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```JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout
Figure 65: Nightlight
The picture below shows a
company’s design for a
nightlight. The nightlight is
designed to plug into an
electrical outlet. The nightlight
is also designed to turn on
automatically when it is dark
and to turn off when it is light.
Q1: Materials
Name TWO different materials that could be used in the
nightlight. Identify a part of the nightlight that each material
could be used to make and why the material is good for that
part.
A. The Cover could be made of Copper, since it’s pretty,
and the Base could be made out of Wood, since it’s
inexpensive and an insulator.
B. The Plug can be Brass or Copper since they conduct
electricity and the Base could be made out of Plastic
since it’s inexpensive and an insulator.
C. The Cover could be made of plastic, since it’s
inexpensive, transmits light, and insulates heat. The
Light bulb can be made out of Plastic, too, since it
transmits light.
D. The Plug could be made out of plastic since it’s
inexpensive and the Cover could be made out of
Carbon Fiber since it’s really strong.
Figure 67: Planetary Data
The table and descriptions below show some of the
characteristics of the planets in our solar system.
Q2: Orbit
Describe the relationship between a planet’s distance from the
Sun and its orbital period. Include data from the table for at
A. The closer the planet is to the Sun, the slower it spins
on its axis. Mercury’s day is 4222 hours and is
closest to the sun while Neptune only goes 5.4 km/s
and is 4495.1 away from the sun
B. The farther you get from the Sun the greater the
orbital period. Compare Jupiter and Saturn. Jupiter is
only 778.6 x 10^6 km away compared to Saturn’s
1433.5, almost twice as far. Yet Saturn orbits at 9.7
km/s.
C. Pluto, the farthest planet from the sun, has the
greatest Orbital Period because it takes 90,588 days
for that planet to go around the Sun.
D. The farther you get from the Sun the longer the
orbital period. Mercury is closest to the sun and has
orbital period of 88 days. Venus is twice as far away
from the sun (108.2 versus 57.9), and takes much
longer (224.7 days) to go around the sun.
Q3: Rotates
Identify the planet that rotates the fastest on its axis. Include
A. Mercury rotates fastest because its Orbital Velocity is
highest at 47.9 km/s.
B. Saturn rotates fastest because the Length of Day is
lowest at 10.7 hours.
C. Jupiter, with Length of Day at 9.9 hours and
Diameter of 142,984, is fastest.
D. Jupiter rotates the fastest because its Length of Day is
lowest at 9.9 hours.
JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout
Figure 70: Phases of Matter
The diagram below shows a model in an open container. The
model represents the arrangement of particles of matter in a
solid phase.
Q2: Phases of Matter: Gas
Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of these particles in
a gas phase. Explain why the particles have this arrangement.
Be sure to describe the energy of the particles.
A. The particles have weaker bonds
than liquid or solid and so
unlimited space between them.
They are moving fastest and so
have more energy than liquid or
solid.
B. The particles have weaker bonds
than liquid or solid and so
unlimited space between them.
They have more energy than in
liquid or solid form.
.
Q1: Phases of Matter: Liquids
Draw a diagram showing the arrangement of these particles in
a liquid phase. Explain why the particles have this
arrangement. Be sure to describe the energy of the particles.
A. The particles have more space
between them because the liquid
has weaker bonds than in the solid.
This allows the particles to
disperse more but each particle has
the same energy as in a solid.
B. The particles are touching as in a
solid but there is less friction so
they move more freely. Since
they’re moving faster than in solid,
they have more energy.
C. The particles have more space
between them than in solid state but
they are touching. The particles
have more energy because weaker
bonds let them move around faster.
D. The Particles become bigger than in
the solid and may even change
color as the bonds between the
particles weaken. Particles in the
liquid can move around each other.
C. The particles are moving faster
and so have more energy than the
same material in liquid or solid
form, but they can be touching.
D.
The particles become bigger than
in the liquid, and so it expands into a gas.
They have the same energy as in liquid or
solid
form.
JogNog MCAS 8th Grade Science Ace Handout
Figure 71: Racing Car
The diagram to the
right shows a Formula
1 racing car. Many
forces act together on
the racing car so it can move safely at high speeds on a race
track.
Q1: Forces
Using your copy of the diagram, draw arrows to show how the
forces of thrust, drag, and gravity act on the racing car as it
moves forward on a race track. Label each arrow as thrust,
drag, or gravity.
Figure 75: Morse Code.
In a telegraph communications system, a person taps
out Morse Code dots or dashes that are transmitted
over an electric wire. On the other end someone
listens to the dots and dashes and writes out the
letters they represent. Identify the encoder, decoder,
and code in a telegraph system.
A. The encoder is the person tapping out the dots
and dashes, which represent letters and are the
code (Morse Code). The person listening, who
translates the dots and dashes back into letters, is
the decoder.
B. The encoder is the electric wire carrying the
signal. The code is the dots and dashes. The
decoder is the person reading the message.
C. The encoder is the person tapping out dots and
dashes. The code is carried on the wire. The
decoder is the person listening who translates
dots and dashes back into letters.
A.
B.
C.
D.
D. The encoder is the Morse Code. The code is the
dots and dashes. The decoder is the person
translating dots and dashes into letters.
```
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