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ANATOMY REVIEW-BONES
• Femur
• Tibia
• Patella
• Joints
• Tibiofemoral Joint
• Patellofemoral
Joint
ANATOMY REVIEW-SOFT TISSUE
• Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL)
• Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL)
• Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL)
• Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
• Medial Meniscus
• Lateral Meniscus
ANATOMY REVIEW-MUSCLES
Anterior Muscles• Quadriceps Muscle Group-knee
extension
• Rectus femoris-and hip flexion
• Vastus lateralis
• Vastus medialis
• Vastus intermedius
• Gracilis-knee flexion, internal tibial
rotation, hip adduction
• Popliteus-knee flexion
• Sartorius-knee flexion, interal tibial
rotation, hip flexion, hip abduction, hip
external rotation
• IT Band
ANATOMY REVIEW-MUSCLES
Posterior Muscles• Gastrocnemius-knee flexion, ankle
plantar flexion
• Hamstring Muscle Group-knee flexion,
hip extension
• Biceps femoris-external tibial rotation, hip
external rotation
• Semimembranosus-internal tibial rotation,
hip internal rotation
• Semitendinosus-internal tibial roation, hip
internal rotation
HISTORY
•
Location of Pain
• Tears to MCL and LCL-p! normally directly over ligament
• Tear to ACL-p! usually described as being “beneath kneecap” or “inside
the knee”
• Meniscus tear-p! along joint line
•
MOI
• Direct blows in one plane usually result in isolated ligamentous injury
(valgus/varus)
• Rotational stresses usually result in injury to multiple ligaments and/or
menisci
•
•
Weight-bearing-did patient have his/her foot planted
Sounds or sensations
• Snap, crackle, pop-more commonly seen with fx or ligament injury
• Clicking or snapping-more commonly seen with a meniscus injury
• Knee “giving out”-typically seen with meniscal or ligamentous injury
INSPECTION
• Girth measurements-to determine amount of swelling or atrophy
seen
• Alignment
• Patella
• Femur and tibia
• Patellar tendon and tibial tuberosity-check for swelling or
enlargment
• Edema
• Discoloration
• Deformity
• Posterior sag of tibia
• Biomechanical abnormalities-genu recurvatum (hyperextension),
genu valgum (knock-kneed), genu varum (bow-legged)
PALPATION
• Patella, patellar tendon, and tibial tuberosity
• Joint line
• MCL and LCL
• Femoral condyles
• Tibial plateau
• IT Band
ROM TESTING
• AROM, PROM, and RROM should be assessed as necessary
• Knee flexion and extension
• Patella mobility should also be examined in eval
LIGAMENTOUS TESTING
• ACL• Anterior Drawer Test
• Lachman’s Test
• PCL• Posterior Drawer Test
• Godfrey’s Test
• MCL
• Valgus Stress Test
• LCL
• Varus Stress Test
NEUROLOGICAL TESTING
• Lower quarter screen – will learn when we get to the hip
SPECIAL TESTS
• Slocum Drawer Test
• Crossover Test
• Lateral Pivot Shift Test
• McMurray’s Test
• Apley’s Compression and Distraction Test
• Noble’s Compression Test
• Ober’s Test
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