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JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout Figure 65: Nightlight The picture below shows a company’s design for a nightlight. The nightlight is designed to plug into an electrical outlet. The nightlight is also designed to turn on automatically when it is dark and to turn off when it is light. Q1: Materials Name TWO different materials that could be used in the nightlight. Identify a part of the nightlight that each material could be used to make and why the material is good for that part. A. The Cover could be made of Copper, since it’s pretty, and the Base could be made out of Wood, since it’s inexpensive and an insulator. B. The Plug can be Brass or Copper since they conduct electricity and the Base could be made out of Plastic since it’s inexpensive and an insulator. C. The Cover could be made of plastic, since it’s inexpensive, transmits light, and insulates heat. The Light bulb can be made out of Plastic, too, since it transmits light. D. The Plug could be made out of plastic since it’s inexpensive and the Cover could be made out of Carbon Fiber since it’s really strong. Figure 67: Planetary Data The table and descriptions below show some of the characteristics of the planets in our solar system. Q2: Orbit Describe the relationship between a planet’s distance from the Sun and its orbital period. Include data from the table for at least TWO planets to support your answer. A. The closer the planet is to the Sun, the slower it spins on its axis. Mercury’s day is 4222 hours and is closest to the sun while Neptune only goes 5.4 km/s and is 4495.1 away from the sun B. The farther you get from the Sun the greater the orbital period. Compare Jupiter and Saturn. Jupiter is only 778.6 x 10^6 km away compared to Saturn’s 1433.5, almost twice as far. Yet Saturn orbits at 9.7 km/s. C. Pluto, the farthest planet from the sun, has the greatest Orbital Period because it takes 90,588 days for that planet to go around the Sun. D. The farther you get from the Sun the longer the orbital period. Mercury is closest to the sun and has orbital period of 88 days. Venus is twice as far away from the sun (108.2 versus 57.9), and takes much longer (224.7 days) to go around the sun. Q3: Rotates Identify the planet that rotates the fastest on its axis. Include data from the table to support your answer. A. Mercury rotates fastest because its Orbital Velocity is highest at 47.9 km/s. B. Saturn rotates fastest because the Length of Day is lowest at 10.7 hours. C. Jupiter, with Length of Day at 9.9 hours and Diameter of 142,984, is fastest. D. Jupiter rotates the fastest because its Length of Day is lowest at 9.9 hours. JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout Figure 70: Phases of Matter The diagram below shows a model in an open container. The model represents the arrangement of particles of matter in a solid phase. Q2: Phases of Matter: Gas Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of these particles in a gas phase. Explain why the particles have this arrangement. Be sure to describe the energy of the particles. A. The particles have weaker bonds than liquid or solid and so unlimited space between them. They are moving fastest and so have more energy than liquid or solid. B. The particles have weaker bonds than liquid or solid and so unlimited space between them. They have more energy than in liquid or solid form. . Q1: Phases of Matter: Liquids Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of these particles in a liquid phase. Explain why the particles have this arrangement. Be sure to describe the energy of the particles. A. The particles have more space between them because the liquid has weaker bonds than in the solid. This allows the particles to disperse more but each particle has the same energy as in a solid. B. The particles are touching as in a solid but there is less friction so they move more freely. Since they’re moving faster than in solid, they have more energy. C. The particles have more space between them than in solid state but they are touching. The particles have more energy because weaker bonds let them move around faster. D. The Particles become bigger than in the solid and may even change color as the bonds between the particles weaken. Particles in the liquid can move around each other. C. The particles are moving faster and so have more energy than the same material in liquid or solid form, but they can be touching. D. The particles become bigger than in the liquid, and so it expands into a gas. They have the same energy as in liquid or solid form. JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout Figure 71: Racing Car The diagram to the right shows a Formula 1 racing car. Many forces act together on the racing car so it can move safely at high speeds on a race track. Q1: Forces Using your copy of the diagram, draw arrows to show how the forces of thrust, drag, and gravity act on the racing car as it moves forward on a race track. Label each arrow as thrust, drag, or gravity. Figure 75: Morse Code. In a telegraph communications system, a person taps out Morse Code dots or dashes that are transmitted over an electric wire. On the other end someone listens to the dots and dashes and writes out the letters they represent. Identify the encoder, decoder, and code in a telegraph system. A. The encoder is the person tapping out the dots and dashes, which represent letters and are the code (Morse Code). The person listening, who translates the dots and dashes back into letters, is the decoder. B. The encoder is the electric wire carrying the signal. The code is the dots and dashes. The decoder is the person reading the message. C. The encoder is the person tapping out dots and dashes. The code is carried on the wire. The decoder is the person listening who translates dots and dashes back into letters. A. B. C. D. D. The encoder is the Morse Code. The code is the dots and dashes. The decoder is the person translating dots and dashes into letters.