Download APWH Ch 26 - Marion County Public Schools

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The Conservative Powers: Russia and Austria-Hungary
The forces of nationalism weakened Russia & Austria-Hungary. Austria had alienated its
Slavic-speaking minorities by renaming itself the “Austro-Hungarian Empire.” The
empire offended Russia by attempting to dominate the Slavic Balkans (Russians were
Slavic too)
Ethnic diversity also contributed to instability in Russia. Attempts to foster Russian
nationalism & to impose the Russian language on a diverse population proved to be
In 1861, Tsar Alexander II emancipated the peasants from serfdom, but he did so in such
a way that it only turned them into communal farmers with few skills & little capital.
Tsars Alexander III (r. 1881–1894) & Nicholas II the Last (r. 1894–1917) opposed all
forms of social change
Russian industrialization was carried out by the state; thus the middle class remained
small & weak, while the land-owning aristocracy dominated the court & administration.
Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) & the Revolution of 1905 demonstrated
Russia’s weakness & caused Tsar Nicholas II to introduce a constitution & a parliament
(the Duma), but he soon reverted to the traditional despotism of his forefathers