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OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 4, the reader should be able to: 1. Prepare for ASE Electrical/Electronic Systems (A6) certification test content area “A” (General Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnosis). 2. State Ohm’s law. 3. Identify the parts of a complete circuit. 4. State Watt’s law. 5. Describe the characteristics of an open, a shortto-ground, and a short-to-voltage. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS • A circuit is a path that electrons travel from a power source (such as a battery) through a load such as a light bulb and back to the power source. FIGURE 4-1 All complete circuits must have a power source, a power path, protection (fuse), an electrical load (light bulb in this case), and a return path back to the power source. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Parts of a Complete Circuit • Every complete circuit contains the following parts. – A power source. – Protection from harmful overloads. – An insulated path for the current to flow through from the power source to the resistance. – The electrical load or resistance which converts electrical energy into heat, light, or motion. – A ground (return) path for the electrical current from the load back to the power source so that there is a complete circuit. – Switches and controls that turn the circuit on and off Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Parts of a Complete Circuit FIGURE 4-2 The return path back to the battery can be any electrical conductor, such as the metal frame or body of the vehicle. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman FIGURE 4-3 An electrical switch opens the circuit and no current flows. The switch could also be on the return (ground) path wire. © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Open Circuits • An open circuit is any circuit that is not complete, or that lacks continuity. FIGURE 4-4 Examples of common causes of open circuits. Some of these causes are often difficult to find. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Short to Voltage • If a wire (conductor) or component is shorted to voltage, it is commonly called shorted. • A short-to-voltage is where the power side of one circuit is electrically connected to the power side of another circuit Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Short to Voltage • A short circuit: – Is a complete circuit in which the current bypasses some or all of the resistance in the circuit. – Involves the power side of the circuit. – Involves a copper-to-copper connection. – Is also called a short-to-voltage. – Usually affects more than one circuit. – May or may not blow a fuse. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Short to Voltage FIGURE 4-5 A short circuit permits electrical current to bypass some or all of the resistance in the circuit. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Short to Voltage FIGURE 4-6 A fuse or circuit breaker opens the circuit to prevent possible overheating damage in the event of a short circuit. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS Short to Ground • A short-to-ground is a type of short circuit wherein the current bypasses part of the normal circuit and flows directly to ground. FIGURE 4-7 A short-to-ground affects the power side of the circuit. Current flows directly to the ground return, bypassing some or all of the electrical loads in the circuit. There is no current in the circuit pass the short. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CIRCUITS High Resistance Faults • High resistance in any circuit can cause many problems, including: – Slow the operation of a motor-driven unit, such as the wipers and blower motor – Dim the lights – Clicking relays or solenoids Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 HIGH RESISTANCE FIGURE 4-8 A dim headlight indicates high resistance in the circuit to the device or load being tested. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 THINK OF A WATERWHEEL FIGURE 4-9 Electrical flow through a circuit is similar to water flowing over a waterwheel. The more the water (amperes in electricity), the greater the amount of work (waterwheel). The amount of water remains constant, yet the pressure (voltage in electricity) drops as the current flows through the circuit. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW • Ohm’s law states: – It requires 1 volt to push 1 ampere through 1 ohm of resistance. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW FIGURE 4-10 To calculate one unit of electricity when the other two are known, simply use your finger and cover the unit you do not know. For example, if both voltage (E) and resistance (R) are known, cover the letter/(amperes). Notice that the letter E is above the letter R, so divide the resistor’s value into the voltage to determine the current in the circuit. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW 1. Ohm’s law can determine the resistance if the volts and amperes are known: R = E/I. 2. Ohm’s law can determine the voltage if the resistance (ohms) and amperes are known: E = I x R. 3. Ohm’s law can determine the amperes if the resistance and voltage are known: I = E/R. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW RELATIONSHIP Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW RELATIONSHIP Ohm’s Law Applied to Simple Circuits • Using Ohm’s law, we can calculate the number of amperes that will flow through the wires and the resistor. • Remember, if two factors are known (volts and ohms in this example), the remaining factor (amperes) can be calculated using Ohm’s law. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 OHM’S LAW RELATIONSHIP Ohm’s Law Applied to Simple Circuits I = E/R = 12 V/4 Ω The values for the voltage (12) and the resistance (4) were substituted for the variables E and R, and I is thus 3 amperes (12/4 = 3). FIGURE 4-11 This closed circuit includes a power source, power-side wire, circuit protection (fuse), resistance (bulb), and return path wire. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 WATT’S LAW • Electricity can also be expressed in a unit of power called a watt and the relationship is known as Watt’s law, which states: – A watt is a unit of electrical power represented by a current of 1 ampere through a circuit with a potential difference of 1 volt. W=IxE Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 WATT’S LAW FIGURE 4-12 To calculate one unit when the other two are known, simply cover the unknown unit to see what unit needs to be divided or multiplied to arrive at the solution. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 WATT’S LAW Magic Circle FIGURE 4-13 “Magic circle” of most of the formulas for problems involving Ohm’s law. Each quarter of the “pie” has formulas used to solve for a particular unknown value: current (amperes), in the upper right segment; resistance (ohms), in the lower right; voltage (E), in the lower left; and power (watts), in the upper left. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 SUMMARY 1. All complete electrical circuits have a power source (such as a battery), a circuit protection device (such as a fuse), a power-side wire or path, an electrical load, a ground return path, and a switch or a control device. 2. A short-to-voltage involves a copper-to-copper connection and usually affects more than one circuit. 3. A short-to-ground involves a copper-to-steel connection and usually causes the fuse to blow. 4. An open is a break in the circuit resulting in absolutely no current flow through the circuit. 5. High resistance in a circuit is a common type of circuit fault. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 REVIEW QUESTIONS 1. List the parts of a complete electrical circuit. 2. Describe the difference between a short-tovoltage and a short-to-ground. 3. Describe the difference between an open and a short. 4. State Ohm’s law. 5. Explain what occurs to current flow (amperes) and wattage if the resistance of a circuit is increased because of a corroded connection. Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 1. If an insulated wire rubbed through a part of the insulation and the wire conductor touched the steel body of a vehicle, the type of failure would be called a(n) _____. a) b) c) d) Short-to-voltage Short-to-ground Open Chassis ground Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 1. If an insulated wire rubbed through a part of the insulation and the wire conductor touched the steel body of a vehicle, the type of failure would be called a(n) _____. a) b) c) d) Short-to-voltage Short-to-ground Open Chassis ground Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 2. If two insulated wires were to melt together where the copper conductors touched each other, the type of failure would be called a(n) _____. a) b) c) d) Short-to-voltage Short-to-ground Open Floating ground Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 2. If two insulated wires were to melt together where the copper conductors touched each other, the type of failure would be called a(n) _____. a) b) c) d) Short-to-voltage Short-to-ground Open Floating ground Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 3. If 12 volts are being applied to a resistance of 3 ohms, _____ amperes will flow. a) b) c) d) 12 3 4 36 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 3. If 12 volts are being applied to a resistance of 3 ohms, _____ amperes will flow. a) b) c) d) 12 3 4 36 Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 4. How many watts are consumed by a light bulb if 1.2 amperes are measured when 12 volts are applied? a) b) c) d) 14.4 watts 144 watts 10 watts 0.10 watt Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 4. How many watts are consumed by a light bulb if 1.2 amperes are measured when 12 volts are applied? a) b) c) d) 14.4 watts 144 watts 10 watts 0.10 watt Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 5. How many watts are consumed by a starter motor if it draws 150 amperes at 10 volts? a) b) c) d) 15 watts 150 watts 1,500 watts 15,000 watts Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 5. How many watts are consumed by a starter motor if it draws 150 amperes at 10 volts? a) b) c) d) 15 watts 150 watts 1,500 watts 15,000 watts Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 6. High resistance in an electrical circuit can cause _____. a) b) c) d) Dim lights Slow motor operation Clicking of relays or solenoids All of the above Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 6. High resistance in an electrical circuit can cause _____. a) b) c) d) Dim lights Slow motor operation Clicking of relays or solenoids All of the above Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 7. If the voltage increases in a circuit, what happens to the wattage if the resistance remains the same? a) b) c) d) Increases Decreases Remains the same Can not be determined Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 7. If the voltage increases in a circuit, what happens to the wattage if the resistance remains the same? a) b) c) d) Increases Decreases Remains the same Can not be determined Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 8. If 200 amperes flow from the positive terminal of a battery and operate the starter motor, how many amperes will flow back to the negative terminal of the battery? a) b) c) d) Cannot be determined Zero About one-half (about 100 amperes) 200 amperes Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 8. If 200 amperes flow from the positive terminal of a battery and operate the starter motor, how many amperes will flow back to the negative terminal of the battery? a) b) c) d) Cannot be determined Zero About one-half (about 100 amperes) 200 amperes Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 9. What is the symbol for voltage used in calculations? a) b) c) d) V E EMF I Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 9. What is the symbol for voltage used in calculations? a) b) c) d) V E EMF I Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 10. Which circuit failure is most likely to cause the fuse to blow? a) b) c) d) Open Short-to-ground Short-to voltage High resistance Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 CHAPTER QUIZ 10. Which circuit failure is most likely to cause the fuse to blow? a) b) c) d) Open Short-to-ground Short-to voltage High resistance Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458 END Diagnosis and Troubleshooting of Automotive Electrical, Electronic, and Computer Systems, Fifth Edition By James D. Halderman © 2010 Pearson Higher Education, Inc. Pearson Prentice Hall - Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458