault E) normal fault 28. The San Andreas fault can best be classified as a __________ fault. A) rift B) subduction C) transform D) divergent E) normal 29. Which of the following statements about reverse faults is correct? A) Reverse faults are one type of tensional faults. B) Normal faults are one type of reverse faults C) The upthrown block in a reverse fault creates an overhanging scarp D) Motion in a reverse fault is transcurrent E) Reverse faults result in the development of strike-slip faults 30. The location inside the earth where an earthquake originates is termed its ________________. A) focus B) orogeny C) epicenter D) face E) mineralogic substrate 31. A (an) __________ is a fracture in the crustal rock involving no displacement of rock on one side of the fracture with respect to rock on the other side. A) focus B) epicenter C) fold D) joint E) fault 32. Which of the following features may be associated with the eruption of a stratovolcano? A) frothy basalt ejected at high pressure from the vent B) a cinder cone C) a glowing avalanche of hot gases and fine ash D) a low shield-shaped volcano E) fluid flood basalt lava flows that cover large areas 33. Another term for stratovolcano is a: A) composite cone B) cinder cone C) caldera D) shield volcano E) hot spot 34. Crater Lake in Oregon is an example which type of volcanic feature? A) composite cone B) cinder cone C) caldera D) shield volcano E) hot spot 35. Fragments ejected from a volcano ranging in size from boulders to fine dust are collectively referred to as: A) lava B) lahar C) ash D) tephra E) pumice 36. Trough-like downfolds are referred to as: A) synclines B) anticlines C) foreland folds D) fault folds E) normal folds 37. The surface across which movement takes place in a fault is referred to as the: A) fault scarp B) strike-slip C) fault plane D) transcurrent E) focus 38. The Richter scale measures what characteristic of earthquakes? A) amount of ground motion B) quantity of energy released C) size of displacement in the fault D) degree of damage to local buildings E) area over which the earthquake was detected 39. Intense earthquake activity is associated with which of the following plate boundaries? A) converging boundary B) spreading boundary C) transform boundary D) continental suture E) boundary that is currently not classified 40. The East African Rift Valley demonstrates the early stage of the: A) formation of a new ocean basin B) formation of a new land mass C) formation of a continental suture D) formation of a transform plate boundary E) formation of a new subduction zone 41. Frothy magma ejected under high pressure from a narrow vent is most characteristic of which type of volcano? A) stratovolcano B) cinder cone C) shield volcano D) caldera E) hotspots 42. The compass direction of the line of intersection of an inclined rock plane and a horizontal plane of reference is referred to as the: A) dip B) strike C) bedding plane D) tilt E) ridge 43. A descending fold crest is said to: A) Sink B) Plunge C) Fly D) Dip E) Strike 44. The erosion of shield volcano would result in all of the following except: A) newly formed volcano with a central depression B) deeply eroded valley heads at the early stages of erosion C) a tall volcanic neck is all that remains once the volcano is extinct D) canyons eventually develop into steep sided amphitheaters E) radial consequent streams cutting deep canyons once the volcano is extinct 45. The erosion of a stratovolcano would result in which of the following except? A) newly formed volcano results in lava flows spreading into stream valleys B) lava dams may allow the creation of a lake C) wall-like dikes may be eroded surrounding the crater D) Lakes remain in the caldera in the advanced stage of erosion E) a radial drainage pattern has developed around the cone 46. The chain of Hawaiian volcanoes were created by the motion of the A) Nazca, trench B) Cocos, trench C) Cocos, hotspot D) Pacific, hotspot E) Hawaiian, hotspot ________ plate over a __________. 47. There are basically two different forms of tectonic activity. These are ____________. A) compression and extension B) stressful and decompression C) decompression and extensional D) compressional and stressful E) volcanic and compression 48. The east African Rift Valley is formed by _____________. A) compression B) volcanism C) retraction of the crust D) stress E) extension 49. Compression leads to the folding of the crust which results in the formation of __________________. A) anticlines and synclines B) synclines and troughs C) upfolds and troughs D) troughs and anticlines E) none of the above 50. A ___________ in the brittle rocks of the earth's crust occurs when rocks suddenly yield to unequal stresses by fracturing. A) break B) fault C) crack D) scarp E) defect _____________________________________________________________________________________ Select two of the essays below. Use at least 3-5 good sentences to explain. You may use a hand-drawn sketch to help explain you answer. Points will be taken off if you do not answer the essays. - Compare and contrast stratovolcanoes with shield volcanoes. - Using examples from the Internet, show how remote sensing can contribute to our understanding of volcanoes. - Describe and explain the formation and impact of tsunamis. - Describe the faulting associated with the Great African Rift Valley. - Compare and contrast the erosion of stratovolcanoes compared to shield volcanoes. - Compare and contrast the nature and formation of intrusive and extrusive igneous rocks. - Describe the nature and formation of hydrocarbon compounds. How are these features used to identify potential reserves? - Describe the ways in which minerals may be altered in the process of weathering. - How do collisions and ruptures contribute to the termination and initiation of plate boundaries. - Describe the geologic timescale with reference to geological and biological changes during Earth history.