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Biomes and
Biodiversity
• Look through the vocabulary cards on your
desk.
• Take a few minutes to sort through and match
them.
vocabulary
word!
• species – a group of organisms that are closely
related and can mate to produce fertile
offspring.
same species
not same species
definitely not the same
species
vocabulary
word!
• population – a group of organisms of the same
species that live in an area.
vocabulary
word!
• community - made up from all of the
organisms in an ecosystem.
vocabulary
word!
• ecosystem - a community of organisms and
their abiotic, or nonliving environment.
Analogy
• Match the following to the correct description
species
population
community ecosystem
one zebra
a herd of zebra
all zebra and giraffe in an
area
An African Savannah
vocabulary
word!
• habitat - the place in which an organism lives.
• Organisms live almost everywhere on Earth. From
super heated thermal vents to the harsh arctic
environment.
habitat
• Habitats support life because they have the
conditions that suit the organisms that live
there.
– stable temperature range
– space for organisms to live and grow
– food and water
– oxygen and carbon dioxide
habitat
• Organisms found in a habitat are adapted to
live there:
vocabulary
word!
• niche - particular area in an ecosystem where
an organism lives.
vocabulary
word!
biome
• biome - large geographic areas with similar
temperatures and rainfall amounts.
• Plants and animals that live in one cannot
always adapt and live in another.
– Example: water is a limiting factor in a desert
• Example: tundra, desert, rain forest.
Desert Scrub
Deciduous Forest
Desert
Chaparral
Taiga
Savanna
Grasslands
Rainforest
Tundra
Alpine
vocabulary
word!
• biotic - organisms living or that had once lived
in the environment.
• Examples: mouse, clover, dead tree, shrubs,
hawk
vocabulary
word!
• abiotic - non-living factors in the environment.
• Examples: light, temp, water, wind, soil and
terrain
vocabulary
word!
• biodiversity - the number and variety of
organisms living in an area.
High biodiversity makes the ecosystem more
stable when faced with an environmental
change.
No Diversity
Diversity
Biodiversity Demo
• How many different “species” do we have?
• What would happen if a disease went through
this population and killed all of the yellow
squares?
– Sit down if you have a yellow square
Biodiversity Demo
• How many different “species” do we have?
• What would happen if a drought went
through this population and killed all of the
red squares?
– Sit down if you have a red square
Biodiversity Demo
• What was different with the second
demonstration?
• How did biodiversity help this population?
• Would the death of part of a population effect
the food chain?
Factors that Affect Biodiversity
• Number of different species in an area
• Genetic diversity within a specie (gene pool
diversity)
• climate
• Number of niches in an area
• Human activity
Number of different species in an area
• The higher the number of species in an area,
the more likely it is that some of them can
survive and adapt to a change in the
environment.
vocabulary
word!
Gene Pool Diversity
• gene pool diversity - the number of diverse
traits in a species.
– The more traits in a species, the better chance
they have of adapting
– Species that lack a diverse gene pool are less able
to adapt to changes in their environment.
Genetic diversity within a species
• The more variations within a species, the
more likely some members of the species will
survive if the environment changes.
high genetic diversity,
easier to adapt and change
low genetic diversity,
difficult to adapt and
change
Climate
• In general, the number of species increases
from the poles to the equator.
– tropical rainforests in South America and Africa
have the most diversity
– The North and South Poles have the least
diversity
Niche Diversity
• The more niches an area has, the more
biodiversity (coral reefs are 1% of the Earth but
have 20% of all species).
Human Activity
• People can either help or hurt an ecosystem
– Protecting an area can increase biodiversity
– Deforestation, pollution and over hunting can
decrease biodiversity
Think Pair Share
• As a table, and using the laptops, come up with
three ways humans can increase biodiversity in an
area.
• As a table, and using the laptops, come up with
three ways humans can decrease biodiversity in an
area.
Value of Biodiversity
• Protecting biodiversity is important to keep
the planet healthy.
• The more diverse an ecosystem is, the
healthier and more stable it is.
• The ecosystems humans protect could be a
source of food, medicine, cures, tourism
Not Protecting Biodiversity
• The biggest threat to biodiversity is loss of
natural habitat.
• If we don’t protect biodiversity species can
become
– endangered
– extinct
Protecting Biodiversity
• Habitat Preservation
– The most effective way to preserve biodiversity is
to protect entire habitats
• National and State Parks
• Game Reserves
Protecting Biodiversity
• Protecting biodiversity will make an
ecosystem more sustainable.
vocabulary
word!
• sustainability – the ability of an environment
to support life over centuries.
A sustainable environment is a healthier one
for humans and all other organisms.
sustainability
• Overpopulation or over-use of an area can
lead to habitat loss and pollution.
• An over-used or polluted ecosystem is not
sustainable.
• To maintain sustainability, people must
manage resources wisely.
sustainability
• Which of these food webs is more
sustainable? Why?
sustainability example
• Two farmers try to out-produce each other by
using different planting techniques.
• Field 1 grew more until a virus killed all of crop
2. How would this virus effect the farmers?
The farmer with field 1 will lose half his crop
but the farmer with field 2 will only lose 1/16.
sustainability example
• How are the farmer’s fields similar to how
biodiversity allows an ecosystem to be stable?
Field 2, which has more biodiversity, is more
stable and can handle the virus easier.
47.8g
52.8g
35.3g
22.3g
Which are will have the most fertile soil?
Ecosystems and Biodiversity
North American Prairie
• Location – middle of the US
• Description – flat, grassy plains, small trees
and bushes
• Soil type – deep and fertile
• Precipitation – 10-30 inches per year
• Temperature range – summer can be as hot as
38◦C (100 ◦F), winter can be as cold as -4◦C (-40
◦F)
• Climate – hot summers and cold snowy
winters
Biodiversity
• 7000 species of plant an animal
• Plant species – tall grass, mixed grass, short
grass, some trees, flowering plants
• Animal species – pronghorn, mule deer, elk,
black bears, coyote, fox, badger, ferrets,
rabbits, owls, eagles, hawks, grouse, ducks,
song birds, insects, snakes, spiders, bison
Adaptations
• Plant species –
– deep roots on the grass help them reach water.
• Animal species –
– hooves on the bison help protect their feet
Interactions
• biotic–
– large food web with lots of animals.
– Bison distribute seed in their waste
– Deep grass roots hold the soil
• abiotic–
– wildfire is needed to renew the soil
– Amount of rain determines grass height
• How does the North American Prairie support
different organisms.
• How does biodiversity contribute to the
sustainability of an ecosystem?
Biomes of the World
•
•
•
•
•
Rainforest
Desert
Grassland
Deciduous Forest
Boreal Forest
•
•
•
•
•
Tundra
Mountains
Ice
Freshwater
Marine