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Section A: Applied Anatomy and
Physiology
3. Movement type
Syllabus
• Types of movement which can occur at the
previously named joints to include:
– Flexion, extension, plantar flexion, dorsi flexion,
abduction, adduction, pronation, supination,
elevation, depression, rotation, and circumduction
The Three Planes
Sagittal Plane - a vertical plane which
passes from front to rear dividing the body
into right and left sections
Frontal or lateral Plane - which passes
from side to side at right angles to the
sagittal plane which divide the body into a
front and back section
Transverse or horizontal Plane - a
horizontal plane which divides the body
into an upper and lower section
The Three Axis
Frontal Axis - passes from side to side at
right angles to the sagittal plane
Sagittal or Transverse Axis - passes
horizontally from front to rear lying at
right angles to the frontal plane
Longitudinal or Vertical Axis - passes
from head to foot at right angles to the
transverse plane
Spinal column
Shoulder girdle
Shoulder joint
Shoulder joint
Elbow joint
Wrist joint
Hip joint
Knee joint
Ankle joint
Types of Movement
Types of Movement
Types of Movement
Movement at Joints
• Gliding
– Back and forth and side to side
– Little change in angle between bones
Angular Movement
• Flexion
– Decrease angle
– Sagittal plane
• Lateral flexion
– Movement of trunk
– Frontal plane
• Extension
– Increase angle
– Sagittal plane
• Hyperextension
– Beyond anatomical
position
Angular Movement
• Abduction
– Away from midline
– Frontal plane
• Adduction
– Toward midline
– Frontal plane
• Circumduction
– Distal end of a body part
moves in a circle
• Rotation
– Movement of a bone
around its longitudinal
axis
Special Movement
• Elevation
• Protraction
– Transverse plane
• Depression
• Retraction
– Transverse plane
Special Movement
• Inversion
– Medial movement
• Eversion
– Lateral movement
• Dorsiflexion
– Bending of foot in
direction of superior
surface
• Plantar flexion
– Bending of foot in
direction of sole