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Transcript
The Eastern Empire
Survives and Europe
Emerges
The Empire Splits
Roman Empire had
been divided into
East/West by
Diocletian
 Eastern Portion with
the capital at
Constantinople,
became the center
for Christianity

Fall of Rome
Western portion of
the Roman empire
including Rome is
overrun by invasion of
Germanic groups
around 450-470
 Eastern portion
remains untouched

Germanic Kingdoms
Germanic kingdoms
began popping up all
over the western
portion of the old
Roman Empire.
 Western Europe
experienced time of
chaos, disorder, and
darkness under
Germanic rule





Germanic
Destruction
Germans considered
barbarians and brutal
conquerors; murdering,
raping, and turning
victims into slaves
The great cities and city
systems of the old empire
fell apart
Little trade or
communication existed
with other areas of the
world
Food production dropped
causing starvation and
reports of cannibalism
Germanic Destruction
Learning nearly
disappeared in the
barbarian West
 Most people grew up
illiterate
 Only the Catholic
Church provided hope
or security for the
people.

Germanic Society



Only Germanic Kingdom to
last long was lead by Clovis
who had converted to
Christianity around 500
winning himself support from
the Roman Catholic Church
Germans and Romans
intermarried creating a new
society with new customs
Extended families center of
German society living
together and working
together
Germanic Justice




German concept of family
affected crime and
punishment
Germanic laws were
personal and often led to
blood shed
Wergild (money for a
man) wrongdoers literally
paid for their crimes
Ordeal-physical trial
based on diving
intervention
The Church
End of the 4th century
Christianity is the
supreme religion of
the Roman Empire.
 The church develops
a system of
organization

Organization of the Church




Pope-leader of the
Catholic Church
Archbishop-leader of
multiple bishops
Bishop-leader of a group
of parishes
Pope had various powers
and would later become
involved in politics (Pope
Gregory I)
Monks
Monasteries begin
popping up
 Monks isolated
themselves
concentrating on work
and prayer.

Charlemagne





Frankish king from 768-814.
Strong warrior and
statesmen
Strongly supported learning
even though he was illiterate
Expanded Frankish Kingdom
creating the Carolingian
Empire
800 crowned emperor of
Rome symbolizing coming
together Christian Rome and
the Germanics.
Empire Falls
Charlemagne’s empire
falls apart after his
death in 814
 Various groups invade
including Muslims,
Magyars, and Vikings

Feudalism
Feudalism



Invaders caused a threat to people
Aristocrats and nobles expected to provide protection
Leads to political and social idea of feudalism
Feudalism





Germanic society used the idea of vassalage
Man who served a lord militarily was a vassal
Wealth based on landownership so when nobles
wanted men to fight for them they granted them
a fief
Vassal would have political authority over fief
and be responsible for keeping order
Feudal contracts determined the relationship
between lord and vassal
Feudal Obligations
Kings
Vassal to Lord: military
service, advice,
financial obligation
Lords
Knights
Serfs
Lord to Vassal: land
grant, protect him
militarily and in court
England in the Middle Ages
Anglo-Saxon kings
ruled England up until
the 9th century
 1066 William of
Normandy defeats
King Harold of
England at Battle
Hastings
 William crowned king
of England and slowly
merges the Norman
and Saxon cultures

William of Normandy
William develops
system of taxation
and royal courts
(Domesday Book)
 Domesday Book first
census taken since
Roman times

King Henry II (1154-1189)





Strengthened the English
Monarchy and expanded
royal courts power
Courts all over the land
so created a body of
common law
Believed he had the right
to punish clergy as well
Archbishop Thomas a
Becket disagreed and was
later killed
Death of Becket caused
public outrage so Henry
backed off
Magna Carta 1215
Overtime kings powers kept
growing
 1215 nobles rebel against
King John
 King John forced to sign
Magna Carta or Great
Charter
 Magna Carta limits the power
of the monarch and would
lead to the creation of the
English Parliament under
King Edward I (1st Rep. Gov.
in England)
 House of Lords and House of
Commons (taxes/passed
laws)

House of lords-nobles/clergy
House of Commons-Knights and peasants
The Byzantine Empire
Constantinople
became a wealthy
trading center
 Even though the
people still called
themselves Romans
this is referred to as
the Byzantine Empire
(500-1453)

Importance of 1453

1453 marks the year that the Christian city
of Constantinople fell to the Muslim Turks
who renamed it Istanbul.
Justinian (527-565)
Considered the greatest
emperor of the
Byzantine Empire
 Expanded territory of the
empire to North Africa,
Sicily, Italy, and
Southern Spain
 Contributions included
the Church of Haga
Sophia and Justinian’s
Law Code

Justinian’s Law Code
Reformed and coded
all Roman Law
 Organized laws and
put them in a unified
form
 Results in The Body

of Civil Law

Lasts until end of
eastern empire and
influences European
and American legal
codes