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BLEEDING AND SHOCK
CHAPTERS 8/9
THE BODY FUNCTIONS
• 3 conditions are needed to maintain adequate blood flow in the
body:
• The heart must be working well
• An adequate amount of oxygen-rich blood must be circulating in the
body
• The blood vessels must be intact and able to adjust blood flow
WHAT IS BLOOD?
• Blood consists of liquid and solid components and compromises
approximately 7 percent of the body’s total weight
• The average adult has a blood volume of between 10-12 pints
• The liquid part of the blood is called plasma
• The solid components include red and white blood cells and cell
fragments called platelets
• Plasma makes up about half of the total blood volume
• Blood Volume- the total amount of blood circulating within the body
PLASMA
• Plasma maintains the blood volume needed for normal function of
the circulatory system
• Plasma also contains nutrients essential for energy production,
growth and cell maintenance
• Carries waste products for elimination
• Transports the other blood components
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
• Are a key disease-fighting part of the immune system
• They defend the body against invading microorganisms, or
pathogens
• They also aid in producing antibodies that help the body resist
infection
RED BLOOD CELLS
• Account for most of the solid
components of the blood
• Transport oxygen from the
lungs to the body cells and
carbon dioxide from the cells
to the lungs
• Red blood cells out number
white blood cells about 1000
to 1
PLATELETS
• Disk-shaped structures in the blood that are made up of cell
fragments
• An essential part of the blood’s clotting mechanism because of
their tendency to bind together
FUNCTIONS
• Transporting oxygen, nutrients,
and wastes
• Protecting against disease and
bacteria by producing
antibodies and defending
against pathogens
• Maintaining body temperature
by circulating throughout the
body
BLOOD VESSELS
• Blood is channeled through blood vessels
• The major types are:
• Arteries- Large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood AWAY from
the heart to the rest of the body
• Capillaries- Microscopic blood vessels linking arteries and veins;
transporting oxygen and other nutrients from the blood to all body cells
and remove waste products
• Veins-Blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood from all parts of the
body back to the heart
WHEN BLEEDING OCCURS
• Our body reacts by:
• Platelets begin to clot
• More red blood cells are made
• Excess fluid is absorbed into blood stream to make up for lost volume
• Hemorrhage- large amount of blood loss
• The brain, heart, and lungs immediately attempt to compensate for blood loss to
maintain the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body tissues– particularly the vital
organs
• The brain recognizes a blood shortage, signals the heart to circulate more blood and to
constrict more blood vessels in the extremities
• The brain signals the lungs to work harder, providing more oxygen
• Platelets also collect at the wound site in an effort to stop blood loss through clotting
EXTERNAL BLEEDING
• Bleeding that can be seen coming from a wound
• Occurs when a blood vessel is opened externally, such as though a
tear in the skin
• Each type of blood vessel bleeds differently
• Atrial bleeding are rapid, severe, and pulses with heart beat- spurts;
bright red
• Venous bleeding is a slow steady flow; dark red or maroon• Capillary bleeding is slow and oozes; paler red
• Most external bleeding can be controlled with pressure
CARE FOR EXTERNAL BLEEDING
• Direct pressure- pressure applied on a
wound to control bleeding
• By a gloved hand or bandage
• Pressure placed on a wound restricts the
blood flow through the wound and allows
normal clotting to occur
• Pressure bandage- a bandage
applied snugly to create pressure on
a wound to aid on control bleeding
• Elevation- if possible raise the
injured area about the heartgravity helps slow blood flow
• Clotting- the process by which blood thickens
• Pressure points- areas in the body
at a wound site to seal a hole or tear in a
blood vessel and stops bleeding
where arteries pass over bones
• Pressure on a wound can be maintained by
applying a bandage snugly to the injured
area
• Brachial- upper arm between bicep
and tricep
• Femoral- upper inner thigh area
PREVENTING DISEASE TRANSMISSION
• Avoid contact with blood and other body fluids.
• Wear disposable gloves
• Cover any cuts, scrapes or sores
• Change gloves before providing care to a different victim
• Remove disposable gloves without contacting the soiled part of the gloves and
dispose of them in a proper container
• Thoroughly wash your hands and other areas immediately after providing
care
• Use alcohol-based hand sanitizer where hand-washing facilities are not
available if your hands are not visibly soiled. When practical, wash your
hands before providing care
• Signals of severe external bleeding
• Blood spurting from the wound
• Bleeding that fails to stop after all measures have been taken to control it
• First Aid for External Bleeding
• CHECK scene, then CHECK person
• Obtain consent
• Cover with a sterile dressing
• Apply direct pressure until bleeding stops
• Cover dressing with bandage
• IF BLEEDING DOES NOT STOP
• Apply additional dressings and bandages and continue to apply pressure
• Take steps to minimize shock, monitor ABC’s
• CALL 9-1-1
INTERNAL BLEEDING
• Bleeding inside the body
• The escape of blood from arteries, capillaries or veins into spaces in the
body
• Severe internal bleeding can occur from injuries caused by a blunt force
• May also occur when an object penetrates the skin and damages
internal organs
• Signals for Internal Bleeding
• Soft tissues
• Swelling, tenderness in the injured
area
• Anxiety or restlessness
• Rapid or weak pulse
• Rapid breathing, shortness of breath
• Skin that feels cool or looks pale
• Bruising in injured area
• Nausea, vomiting
• Abdominal pain
• Excessive thirst
• Decreased level of consciousness
• Severe headache
• Care for Internal Bleeding
• Depends on severity of bleeding and
the site of injury
• Minor- cold ice pack
• Major •
•
•
•
•
•
Call 9-1-1
Do no further harm
Monitor breathing and consciousness
Help victim feel comfortable
Keep temperature normal
Reassure the victim
SHOCK
• The failure of the circulatory system to provide adequate oxygen-rich blood
to all parts of the body
• Traumatic- shock related to trauma and illness
• A progressive condition in which the circulatory system fails to circulate
oxygen rich blood to all parts of the body
• When vital signs do not receive oxygen-rich blood- they fail to function
properly
• When more severe injuries occur the body maybe unable to adjust
• When the body is unable to meet its demand for oxygen because blood fails
to circulate adequately, shock occurs
THE BODY’S RESPONSES
•
The heart beats faster and stronger to adjust to the increased demand for oxygen
•
Because the heart is beating faster breathing must also speed up to meet the body’s
increased demand for oxygen
•
A sudden drop of blood pressure
•
Many things affect the severity and effect of shock on a person
•
•
EX: a person’s health, age, gender and personality
where on their body they are injured, and the environment they are in
CAUSES
• Heart conditions--heart attack, heart failure
• Internal or external bleeding
• Dehydration
• Infection
• Severe allergic reaction
• Spinal injuries
• Burns
• Persistent vomiting or diarrhea
COMMON TYPES OF SHOCK
Type
Cause
Anaphylactic
Life-threatening allergic reaction to a substance, may
cause airway to swell, affecting ability to breathe; can
occur from insect stings or from foods
Cardiogenic
Failure of the heart to effectively circulate blood to all
parts of the body; occurs with heart attack
Hypovolemic
Severe bleeding or loss of blood plasma; occurs with
internal or external wounds or burns or with severe fluid
loss, as from vomiting and diarrhea
Neurogenic
A disruption of the autonomic nervous system, which
results on the blood vessel expanding and creating a
drop in blood pressure; can be caused by fluid loss,
trauma to the nervous system or emotional shock. Fainting
is an example of this
Septic
Toxins caused by a severe infection cause the blood
vessels to dilate
• Signals
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Restlessness or irritability
Altered consciousness
Pale or cool skin
Rapid breathing
Rapid or weak pulse
Excessive thirst
Nausea or vomiting
• CHECK, CALL, CARE
• Make the victim as comfortable as
•
•
•
•
•
possible
Keep victim’s temperature normal
Watch consciousness, breathing rate, skin
appearance
Have them lie down on their back
Do not give them anything to eat or drink
Elevate legs to help circulate blood
•
UNLESS
• Victim is nauseated or having trouble
•
•
• Care
breathing
Has a head, neck, or spine injury
If moving causes pain
THE DOMINO EFFECT