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RT 233
ORBITS
FACIAL BONES PROJECTION REVIEW









Parieto-acanthial (Waters) projection
Modified Parieto-acanthial (shallow Waters) projection
PA Axial (Caldwell) projection
Lateral projection
Acanthio-parietal (reverse Waters) projection
Modified Acanthio-parietal(reverse shallow Waters)
projection
Submentovertex for Zygomatic Arches
Submentovertex Tangential for Zygomatic Arches
Modified AP Axial (Townes) for Zygomatic Arches
Posterior view of facial bones
BONES THAT MAKE UP THE ORBIT







Frontal
Sphenoid
Ethmoid
Maxillary
Lacrimal
Palatine
Zygoma
ORBITS
ORBITS

Circumference of orbits

3 bones
Frontal bone
 Maxiilla
 Zygoma


Interior of orbits

4 bones
Ethmoid
 Sphenoid
 Palatine
 Lacrimal

DIVISION OF THE ORBITS
1.
Roof

Primarily composed of
orbital plate of frontal
bone
3. Two Walls

Medial


2.
Floor



Zygoma (small
amount)
Maxilla
Palatine

Lacrimal
Very thin and delicate
Lateral


Zygoma (large amount)
Thickest wall
7
OPENINGS IN POSTERIOR ORBIT
1.
Optic Foramen


Optic canal
Sphenoid strut
2.
Superior Orbital
Fissure
3.
Inferior Orbital
Fissure
8
OPENINGS IN THE ORBIT
OPENINGS IN THE ORBIT
Lateral view of the lateral orbital wall and its relationships. Key: FZS, frontozygomatic
suture; FPZ, frontal process of the zygoma; ZB, zygomatic bone; ZA, zygomatic arch; ZFF,
zygomaticofacial foramen; ZTF, zygomaticotemporal foramen; IOF, inferior orbital fissure;
MS, maxillary sinus; TB, temporal bone; FB, frontal bone; GWS, greater wing of
sphenoid.
ANGLE OF ORBITS
1.
Each orbit projects


30 degrees superiorly
37 degrees toward MSP
11
ANGLE OF ORBITS
ORBITAL IMAGING
Methods of imaging:
Indications for imaging:
 CT
 MRI
 Ultrasound
 Plain film
 Angiography


Possible Fractures
 Blowout
 Tripod
 Lefort
Foreign body of the eye
BASIC AND SPECIAL PROJECTIONS
1.
Orbits
1.
Basic


1.
Parietoorbital
(Rhese Method)
Parietoacanthial
(Waters method)
Special


1.
Eyes
1.
Basic

Lateral

PA Axial

Modified Parietoacanthial
(Modified Waters method)
Modified
Parietoacanthial
(Modified Waters
method)
PA Caldwell, (exag)
14
ORBITS-PARIETOACANTHIAL PROJECTION (WATERS)
ORBITS-PARIETO-ORBITAL OBLIQUE (RHESE)
ORBITS-PARIETO-ORBITAL OBLIQUE(RHESE)
ORBITS-PARIETO-ORBITAL OBLIQUE (RHESE)
RHESE PROJECTION
Rhese positioning
NOT A RHESE VIEW BUT CLOSE
NOT A RHESE VIEW
LATERAL FOR FOREIGN BODY IN EYE
ORBITS-ORBITAL-PARIETAL OBLIQUE (REVERSE RHESE
NAME THE PROJECTION AND BODY PART
ORBITS SERIES
Waters
Modified Waters (Shallow)
Acanthioparietal
Rhese
PA Axial Caldwell
orbital rims, zygoma, inferior orbital foramen
inferior orbital rim in profile,
same as Waters but magnified
optic foramen
superior sphenoid fissure
Lateral Eye
Waters
Modified Waters
PA Axial
foreign body, soft tissue
foreign body, soft tissue
foreign body, soft tissue
foreign body, soft tissue
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