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```Oscillator
Dr.Debashis De
Associate Professor
West Bengal University of Technology
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12-1
12-2
12-3
12-4
12-5
12-6
12-7
Introduction
Classifications of Oscillators
Circuit Analysis of a General Oscillator
Conditions for Oscillation: Barkhausen- Criteria
Tuned Oscillator
Crystal Oscillator
Applications of Oscillators
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In this chapter we will explore the working principle of
the oscillator. Generally speaking, the oscillator produces
sinusoidal and other waveforms.
Beginning with a detailed circuit analysis of the oscillator,
we will proceed to discuss the conditions and frequency of
oscillation.
Following this, the different types of oscillators—
Tuned oscillator, Hartley oscillator, Colpitts
oscillator, Clapp oscillator, Phase-shift oscillator,
Crystal oscillator and Wien-bridge oscillator—will be
examined with detailed mathematical analysis and illustrations.
The chapter ends with an overview of the applications of
the oscillator.
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An oscillator is an electronic system.
It comprises active and passive circuit elements and
sinusoidal produces repetitive waveforms at the output without the
application of a direct external input signal to the circuit.
It converts the dc power from the source to ac power
in the load. A rectifier circuit converts ac to dc power, but an
oscillator converts dc noise signal/power to its ac equivalent.
The general form of a harmonic oscillator is an
electronic amplifier with the output attached to a narrow-band
electronic filter, and the output of the filter attached to the input of
the amplifier.
In this chapter, the oscillator analysis is done in two
methods—first by a general analysis, considering all other circuits
are the special form of a common generalized circuit and second,
using the individual circuit KVL analysis.
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Oscillators are classified based on the type of the
output waveform.
If the generated waveform is sinusoidal or close to
sinusoidal (with a certain frequency) then the oscillator is said to be
a Sinusoidal Oscillator.
If the output waveform is non-sinusoidal, which refers to
square/saw-tooth waveforms, the oscillator is said to be a
Relaxation Oscillator.
An oscillator has a positive feedback with the loop
gain infinite. Feedback-type sinusoidal oscillators can be
classified as LC (inductor-capacitor) and RC (resistor-
capacitor) oscillators.
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The classification of various oscillators is shown in Table 12-1.
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This section discusses the general oscillator circuit with a simple
generalized analysis using the transistor, as shown in Fig. 12-2.
An impedance z1 is connected between the base B and the
emitter E, an impedance z2 is connected between the collector C and
emitter E. To apply a positive feedback z3 is connected between
the collector and the base terminal.
All the other different oscillators can be analyzed as a special
case of the generalized analysis of oscillator.
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The above generalized circuit of an oscillator is considered using a simple transistorequivalent circuit model. The current voltage expressions are expressed as follows:
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1. The frequency of oscillation can be easily varied just by changing
RC network
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2. High gain due to two-stage amplifier
3. Stability is high
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The main disadvantage of the Wien-bridge oscillator is that a high
frequency of oscillation cannot be generated.
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Nyquist criterion states that if this closed curve passes through
or encloses the point (1 + j0), the amplifier becomes unstable and
oscillates.
It is important to note that a positive feedback amplifier will not
oscillate unless the Nyquist criterion is satisfied.
In the steady state condition the loop gain becomes unity and
the oscillations are sustained, the frequency of oscillations is controlled
by the frequency-determining network of the oscillator.
The RC and a LC combination circuits are used in oscillators to
serve as the frequency-determining network.
Let us summarize the key necessities of a feedback oscillator.
1. Amplifier with positive feedback produces a negative resistance
in the system.
2. A frequency-determining network creates oscillations at certain
required frequencies.
3. System non-linearity introduced by the devices contain the
amplitude of oscillation.
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The circuit diagram of a tuned oscillator is shown in Fig. 12-10(a). The
emitter by pass capacitor CE shunts the ac so that RE is omitted from the ac equivalent
circuit of Fig. 12-10(b).
The dc operating point of the transistor is determined by the resistances R1, R2
and RE, and supply voltage. The transistor gives a phase-shift of 1800.
Circuit Analysis of Tuned Oscillator:
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Crystal oscillator is most commonly used oscillator with high-frequency
stability. They are used for laboratory experiments, communication circuits and biomedical
instruments. They are usually, fixed frequency oscillators where stability and accuracy are the
primary considerations.
In order to design a stable and accurate LC oscillator for the upper HF and higher
frequencies it is absolutely necessary to have a crystal control; hence, the reason for crystal
oscillators.
Crystal oscillators are oscillators where the primary frequency determining element
is a quartz crystal. Because of the inherent characteristics of the quartz crystal the crystal oscillator
may be held to extreme accuracy of frequency stability. Temperature
compensation may be applied to crystal oscillators to improve thermal stability of the crystal
oscillator.
The crystal size and cut determine the values of L, C, R and C'. The resistance R is
the friction of the vibrating crystal, capacitance C is the compliance, and inductance L is the
equivalent mass. The capacitance C' is the electrostatic capacitance between the mounted pair of
electrodes with the crystal as the dielectric.
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Oscillators are a common element of almost all electronic circuits.
They are used in various applications, and their use makes it possible for
circuits and subsystems to perform numerous useful functions.
In oscillator circuits, oscillation usually builds up from zero when
power is first applied under linear circuit operation.
The oscillator’s amplitude is kept from building up by limiting the
amplifier saturation and various non-linear effects.
Oscillator design and simulation is a complicated process. It is
also extremely important and crucial to design a good and stable oscillator.
Oscillators are commonly used in communication circuits. All the
communication circuits for different modulation techniques—AM, FM, PM—
the use of an oscillator is must.
Oscillators are used as stable frequency sources in a variety of
electronic applications.
Oscillator circuits are used in computer peripherals, counters,
timers, calculators, phase-locked loops, digital multi-metres, oscilloscopes,
and numerous other applications.
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A common oscillator implementation is the voltagecontrolled oscillator (VCO) circuit, where an input tuning voltage is applied to
an oscillator circuit and the tuning voltage adjusted to set the frequency at
which the circuit oscillates.
The VCO is the most widely used oscillator circuit and it produces an
oscillatory output voltage.
It provides a periodic signal, where the frequency of the periodic
signal is related to the level of an input voltage control signal supplied to the
VCO.
A VCO is simply an oscillator having a frequency output that is
proportional to an applied voltage.
The centre frequency of a VCO is the frequency of the periodic
output signal formed by the VCO when the input
control voltage is set to a nominal level.
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The cascode crystal oscillator is composed of a Colpitts crystal
oscillator and a base-common buffer amplifier in mobile circuits.
In the cascode crystal oscillator, a temparature-independent
voltage source biases the buffer amplifier and the bypass capaciter
gets eliminated.
GSM phones, set-top boxes and digital audio broadcasting
equipments use oscillators. and digital audio roadcasting equipment
use oscillators.
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1. Oscillator converts dc to ac.
2. Oscillator has no input signal.
3. Oscillator behaviour is opposite to that of a rectifier.
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4. The conditions and frequencies of oscillation are
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classified as:
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