Download Physiology of the Human Heart

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Aortic valve sounds heard
in 2nd intercostal space at
right sternal margin
Pulmonary valve
sounds heard in 2nd
intercostal space at left
sternal margin
Mitral valve sounds
heard over heart apex
(in 5th intercostal space)
in line with middle of
clavicle
Tricuspid valve sounds typically
heard in right sternal margin of
5th intercostal space
Anatomy of the intrinsic conduction system showing the
sequence of electrical excitation
1 The sinoatrial (SA)
node (pacemaker)
2 The impulses
pause (0.1 s) at the
atrioventricular
(AV) node.
3 The atrioventricular
The Purkinje fibers
(AV) bundle
4 The bundle branches
5 The Purkinje fibers
Anatomy of the intrinsic conduction system showing the
sequence of electrical excitation
QRS complex
Sinoatrial
node
Atrioventricular
node
P-Q
Interval
S-T
Segment
Q-T
Interval
QRS complex
Sinoatrial
node
Atrial
depolarization
Ventricular
depolarization
Ventricular
repolarization
Atrioventricular
node
P-Q
Interval
S-T
Segment
Q-T
Interval
Left heart
Electrocardiogram
“Lup” =
Heart sounds
Pressure (mm Hg)
“Dup” =
Ventricular
volume (ml)
Atrial
_________
EDV =
ESV =
SV =
Atrioventricular valves
Aortic and pulmonary valves
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Ventricular Ventricular
_________ _________
Left heart
QRS
Electrocardiogram
P
T
1st
Heart sounds
P
2nd
Atrial
SYSTOLE
Aorta
Atrial systole
Left atrium
EDV = End Diastolic Volume
ESV = End Systolic Volume
EDV
SV
SV = Stroke Volume
ESV
Atrioventricular valves
Aortic and pulmonary valves
“Dup” = closing of Aortic valve
(2nd heart sound)
Left ventricle
Ventricular
volume (ml)
Pressure (mm Hg)
Dicrotic notch
“Lup” = closing of L AV valve or Mitral valve
(1st heart sound)
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Open
Closed
Ventricular Ventricular
SYSTOLE
DIASTOLE
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